• Fertility, Demographic Change, and Economic Growth: Urban and Rural Evidence - Working Paper

Data and Sourcing Appendix

Abstract: This paper constructs original measures of urban and rural schooling attainment as well as mortality risk by state and race. It also provides original urban-rural measurement of fertility and urbanization from 1900–2010. From this data, we find evidence that urban fertility was affected more during the baby boom than rural. Also, where gaps in schooling attainment persisted in 1900 by race and location, these differentials vanish over time, reflecting greater access to schooling opportunities. By extension of past growth modeling to include an urban-rural framework, fitted solutions for fertility and schooling are then achieved following calibration and parameterization. This paper finds a higher urban cost of schooling than rural, contributing to the decision process of individuals to pursue more education or even relocate.

  • Growth from Integration: Measuring Improvements to Urban and Rural Welfare - Working Paper

Abstract: This paper provides novel measurements of white and black welfare costs in urban and rural areas. Using calibrated cost of schooling values, we compute compensating variation and equivalent variation from 1900–2010 by census division. What these welfare measures address is the degree of discrimination faced by individuals in urban areas versus rural. What we observe is that after Jim Crow, there is steady improvement across census divisions in access to schooling for both urban and rural areas. We also find evidence of greater discriminatory costs for black individuals in urban areas than rural areas leading up to the integration of schools.

  • Business is Hopping: The Effects of Deregulation on Southern Craft Beer - Working Paper

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine market entry of microbreweries in the southern United States given changes in alcohol regulation. Since 2010, many southern states have increased sales access of brewers to customers, enabled for greater volumes of alcohol to be sold, and raised alcoholic content limits. These changes, in turn, affect the decision process of breweries to open and produce. To empirically investigate the effects of state policy change, original data is generated annually from 2000-2016 to reflect the number of breweries in operation. Following testing, this paper concludes that deregulating the amount of craft beer that can be sold and the alcohol content limit encourages new brewers to enter the market.

  • Give Them Liberty or They'll Choose Death: Deterring Terrorism through Enfranchisement - published in the Virginia Economic Journal (2016)