• Human machine interactive automatic item generation. Xinxin Zhang & Mark Gierl (NCME 2018)
  • Examining the effect of best distractor location on item difficulty. Jinnie Shin, Okan Bulut, & Mark Gierl (NCME 2018)
  • Using automated procedures to generate test items for nursing examinations. Kim Brunnert, Barbara Schneiner, Mark Gierl, & Hollis Lai (ATP 2018)
  • Using automatic item generation to support formative feedback in medical education. Mark Gierl, Hollis Lai, & Andre DeChamplain (CCME 2018)
  • Developing, analyzing, and using distractors for multiple-choice medical testing: A comprehensive review. Mark Gierl, Okan Bulut, Qi, Guo, & Xinxin, Zhang (CCME 2018)
  • The influence of culture and historical practice on the makeup and technical quality of national school accountability models. Okan Bulut (AERA 2018)
  • How score versus satisfaction relate to students' emotions following a computer-based test. Lia Daniels, Lily Le, & Lindsay Nadon (AERA 2018)
  • Growth mindset moderates the impact of neonatal resuscitation skill maintenance on performance in a simulation training video simulator. Maria Cutumisu, Matthew Brown, Caroline Fray, & Georg Schmölzer (Canadian Paediatric Society Conference)
  • Growth mindset moderates the association between critical feedback and performance in a digital assessment game. Maria Cutumisu & Daniel L. Schwartz (AERA 2018)
  • The Effect of Feedback Choices on Mindset, Revision, and Performance in a Digital Assessment Game. Maria Cutumisu & Daniel L. Schwartz (AERA 2018)
  • Eye tracking students' gazes on feedback in a digital assessment game. Maria Cutumisu, Krystle-Lee Turgeon, Lydia González, Tasbire Saiyera, Steven Chuong, & Daniel L. Schwartz (ICLS)
  • The influence of feedback choice on university students’ revision choices and performance in a digital assessment game. Maria Cutumisu. In Proceedings of the IEEE Computational Intelligence and Games Conference (IEEE CIG)


  • Automatic item generation and artificial intelligence. Hollis Lai & Mark J. Gierl (Maryland Conference 2017)
  • A large-scale progress monitoring application with computerized adaptive testing. Okan Bulut & Damien C. Cormier (IACAT 2017)
  • Generating rationales to support formative feedback in adaptive testing for computer adaptive testing. Mark J. Gierl & Okan Bulut (IACAT 2017)
  • Rationale generation: An expansion of the item generation framework. Mark J. Gierl & Xinxin Zhang (NCME 2017)
  • The Achilles' heel of multiple-choice items: Distractors. Okan Bulut, Mark J. Gierl, Qi Guo & Xinxin Zhang (NCME 2017)
  • Evaluating text similarity of generated items using graph theory. Xinxin Zhang & Mark J. Gierl (NCME 2017)
  • Extreme scoring machine: Integrating deep language features for developing an essay scoring framework. Syed Latifi & Mark J. Gierl (NCME 2017)
  • Implementing automated item generation in a large-scale medical licensing examination Program: Lessons learned. André De Champlain & Mark J. Gierl (ATP 2017)
  • A neural network approach to estimate student skill mastery in cognitive diagnostic assessments. Qi Guo, Maria Cutumisu, & Ying Cui (EDM 2017)


  • Modeling the global text features for enhancing the automated scoring system. Syed F. Latifi & Mark J. Gierl (NCME 2016)
  • Recovering the item model structure from automatically generated items using graph theory Xinxin Zhang & Mark J. Gierl (NCME 2016)
  • Examining position effects in large-scale assessments using an SEM approach. Okan Bulut, Qi Guo, & Mark J. Gierl (ITC 2016)
  • Criterion-related validity of subscores in high school diploma examinations. Okan Bulut (ITC 2016)
  • Examining testlet-position effects of reading passages in computer-based assessments. Okan Bulut, Xiadong Hou, & Ming Lei (NCME 2016)
  • Understanding nonresponse behaviors of students with disabilities in alternate assessments. Okan Bulut, Ming Lei, Mehmet Kaplan, & Damien Cormier (AERA 2016)
  • Linguistic demand of cognitive test directions across commonly used batteries. Damien Cormier, Deepak Singh, & Okan Bulut (NASP 2016)










  • Teacher Evaluation. Robert Stake (November, 1998)
  • Principles for Fair Student Assessment Practices for Education in Canada. Downloadable in English or French