All seminars are hosted on Zoom at 12:00 PM PST (3:00 PM EST) on Fridays, and can be accessed at these links:
Zoom. (The Zoom webinar is slated to begin 1 hr before the actual seminar start time of 12:00 PM PST.)
Note: Attendance for the Zoom Webinar is capped at 100 participants on a first come first serve basis. Please connect on time to guarantee your participation. The YouTube link is ostensibly unlimited.
Friday, May 28th, 2021:
Jack Harris, Yale University [Video]
Measuring the higher-order phonon statistics in a nanogram volume of superfluid helium
We detect the individual sideband photons produced by an optomechanical device consisting of a nanogram of superfluid helium confined in a cavity. We use the photon-counting data to probe the phonon-phonon correlations (up to fourth order, and for both normal-ordering and anti-normal-ordering) in a single acoustic mode of the superfluid. The data is consistent the assumption that the acoustic mode is in a thermal state with mean phonon number ~ 1. We also show that the acoustic mode can be driven to a coherent amplitude corresponding to several thousand phonons with no decrease in the purity of the acoustic state. We will discuss a number of applications of these results, including to the distribution of entanglement over kilometer-scale optical fiber networks.
Friday, May 14th, 2021:
Benjamin Lev, Stanford University [Video]
Topological pumping of a 1D dipolar gas into strongly correlated prethermal states
Long-lived excited states of interacting quantum systems that retain quantum correlations and evade thermalization are of great fundamental interest. We will present our observation of nonthermal states in a bosonic 1D quantum gas of dysprosium. These are created by stabilizing a super-Tonks-Girardeau gas against collapse and thermalization with repulsive long-range dipolar interactions. Stiffness and energy-per-particle measurements show that the system is dynamically stable regardless of contact interaction strength. This enables us to cycle contact interactions from weakly to strongly repulsive, then strongly attractive, and finally weakly attractive. We show that this cycle is an energy-space topological pump (caused by a quantum holonomy). Iterating this cycle offers an unexplored topological pumping method to create a hierarchy of increasingly excited prethermal states akin to scar states.
Friday, May 7th, 2021:
Martin Centurion, University of Nebraska - Lincoln [Video]
Imaging ultrafast dynamics in molecules with electron diffraction
The conversion of light into chemical energy and heat at the molecular level drives many processes in nature, such as vision and photosynthesis, and has important implications for solar energy conversion and storage. After absorbing a photon, molecules can very efficiently convert energy by undergoing structural transformation through coherent nuclear motions, breaking bonds and making new ones. In order to understand and control these processes, it is essential to be able to observe them on their natural spatio-temporal scale of Angstroms and femtoseconds. Over the last few years we have developed the method of ultrafast electron diffraction, where we use a femtosecond laser pulse to trigger a reaction and a femtosecond electron pulse to capture a diffraction pattern, from which the structural changes can be retrieved. We are now able to observe nuclear wavepacket motions in the excited state, determine the structure of transient states and follow coherent vibrations that persist after the molecule returns to the electronic ground state. In this talk, a few representative examples will be discussed where we have imaged the dynamics of rotational and vibrational wavepackets, bond breaking and structural transformations.
Friday, April 23rd, 2021:
David Weld, UC Santa Barbara [Video]
Localization and delocalization in kicked quantum matter
A sizable fraction of the vast field of condensed matter physics consists of the exploration of the effects of spatial periodicity on quantum mechanics. It is now widely recognized that the effects of temporal periodicity give rise to a related array of phenomena, and that the interplay of temporal and spatial periodicity with many-body interactions creates particularly rich new possibilities. In this talk I will describe two recent experiments in this area: realization of a many-body kicked quantum rotor with tunable interparticle interactions, and exploration of Aubry-André localization in a kicked lattice which is "almost always" periodic. The results illuminate a variety of phenomena ranging from the interplay of ergodicity and localization to new techniques of quantum control.
The bottom row of the periodic table is full of little-explored radioactive elements. Many host exotic nuclei and have unique electronic structure, granting them discovery potential. Ion trapping and laser cooling provides a means to efficiently work with small quantities of radioactive material. Radium ions are an option for utilizing (and producing) heavy radioactive molecules, and are an attractive system in their own right. We will present measurements of the radium ion's atomic structure that are essential for advanced experiments and applications, and some of the unique features and opportunities that stem from radioactivity. We will also discuss ever finer levels of control over radium, as well as our progress with heavy radioactive molecules and their prospects for precision measurement.
Friday, March 26th, 2021:
Giulia Semeghini, Harvard University [Video]
Probing Topological Spin Liquids on a Programmable Quantum Simulator
Quantum phases with topological order, such as quantum spin liquids, have been the focus of explorations for several decades. Such phases feature a number of remarkable properties including long-range quantum entanglement. Moreover, they can be potentially exploited for the realization of robust quantum computation, as exemplified by the paradigmatic toric code model. While some indications that such phases may be present in frustrated condensed matter systems have been previously reported, so far quantum spin liquids have eluded direct experimental detection. In this talk, I will show how a programmable quantum simulator based on Rydberg atom arrays can be used to realize and probe quantum spin liquid states. In our approach, atoms are placed on the links of a kagome lattice and coherent evolution under Rydberg blockade enables the transition into frustrated quantum states with no local order. We detect the onset of a quantum spin liquid phase of the toric code type by measuring topological string operators in two complementary bases. The properties of this state are further revealed using a lattice with non-trivial topology, representing a step towards the realization of a topological qubit. Our observations open the door to the controlled experimental exploration of topological quantum matter, and could enable the investigation of new methods for topologically protected quantum information processing.
Quantum science with molecules is poised to advance the state of the art in fields from quantum simulation to ultracold chemistry and fundamental physics. A key aspect of enhancing these capabilities is creating ultracold molecules and optically trapping them in a way that preserves coherence between their quantum states. We apply optical techniques to create microkelvin samples of diatomic strontium molecules in the absolute ground state. Using "magic" optical trapping, coherence of quantum states separated by tens of terahertz can be maintained for over 100 ms, leading to uncertainties below a part per trillion on interatomic force measurements. We explore science with these van der Waals molecules, and discuss how they could contribute to metrology and to our understanding of fundamental forces.
Friday, March 12th, 2021:
Hannes Pichler, University of Innsbruck [Video]
From many-body physics to quantum optimization with Rydberg atom arrays
Individually trapped neutral atoms provide a promising platform to engineer quantum many-body systems in a controlled, bottom-up approach. They can be readily manipulated in large numbers and interact strongly when excited to Rydberg states. In this talk I will discuss several approaches to use such systems for probing quantum many-body phenomena and implementing quantum algorithms. I will first review the basic physics of arrays of Rydberg atom, including the phase equilibrium phase diagram of one and two dimensional atom arrays, focussing on critical properties of the accessible quantum phase transitions. Then I will discuss a relation between these Rydberg atom arrays and certain combinatorial optimization problems. In particular, I will show how one can encode the solution to maximum independent set problems in the ground state of properly positioned atoms. This allows to directly implement various heuristic quantum optimization and sampling algorithms with minimal experimental overhead, and study their performance for system sizes that can’t be simulated on classical computers.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves for the first time in 2015. Since then dozens more astrophysical observations have been confirmed. To detect these spacetime ripples requires measurement with sub-attometer precision. I will describe the quantum technologies that make such a measurement possible and enable present and future discoveries.
Friday, February 12th, 2021:
Kater Murch, Washington University in St Louis [Video]
Topological control of quantum states through the non-Hermitian dynamics of a superconducting qubit.
A system described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian will, in general, have complex energies and non-orthogonal eigenstates. The degeneracies of such a system are known as exceptional points. Near these degeneracies, the complex energies are described by Riemann manifolds whose topology enables new methods of control over the system. Using a superconducting circuit QED platform we employ dynamical control over an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian to utilize the topology of its complex energy surfaces to control quantum state vectors. If a quantum system is initialized in one eigenstate, and the Hamiltonian parameters are varied slowly such as to encircle an EP, returning to the initial parameters, the topology of the Riemann manifold predicts that adiabatic evolution will switch the state to a different eigenstate. I will describe experiments where we observe this quantum state transport and use a quantum phase reference to measure the chiral geometric phases accumulated after this dynamical control.
Friday, January 29th, 2021:
Thierry Lahaye, CNRS [Video]
Quantum simulation of spin models with tunable arrays of 200 single Rydberg atoms
In this seminar, I will present how arrays of up to 200 single atoms held in optical tweezers and made to interact by exciting them to Rydberg states are an almost ideal platform for quantum simulation of quantum magnetism. I'll first review briefly the experimental realization of such arrays, and then illustrate, with recent experiments, how we can use it simulate the behavior of Ising or XY quantum magnets.
Friday, December 11th, 2020:
Robert Schoelkopf, Yale University [Video]
Hardware-efficient Quantum Error Correction
In the two decades since the beginning of the field, dramatic progress has been made towards realizing solid-state systems for quantum information processing with superconducting circuits. Superconducting qubits have improved their coherence by more than a million-fold, and they can be controlled and manipulated to perform quantum algorithms. These devices have also proven to be a wonderful platform for exploring the concepts of entanglement, quantum information, and quantum measurement.
The next challenge for the field is demonstrating quantum error correction (QEC) that actually improves the lifetimes of superpositions and entangled states and makes these systems robust by increasing the fidelity of gates. Developing practical schemes for quantum error correction is a requirement for building more complex systems and realizing the potential of quantum computing.
At Yale, our team  has been pursuing a novel, “hardware-efficient” approach for quantum error correction, based on encoding information in the multiple energy levels of a harmonic oscillator such as a microwave cavity. By allowing for redundancy without necessarily introducing more error channels, the “cat code” and other such bosonic error correction codes allow us to experimentally explore the concepts and the practice of QEC today, with smaller and less complex systems. This simplification has many benefits, reducing the overhead, relaxing the performance requirements, and allowing for more extensive calibration and characterization. It also leverages the extensive physics knowledge and techniques that have been developed in circuit-QED and quantum optics.
We have seen steady progress in hardware-efficient error correction, demonstrating the creation of a correctable or logical qubit by encoding and decoding of information in complex multi-photon states, the manipulation of these states to perform gates on individual logical qubits, and the generation of multimode entangled states. In addition, the dispersive coupling of transmon qubits to cavities has afforded not just the ability for the single-shot measurement of microwave photons, but also error syndromes such as the photon number parity. With the ability to track the parity more rapidly than the naturally-occurring decoherence (photon loss), we have shown the extension of the lifetime of a quantum bit, reaching breakeven for a memory operation, limited mainly by propagation of errors or non-fault tolerance of the measurement.
In this talk, I will review the development of hardware-efficient error correction based on bosonic codes, and how the concept of hardware-efficiency can be extended to prevent error propagation and realize fault-tolerant measurements and operations. By replacing the usual two-level systems used as ancillas with a correctly designed three-level system (simply a transmon with carefully chosen parameters), we can have shown a fault-tolerant measurement of an error syndrome, increasing the number of queries that can be made before a fault is induced. Finally, I will show recent results on a fault-tolerant gate for logical qubits, inspired by a proposal by Liang Jiang and co-workers. This gate allows for arbitrary rotations of a correctable bosonically encoded logical qubit, while suppressing both types of errors in the transmon ancilla, resulting in a significant improvement in the gate fidelity.
 This work has been performed together with the entire circuit-QED team at Yale, and especially my colleagues Michel Devoret, Steve Girvin, Liang Jiang, Leonid Glazman, and Mazyar Mirrahimi.
Friday, December 4th, 2020:
Aashish Clerk, University of Chicago [Video]
Driven-dissipative quantum systems and hidden time-reversal symmetries
Quantum systems subject to both driving and dissipation often have complex, non-thermal steady states, and are at the forefront of research in many areas of physics. For classical systems, microscopic time-reversal symmetry leads to open systems satisfying detailed balance; this symmetry makes it extremely easy to find their stationary states. In this talk, I’ll discuss a new way to think about detailed balance in fully quantum settings based on the existence of a “hidden” time-reversal symmetry. I’ll show how this symmetry has a direct operational utility: it provides a direct way to find exact solutions of non-trivial states. This symmetry is present in a number of experimentally-relevant systems. and has clear observable signatures. I’ll try to give a gentle introduction to these ideas, with a particular focus on models of driven, interacting bosonic modes (as can be realized in superconducting circuits and a variety of quantum optical platforms).
Abstract (Zak Burley): Recent and ongoing developments of low energy muon beamlines, paired with the development of efficient muon-muonium converters and laser advancements, is heralding a new era of precision Muonium spectroscopy. In this talk I will give an overview of the current status and future prospects of two new experiments currently underway at the LEM beamline at PSI and ETH, Mu-LaMB and Mu-MASS, which aim to improve the precision of both the Muonium Lamb shift and 1S-2S transition by several orders of magnitude, respectively. I will highlight our recent developments critical for such improvements, i.e., efficient production, tagging and detection of metastable Muonium in vacuum, and a robust, high power 244 nm laser system that will enable CW, doppler-free two-photon excitation of the Muonium 1S-2S transition.
*This work is supported by ERC/818053 - PI: Paolo Crivelli
Abstract (Alejandra Collopy): Quantum logic enables state preparation, readout and spectroscopy of otherwise difficult-to-study ions. Using the coupled harmonic motion shared between co-trapped ions, information can be transferred from the "spectroscopy" ion to the easily manipulated "logic" ion. With this technique we perform high-resolution terahertz-scale rotational spectroscopy of a single CaH+ molecular ion in pure states by leveraging a Ca+ ion as our logic ion. Entangled states between a CaH+ and a Ca+ have also been demonstrated, making molecular ions possible components of hybrid systems for quantum information processing. Because all our laser operations on the molecule are driving stimulated Raman transitions with high detuning, the technique promises to be generalizable to a wide variety of molecular ion species. Additionally, we study the systematic effects of the trap RF electric field on molecular levels and use it to obtain a measurement of the dipole moment of the charged molecule
C.-W. Chou, A. L. Collopy, C. Kurz, Y. Lin, M. E. Harding, P. N. Plessow, T. Fortier, S. Diddams, D. Leibfried, D. R. Leibrandt, Science 367,6485 (2020)
Y. Lin D. R. Leibrandt, D. Leibfried, C.-W. Chou, Nature 581, 273-277 (2020)
Friday, November 13th, 2020:
Kang-Kuen Ni, Harvard University [Video]
Building fully-controlled single molecules
Advances in quantum manipulation of molecules bring unique opportunities, including the use of molecules to search for new physics, harnessing molecular resources for quantum engineering, and exploring chemical reactions in the ultra-low temperature regime. In this talk, I will focus on our work developing techniques to build single ultracold molecules in optical tweezers as a versatile platform for quantum simulation and quantum computation. Starting with the first proof-of-principle demonstration of building a sodium-cesium molecule from two atoms, we progress to obtain full internal and external quantum state control of a single rovibrational ground-state molecule recently. I will explain how these single molecules will be used as valuable resources for future quantum entanglement applications due to their rich internal degrees of freedom and strong dipolar interactions. If time allows, I will touch on a separate work in the area of ultracold chemistry, where we work to obtain a detailed microscopic picture of chemical transformation of molecules from one species to another.
Friday, November 6th, 2020:
Thomas Weinacht, Stony Brook University [Video]
Coherent Control of Non-Adiabatic Dynamics in Molecules
Electronic coherence decays much more rapidly in molecules than atoms as a consequence of averaging over the different rates of phase advance for different internuclear separations associated with nonlocal nuclear wavefunctions. This is particularly dramatic for polyatomic systems that have many degrees of vibrational freedom over which this averaging occurs. Furthermore, if there is non-adiabatic coupling between electronic states, then it is not clear how the phase between states is maintained. I will discuss experiments that show via interference that the electronic coherence of a wave function in a molecule that undergoes internal conversion via non-adiabatic (non-Born Oppenheimer) coupling between electronic states is maintained . The measurements demonstrate that this coherence can be used to control the population of different electronic states, and measure its decay time.
Friday, October 30th, 2020:
David Weiss, The Pennsylvania State University [Video]
Extremely out-of-equilibrium 1D gases
I will describe a series of experiments with 1D Bose gases out of equilibrium. Except in the limits of zero and infinite coupling, dynamical solutions for these nearly integrable systems could not be calculated until an approximate technique was invented in 2016, generalized hydrodynamics (GHD). We experimentally test GHD in the strong and intermediate coupling regimes by suddenly changing trap depths so that the 1D gases rapidly compress by as much as a factor of 35. Over many trap periods, we study the evolution of the distribution of rapidities, which are the momenta of the quasiparticles in these many-body systems. We find excellent agreement between our experiments and GHD theory.
Friday, October 23rd, 2020:
Ivan Kozyryev (Columbia University) & Matteo Ippoliti (Stanford University) [Video]
ATMs, CaSH, SupER molasses and other methods of modern molecular physics (Ivan Kozyryev)
Quantum-programming a discrete time crystal (Matteo Ippoliti)
Abstract (Ivan Kozyryev): Our understanding of optical cycling properties for molecules with various structures, constituents and symmetries has advanced significantly in the past five years. The notion of an optical cycling center (OCC) not only unified various initial “educated guesses” for laser-coolable polyatomic molecules but also led to further advances in employing ultracold polyatomic molecules for diverse applications. I will briefly review the current state of polyatomic laser cooling and describe our work on characterizing the optical cycling properties of asymmetric top molecules (ATMs), including calcium hydrosulfide (CaSH). As the composite molecular mass grows, so does the number of photon scattering events necessary to decelerate and confine molecular beams using laser light. We recently proposed a novel Suppressed Emission Rate (SupER) molasses cooling scheme that utilizes coherent momentum exchange between light fields and molecules to significantly reduce experimental overhead for trapping polyatomic molecules of increasing complexity with an OCC.
References: Augenbraun, Doyle, Zelevinsky and Kozyryev, Phys. Rev. X 10, 031022 (2020); Wenz, Kozyryev, McNally, Aldridge and Zelevinsky, arXiv:2007.01776 (2020).
Abstract (Matteo Ippoliti): Recent progress in the realm of noisy, intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) devices opens exciting opportunities for many-body physics. It is natural to ask which kinds of new phenomena may be observed by leveraging NISQ devices' unprecedented control and measurement capabilities. In this talk I will focus on a paradigmatic example: discrete time crystals (DTCs), novel non-equilibrium states of matter that break time translation symmetry and are possible only in driven, disordered systems.
I will briefly review the theory of DTCs and the results of past experiments (on platforms ranging from solid state to trapped ions), in which transient ('prethermal') cousins of the DTC were realized. Key lessons from these experiments allow us to sharpen a checklist of requirements for the observation of a fully-fledged, stable incarnation of this phase. These requirements turn out to be a remarkably goot fit for a new generation of digital quantum simulators, such as Google's Sycamore processor, which can be programmed to realize the DTC phase and to experimentally detect its signature spatiotemporal order, even in the presence of noise and decoherence.
Reference: MI, K. Kechedzhi, R. Moessner, S. L. Sondhi and V. Khemani, arXiv:2007.11602 (2020).
Friday, October 16th, 2020:
Jelena Vuckovic, Stanford University [Video]
Connecting and scaling semiconductor quantum systems
At the core of most quantum technologies, including quantum networks, quantum computers and quantum simulators, is the development of homogeneous, long lived qubits with excellent optical interfaces, and the development of high efficiency and robust optical interconnects for such qubits. To achieve this goal, we have been studying color centers in diamond (SiV, SnV) and silicon carbide (VSi in 4H SiC), in combination with novel fabrication techniques, and relying on the powerful and fast photonics inverse design approach that we have developed. We illustrate this with a number of demonstrated devices, including efficient photon interfaces for color centers in diamond and in SiC, and spectrally reconfigurable quantum emitters.
Friday, October 9th, 2020:
Liang Jiang, University of Chicago [Video]
Bosonic Quantum Information Processing with Superconducting Circuits
Bosonic modes are widely used for quantum communication and information processing. Recent developments in superconducting circuits enable us to control bosonic microwave cavity modes and implement arbitrary operations allowed by quantum mechanics, such as quantum error correction against excitation loss errors. We investigate different bosonic encoding and error correction protocols, and provide a perspective on using bosonic quantum error correction for various applications.
Friday, October 2nd, 2020:
Wes Campbell, UCLA [Video]
Stability Means Never Being Excited (and that's no fun, is it?)
Atomic physics gives quantum information science the unique capability to confidently predict the performance of machines that have yet to be built. For trapped ions, where the nature of the two-qubit interactions is universal (i.e. Coulomb repulsion), we already know many of the fundamental limitations of the commonly used techniques and species, long before we actually reach those limits. Looking forward to the time when the technology hits the physics ceiling fan, it makes sense to explore new techniques and species now that are not subject to the same constraints. Through the eyes of Scaredy the Squirrel, we will explore some of the approaches being designed by unstable thinkers to extend past these limitations.
Friday, September 25th, 2020:
Andrew Daley, University of Strathclyde [Video]
Exploring dissipative many-body dynamics with cold atoms
In recent years, the exceptional control available in experiments with cold atoms opened new opportunities to explore many-body quantum dynamics both in and out of equilibrium. While much of the focus has been on coherent (Hamiltonian dynamics), a key element of the control we have relies on the possibility to control and even engineer dissipative dynamics in these systems. In analogy with the quantum optics of single atoms and photons, we can often work in scenarios where the separations of relevant energy scales allows us to write microscopic models for open quantum systems - but now with strong inter-particle interactions. I will discuss how we calculate dissipative many-body dynamics, and how this can be used as a tool in a variety of contexts for systems of cold atoms – including to characterise decoherence and to help in the verification of coherent dynamics. This also provides new possibilities to prepare desired many-body quantum states, and to study dissipative many-body phenomena, including quantum transport, and non-Markovian effects in open quantum systems.
Friday, September 18th, 2020:
Leticia Tarruell, ICFO [Video]
Chiral interactions in optically coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
Chirality - the fact that Nature distinguishes left from right - manifests itself in very diverse phenomena, from the rotation direction of cyclones, to the motion of electrons in magnetic fields or the symmetry of organic molecules. Engineered AMO systems provide an excellent playground to realize novel types of chirality at the quantum level. In my talk, I will focus on ultracold quantum gases, and report on the generation of chiral interactions – interactions that depend on the momentum of the atoms – in optically coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. I will show that having chiral interactions is equivalent to realizing an artificial gauge field that is not static, but instead has back-action from matter. This density-dependent gauge field is a one-dimensional analogue of the gauge field generated by fractional excitations in 2D quantum Hall systems. I will present two experimental manifestations of chiral interactions: the existence of chiral solitons –self-bound wavepackets that propagate without dispersion only when moving along one direction- and the asymmetric expansion of the condensate due to the emergence of a density-dependent electric field.
Friday, September 11th, 2020:
Ania Jayich, UC Santa Barbara [Video]
Quantum sensing and imaging with diamond spins
Solid state spin qubits, in particular the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond, offer a path towards truly nanoscale imaging of condensed matter and biological systems with sensitivity to single nuclear spins. Here I discuss our NV-based magnetic imaging experiments as applied to condensed matter systems, where we have imaged current flow patterns in graphene as well as skyrmions, nanoscale spin textures. A grand challenge to improving the spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of the NV is mitigating surface-induced quantum decoherence, which I will discuss in the second part of this talk. Decoherence at interfaces is a universal problem that affects many quantum technologies, but the microscopic origins are as yet unclear. Our studies guide the ongoing development of quantum control and materials control, pushing towards the ultimate goal of NV-based single nuclear spin imaging.
Friday, September 4th, 2020:
Francesca Ferlaino, IQOQI-Innsbruck [Video]
Supersolidity in the ultracold: when atoms behave as a crystal and superfluid at the same time
Over more than two decades, ultracold quantum gases have enabled the observation of fascinating quantum phenomena. Research directions are ever increasing with the development of novel optical-manipulation techniques and the gain of an exquisite control over the inter-particle interactions.
Recently, a novel class of atomic species, possessing an exceptionally strong magnetic dipole moment, has entered the stage (Cr, Dy, Er). This offers new opportunities to study dipolar quantum phenomena, driven by the long-range and anisotropic interaction between particles. I will review the recent developments in atomic dipolar quantum gases from the Innsbruck perspective. In our laboratories, we work with dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates and Fermi gases of either Erbium or Dysprosium, or with dipolar quantum mixtures of both elements.
Particular emphasis will be given on our recent observations  of the elusive and paradoxical supersolid state of matter, using both Er and Dy ultracold gases. Such paradoxical phase, in which crystal rigidity and superfluid flow coexist, has intrigued scientists across different disciplines for decades. It now became possible to create supersolidity in the ultracold thanks to the unique interplay between long-range dipolar interactions, contact interactions, and a powerful stabilization mechanism based on quantum fluctuations.
 Observation of dipolar supersolids has been simultaneously reported by the group led by T. Pfau (Stuttgart) and the one led by G. Modugno (Pisa).
Friday, August 28, 2020:
Jun Ye, JILA [Video]
Quantum gas of reactive molecules: evaporation, collision resonance, long lifetime
The preparation of a degenerate Fermi gas of polar molecules sets the stage to explore novel many-body physics. We apply precisely controlled electric fields to turn on elastic dipolar interactions by orders of magnitude while suppressing reactive losses. Efficient dipolar evaporation leads to the onset of quantum degeneracy in an array of two-dimensional optical traps. When the electric field is used to tune excited molecular states into degeneracy with the scattering threshold, we observe sharp collision resonances that give rise to three orders-of-magnitude modulation of the chemical reaction rate. Using this resonant shielding, we realize a long lifetime of polar molecular gas at very high electric fields.
Friday, August 21, 2020:
Ana Asenjo-Garcia, Columbia [Video]
Single, few, and many photon physics in 1D atomic arrays
Tightly packed ordered arrays of atoms exhibit remarkable collective optical properties, as dissipation in the form of photon emission is correlated. In this talk, I will discuss the single-, few- and many-body out-of-equilibrium physics of 1D arrays, and their potential to realize versatile light-matter interfaces. For small enough inter-atomic distances, atomic chains feature dark states that allow for dissipationless transport of photons, behaving as waveguides for single-photon states. Atomic waveguides can be used to mediate interactions between impurity qubits coupled to the array, and allow for the realization of multiple paradigms in waveguide QED, from bandgap physics to chiral quantum optics. Due to the two-level nature of the atoms, atomic waveguides are a perfect playground to realize strong photon-photon interactions. At the many-body level, collective decay leads to superradiance even for finite inter-atomic separation, and generates directional photon-photon correlations that can be measured with current experimental capabilities.
Friday, August 14, 2020:
Alexey Gorshkov, JQI/QuICS/NIST [Video]
Dynamics of quantum systems with long-range interactions
Atomic, molecular, and optical systems often exhibit long-range interactions, which decay with distance r as a power law 1/r^alpha. In this talk, we will discuss bounds on how quickly quantum information can propagate in such systems. We will then discuss applications of these bounds to numerous phenomena including classical and quantum simulation of quantum systems, prethermal phases in Floquet systems, entanglement area laws, sampling complexity, and scrambling.
Cold atoms in optical tweezer arrays have emerged as a versatile platform for quantum science. I will review these developments, including atom-by-atom assembly as a method to generate defect-free arrays  as well as quantum simulation of spin models with Rydberg atoms , followed by a brief discussion of current limitations. Our work at Caltech now merges these directions with control of narrow and ultra-narrow optical transitions in alkaline earth atoms. I will give an overview of new opportunities in this context and recent results from our lab: 1) A record in imaging-fidelity for neutral atoms and demonstration of narrow-line cooling in tweezers [3,4]. 2) Rydberg excitation from a meta-stable clock state, which resulted in leading fidelities for entanglement of two neutral atoms . 3) Demonstration of an optical clock with single-atom detection in tweezer arrays .
 Endres et al., Science 354, 1024 (2016).
 Bernien et al., Nature 551, 579, (2017).
 Covey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 173201 (2019).
 Cooper et al., Phys. Rev. X 8, 041055 (2018).
 Madjarov*, Covey*, et al., Nat. Phys. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-020-0903-z
 Madjarov et al., Phys. Rev. X 9, 041052 (2019).
Friday, July 31, 2020:
Selim Jochim, Heidelberg [Video]
Juggling with single atoms to observe many-body physics
In our quest to obtain a deeper understanding of strongly interacting many body quantum systems, we turn to finite systems that can be prepared at very low entropies. Single-atom sensitive detection allow for the determination of high-order correlation functions.
In our presentation we first show work with noninteracting spin polarized fermions and determine the correlations present solely due to indistinguishability, observing for the first time so-called Pauli crystals, geometric structures that form in the correlations between particles because of the antisymmetry of the wave function.
We will also report on a significant breakthrough observing a precursor of many-body physics in a finite 2D system that due to degeneracies in the harmonic potential exhibits a shell structure: Increasing the attraction between particles, we observe a non-monotonous behavior of the excitation spectrum when the attraction becomes larger than the spacing between shells. In the many-body limit this can be interpreted as a quantum phase transition from normal to superfluid and associated with a long-lived Higgs mode.
In the future we would like to use our newly established methods to measure correlations in (strongly) interacting systems. A first step could be to directly observe Cooper pairs by increasing the particle number.
Friday, July 24, 2020:
Norman Yao, UC Berkeley [Video]
Emergent hydrodynamics in a strongly interacting dipolar spin ensemble
Even in the absence of a precise microscopic description, classical hydrodynamics provides a powerful framework for characterizing the macroscopic behavior of conserved densities, such as energy. Understanding whether and how it emerges in the late-time dynamics of many-body quantum systems has remained an enduringly hard question. In this talk, I will describe on-going experiments exploring the emergence of hydrodynamics in strongly interacting dipolar spin ensembles; in particular, we observe dynamics whose long-time limit is related to, but fundamentally distinct from ordinary diffusion. This distinction arises from the complex interplay between long-range interactions, positional disorder, and on-site random fields. Finally, time permitting, I will briefly describe a new class of many-body quantum teleportation circuits, which enable one to distinguish between various classes of quantum information dynamics as well as decoherence.
Friday, July 17, 2020:
James Thompson, JILA [Video]
Twists, gaps, dynamical phases, and superradiant emission on ultra-narrow optical transitions in strontium
I will describe superradiant pulses of light emitted from an optical transition that does not like to radiate light: the millihertz linewidth transition in strontium. We observe that the source is intrinsically up to a million times less sensitive to the thermal and technical vibration noise sources that limit laser frequency stability using traditional reference-cavity approaches. I will also describe the emergence of all-to-all spin-exchange interactions that produce a many-body energy gap and one-axis twisting dynamics. By coherently driving the system, we realize a Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, an iconic model in quantum magnetism, and observe the emergence of distinct dynamical phases. Finally, as time permits, I will briefly discuss the application of quantum nondemolition measurements to determine the strontium clock transition natural linewidth with 30 microhertz resolution, and to the creation of highly entangled states of rubidium atoms (directly observed 60 times or 18 dB surpassing of the Standard Quantum Limit) and our current efforts to apply these states in a proof-of-principle matter wave interferometer
Friday, July 10, 2020:
David DeMille, Yale [Video]
Using molecules to explore discrete symmetry violations in nuclear and particle physics
The close spacing of opposite-parity levels in molecules enhances the effects of parity-violating fundamental interactions. I will discuss results from two recent experiments probing such interactions. The first, ACME II, sets the tightest bound on the electron’s electric dipole moment. This result yields information on new CP-violating physics at energy scales far above the reach of the Large Hadron Collider. The second experiment, ZOMBIES, is designed to measure anapole moments of nuclei. A nuclear anapole moment arises from electroweak interactions within the nucleus, which are heavily modified in the presence of strong interactions and remain poorly understood. As a proof of principle, ZOMBIES recently demonstrated sensitivity roughly 7 times better than the best prior anapole moment measurements. Finally, I will discuss ongoing efforts and future prospects for dramatic improvements in sensitivity to these and other, related effects.
Friday, July 3rd, 2020:
July 4th holiday weekend: no seminar.
Friday, June 26th, 2020:
Jonathan Home, ETH [video]
Scaling approaches for trapped-ion quantum computing
While error-prone quantum computers consisting of tens of qubits provide much excitement today, useful quantum computers are predicted to need more than 100,000 physical qubits. The primary cause of this scaling is the need for quantum error-correction to make these devices produce reliable outcomes. Scaling is likely to require the use of different technologies to those in use today, as well as benefitting from the exploration of new approaches. I will describe two areas which we are exploring at ETH Zürich in the context of trapped-ion quantum computing. On the technology side, we have demonstrated the use of chip traps fabricated in a commercial foundry to perform multi-qubit quantum logic using light delivered from the chip to the ion using integrated photonics, producing entangled Bell states with a fidelity of 99.3% . We are also exploring the use of micro-Penning trap arrays to produce 2-dimensional ion systems for quantum computing and quantum simulation using only static trapping fields. This removes a number of constraints which stem from the use of strong radio-frequency fields for ion trapping, which is an attractive feature for scaling .
 K. Mehta et al. arXiv:2002.02258 (2020)
 S. Jain et al. arXiv:1812.06755v3 (2020)
Friday, June 19th, 2020:
Tilman Esslinger, ETH [video]
Driven and self-driven quantum many-body systems
Applying a periodic drive to a quantum many-body system offers many prospects and a challenge. Whilst a wide range of non-trivial Hamiltonians can be engineered, Floquet-heating often spoils the party. I will first report on a scheme realizing the fundamental ingredient for a density-dependent gauge field by engineering non-trivial Peierls phases that depend on the site occupation of fermions in a Hubbard model . I will further discuss experiments in which we demonstrated how to circumvent Floquet-heating by two-path quantum interference, effectively suppressing dissipative coupling to higher bands . On a different note, an experiment will be discussed in which a dissipative coupling leads to a self-oscillating evolution between a spin wave and a density wave .
: F. Görg, K. Sandholzer, J. Minguzzi, R. Desbuquois, M. Messer, and T. Esslinger, arXiv:1812.05895, Nature Physics, 15, 1161 (2019).
: N. Dogra, M. Landini, K. Kroeger, L. Hruby, T. Donner, and T. Esslinger, arXiv:1901.05974, Science, 366, 1496 (2019).
: Konrad Viebahn; Joaquìn Minguzzi; Kilian Sandholzer; Anne-Sophie Walter; Frederik Görg; Tilman Esslinger, arXiv: 2003.05937
Spin squeezing is a fascinating manifestation of many-particle entanglement as well as one of the most promising quantum technologies. By using quantum correlations to reduce the quantum projection noise in a collection of atomic spin-1/2's, spin squeezing removes a limitation that has already been reached in atomic fountain clocks and is expected to limit state-of-the-art lattice clocks and atomic sensors in the near future. Ground-breaking experiments have demonstrated methods to create spin-squeezed states and have even demonstrated squeezing enhancement in proof-of-principle clock and magnetometer measurements, though not yet at a metrologically relevant level. in all experiments so far, however, the coherence time of the atomic superpositions was short (typically below 10ms), while interrogation times in real clocks and sensors are often ten or hundred times longer. How squeezed states evolve on these timescales is a question that experiments have not yet been able to address. Besides its practical importance, the physics of this time evolution is an interesting question in itself. Long coherent evolution acts like a magnifying glass for atomic interactions, often leading to surprising effects. How do these interactions evolve when the initial state is no longer a product state of N independent atoms, but an entangled state with quantum correlations between all the atomic spins?
In a collaboration with the French time and frequency laboratory SYRTE (Observatoire de Paris), we have built an experiment combining a trapped-atom clock on an atom chip with a fiber Fabry-Perot microcavity to generate spin squeezing. This has enabled us to produce spin-squeezed states with with a lifetime on the order of a second. Observing the time evolution of the squeezed state over these long times reveals a surprising quantum phase magnification effect in the final measurement of the spin state. This effect results from a subtle interplay of the spin dynamics of interacting indistinguishable particles and the physics of cavity-based quantum non-demolition measurement of the collective spin.
Friday, May 29nd, 2020:
Jeff Thompson, Princeton University [video ]
Atomic physics in the solid-state with rare earth atoms
In this talk, I will discuss our group’s efforts to develop a novel solid-state platform for atomic physics based on rare earth ion defects in crystals. Solid-state “atoms” are attractive because they do not require laser cooling and trapping, can be arrayed at high density to enable strong interactions, and can be integrated with photonic and electronic devices for novel functionality. Rare earth ions are unique in that they maintain atom-like properties in solid hosts and can be incorporated into a wide range of materials and devices. However, owing to their weak photon emission, individual rare earth atoms have been challenging to observe. We overcome this obstacle by incorporating rare earth defects into nanophotonic circuits, enabling efficient detection of single erbium (Er3+) ions . Furthermore, we exploit the atom-cavity coupling to engineer the optical selection rules to realize high-fidelity single-shot spin readout , despite the absence of a cycling transition in the bare ion. More recently, we have demonstrated a frequency-domain multiplexing technique enabling parallel, high-fidelity readout and control of many ions with deep sub-wavelength separations . Together with ongoing efforts to controllably incorporate rare earth ions into novel materials offering improved coherence , this is a promising starting point towards numerous applications including telecom-wavelength quantum networks and arrays of strongly interacting spins with single-particle control.
 A. M. Dibos, M. Raha, C. M. Phenicie, and J. D. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 243601 (2018).
 M. Raha, S. Chen, C. M. Phenicie, S. Ourari, A. M. Dibos, and J. D. Thompson, Nat. Commun. 11, 1605 (2020).
 S. Chen, M. Raha, C. M. Phenicie, S. Ourari, and J. D. Thompson, In Preparation (2020).
 C. M. Phenicie, P. Stevenson, S. Welinski, B. C. Rose, A. T. Asfaw, R. J. Cava, S. A. Lyon, N. P. de Leon, and J. D. Thompson, Nano Lett. 19, 8928 (2019).
Friday, May 22nd, 2020:
Monika Aidelsburger, LMU [video]
Floquet topological phases with ultracold atoms in periodically-driven lattices
Topological phases of matter exhibit remarkable electronic properties that offer unique possibilities for applications. A prominent example is the robust quantization of the Hall conductivity in quantum Hall insulators. A widespread technique for generating topological band structures in synthetic systems, such as ultracold atoms in optical lattices, is Floquet engineering . This method relies on the periodic modulation of the system’s parameters to emulate the properties of a non-trivial static system and facilitated the realization of two paradigmatic topological lattice models: the Hofstadter and the Haldane model. Moreover, it inspired ideas for implementing complete lattice gauge theories .
The rich properties of Floquet systems, however, transcend those of their static counterparts . The associated quasienergy spectrum can exhibit a non-trivial winding number, which leads to the appearance of anomalous chiral edge modes even in situations where the bulk bands have zero Chern numbers, hence, altering the well-known bulk-edge correspondence. A full classification of Floquet phases requires a new set of topological invariants. We have studied the rich Floquet phase diagram of a periodically-modulated honeycomb lattice using bosonic atoms. The novel properties of anomalous Floquet phases mentioned above open the door to exciting new non-equilibrium phases without any static analogue .
 A. Eckardt, Phys. Mod. Phys. 89, 311 (2017)
 C. Schweizer et al., Nat. Phys. (2019); L. Barbiero et al., Science Advances 5, eaav744 (2019)
 T. Kitagawa et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 235114 (2010)
 K. Wintersperger et al., accepted in Nature Physics (arXiv:2002.09840)
Friday, May 15th, 2020:
Vedika Khemani, Stanford University [video]
Many-Body Physics with Random Circuits
The study of many-body quantum dynamics is a topical area of interest to a number of different subfields in physics. A unifying theme is the study of the dynamics of quantum information in systems ranging from electrons in solids to cold atomic gases to black holes. While many important developments have pushed this frontier forward in recent years, several foundational questions remain. These include the search for new dynamical universality classes (for example, classes of dynamics intermediate between thermalizing and many-body localized, or new out-of-equilibrium phases of matter such as time-crystals) and novel dynamical phase transitions between these different classes. While exact solutions are few and far between, much insight has been gained by studying the dynamics of tractable models of random circuits.
In this talk, I will discuss new universality classes of dynamics emerging from two families of random circuits. The first is family of `fractonic' unitary circuits which leads us to a new mechanism for localization via 'Hilbert space shattering'. The second is a family of non-unitary measurement-only circuits which display a novel entanglement phase transition driven by the "frustration" of the measurement ensemble. The latter connects to attempts to characterize noisy dynamics in NISQ devices.
Friday, May 8th, 2020:
Holger Müller, University of California, Berkeley [video]
Measurement of the fine structure constant as test of the Standard Model
Measuring the fine-structure constant α allows testing the consistency of theory and experiment across physics. Using the recoil frequency of cesium-133 atoms in a matter-wave interferometer, we recorded the most accurate measurement of the fine-structure constant to date: α = 1 / 137 . 035999046(27) at 2 .0 ×10-10 accuracy. Comparison with Penning trap measurements of the electron gyromagnetic anomaly ge - 2 via the Standard Model of particle physics is now limited by the uncertainty in ge - 2 . Implications for dark-sector candidates and electron substructure may be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model that warrants further investigation. We will look at our current project to improve the accuracy further to the 10-part per trillion level.
Friday, May 1st, 2020:
Jonathan Simon, University of Chicago [video]
Making Quantum Matter from Light
In this talk I will discuss ongoing efforts at UChicago to explore matter made of light. I will begin with a broad introduction to the challenges associated with making matter from photons, focusing specifically on (1) how to trap photons and imbue them with synthetic mass and charge; (2) how to induce photons to collide with one another; and (3) how to drive photons to order, by cooling or otherwise. I will then provide as examples two state-of-the-art photonic quantum matter platforms: microwave photons coupled to superconducting resonators and transmon qubits, and optical photons trapped in multimode optical cavities and made to interact through Rydberg-dressing. In each case I will describe a synthetic material created in that platform: a Mott insulator of microwave photons, stabilized by coupling to an engineered, non-Markovian reservoir, and a Laughlin molecule of optical photons prepared by scattering photons through the optical cavity. Building materials photon-by-photon will provide us with a unique opportunity to discover what all of the above words mean, and why they are important for quantum-materials science.
Trapped atomic ions are a leading platform for quantum computing and sensing experiments. These experiments require manipulation of the ions' quantum states and the creation of entanglement between ions, both of which are typically accomplished using laser beams. However, there are drawbacks to this approach, including errors due to photon scattering and the complexity of the required laser sources. Our group performs quantum state control using oscillating radiofrequency and microwave-frequency magnetic and electric fields, and their near-field gradients, instead of laser beams. A critical element is the use of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap, which holds the ions roughly 30 µm above the electrodes generating the control fields. We use low-power resonant laser beams for cooling, optical pumping, and readout. I will describe several of our recent results, including the creation of high-fidelity entangled states of two ions using only microwave and radio-frequency control fields, and the use of radio-frequency electric fields to generate squeezed states of ion motion for sensing applications and to amplify phonon-mediated ion-ion interactions.
Friday, April 17th, 2020:
Adam Kaufman, JILA/CU/NIST [video]
The development of microscopic detection of ensembles of neutral atoms has transformed our ability to study complex many-body systems. Techniques like quantum gas microscopy and optical tweezer arrays grant a unique single-particle-resolved perspective on solid-state analogs and idealized quantum spin models, as well as novel detection capabilities for quantities like entanglement. In this talk, I will describe our progress towards developing these tools for a new atomic species, strontium. In doing so, we establish new prospects enabled by the rich internal degrees-of-freedom associated with alkaline-earth atoms. I will report on our recent results in which we apply our platform to optical atomic clocks, a new application of optical tweezer arrays which indicates a number of strengths for metrology. In particular, I will describe our strategies for reaching arrays with hundreds of tweezers with sub-Hz atom-optical coherence, half-minute scale atomic coherence, and atomic stability on par with the state-of-the-art. I will then describe our parallel progress towards engineering entanglement on an optical clock transition, as well as new scaling strategies involving atom-by-atom assembly in optical lattice potentials.
Friday, April 10th, 2020:
Waseem Bakr, Princeton University [video]
The normal state of high-temperature superconductors exhibits anomalous transport and spectral properties that are poorly understood. Cold atoms in optical lattices have been used to realize the celebrated Fermi-Hubbard model, widely believed to capture the essential physics of these materials. The recent development of fermionic quantum gas microscopes has enabled studying Hubbard systems with single-site resolution and extracting equilibrium charge and spin correlations. In this talk, I will report on using a quantum gas microscope to probe the transport and spectral properties of atomic Fermi-Hubbard systems. First, I will describe the development of a technique to measure microscopic charge diffusion, and hence resistivity, in doped Mott insulators. We have found that this resistivity exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and violates the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit, two signatures of strange metallic behavior . Next, I will discuss how we used the same technique to observe sub-diffusive charge transport in tilted Hubbard systems and present a hydrodynamic model that explains this observation in terms of an interplay of charge and heat transport, allowing the extraction of the infinite temperature heat diffusivity of the system . Finally, I will describe the development of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) for Hubbard systems and its application to studying pseudogap physics in an attractive Hubbard system across the BEC-BCS crossover , setting the stage for future studies of the pseudogap regime in repulsive Hubbard systems.
 P. Brown et. al., Science 363, 379 (2019)
 E. Guardado-Sanchez et. al., PRX 10, 011043 (2020)
 P. Brown et. al., Nature Physics 16, 26 (2020)
Friday, April 3rd, 2020:
Vladan Vuletić, MIT [video]
Recently it has been proposed to search for particles outside the Standard Model (SM) in an intermediate mass range by means of precision isotope shift spectroscopy on narrow optical transitions. We perform such a measurement on two S → D transitions for five bosonic isotopes of Yb+ with an accuracy of ~ 300Hz, and observe a nonlinearity at the 3.3 σ level in the corresponding King plot. Such a nonlinearity can indicate physics beyond the SM, or higher-order effects within the SM. We identify the second-order field shift as the leading-order effect within the SM for Yb+. The observed nonlinearity pattern is consistent with both the second-order field shift, and with an unknown boson, but larger than expected from either source. In the future, more precise measurements on more transition available for Yb+ and Yb can be used to distinguish between effects within and outside the SM.