"Red Returning Right" is an easy term to remember.
When entering a port or river keep all solid green buoys on your port (left) side. Red and green combination markers may be passed on either side. The color on top indicates which side of it your boat should be on. ie: If the top ban is red, then the buoy should be on your starboard (right) side. The color of the top band also indicates the main, or prefered channel.
Good anchorage location for your boat.
Danger ares. No safe traffic.
Special instructions. Speed limit or wake control.
Prohibited area. Keep out!
Marina, locality, camsite, etc.
Similar to hazard. Keep out! Military installation, seaplane base, etc.
Used for tying up boat.
Flashing light on yellow buoy indicates under water obstruction, race course or exercise area. There is no safe passage. Keep away.
Visit Transport Canada for more indepth information.