18. Alternative Conceptions
Abstract: Many science teachers are aware of the existence of alternative conceptions – notions held by students that are contrary to those generally accepted by mainstream scientists. Authentic alternative conceptions are tenaciously held, and doggedly resistant to change. Only carefully managed efforts by teachers will effectively address them. The author proposes two emphases within the context of the “standard model” for more effectively overcoming alternative conceptions based on the results of cognitive research.