Home‎ > ‎

Demonology

Mat 8:28  And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gadarenes, there met him two possessed with demons, coming forth out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man could pass by that way.

 

      Mark and Luke say there was one demoniac, but not “only” one, they are merely addressing the prominent one, so these accounts do not contradict.

 

Mat 8:29  And behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?

 

        The demons are always compelled to confess Christ as the Son of God, this teaches us that they do posses some spiritual knowledge (Ja 2:19)

 

Jam 2:19  Thou believest that God is one; thou doest well: the demons also believe, and shudder.

 

      Yet we see many today that not only do not shudder when they consider the Most High in light of their disobedience, they do not even give it a second thought, but that will change the second they die, when they are separated from their physical bodies (Ja 2:26) and go back into the hands of the living God (Eccl 12:7; Heb 10:31).

 

Ecc 12:7  and the dust returneth to the earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who gave it.

 

Heb 10:31  It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

      This also teaches us that belief coupled with confession of Jesus is not enough to save, it is the “obedience of faith” (Rom 1:5; 16:26), the belief that manifests itself in obedience to Christ and His gospel is that which saves, which also includes repentance (Luke 13:3, 5; Acts 17:30), baptism (immersion) unto remission of sins (Acts 2:38; 22:16), which puts one “in Christ” (Rom 6:3; Gal 3:27) and does now save you (1 Pet 3:21), and the ongoing renewing (2 Cor 4:16) under the direction of the Holy Spirit (Tit 3:5), which changes us into the likeness of God (Col 3:10) in which state we are fit for the heavenly places with a holy God.

 

        Note that one of the demons stated “before the time”? What time? Some would say that the statement refers to the Eternal Judgment (Matt 25:41, 46), in the Lake of fire (Rev 20:10; 21:8)

 

Mat 25:41  Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels:

Mat 25:46  And these shall go away into eternal punishment: but the righteous into eternal life.

 

Rev 20:10  And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where are also the beast and the false prophet; and they shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

Rev 21:8  But for the fearful, and unbelieving, and abominable, and murderers, and fornicators, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, their part shall be in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone; which is the second death.

 

Yet Luke’s account teaches us that they were speaking of the Abyss, not the lake of fire (look at Luke 8:30-31)

 

Luk 8:30  And Jesus asked him, What is thy name? And he said, Legion; for many demons were entered into him.

Luk 8:31  And they entreated him that he would not command them to depart into the abyss.

 

The word “abyss” (abussos)  occurs 9 times in the NT

Total KJV Occurrences: 9

Rev_9:1-2 (2), Rev_9:11, Rev_17:7-8 (2), Rev_20:1, Rev_20:3

 

Rev 9:1  And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from heaven fallen unto the earth: and there was given to him the key of the pit of the abyss.

Rev 9:2  And he opened the pit of the abyss; and there went up a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.

 

Rev 9:11  They have over them as king the angel of the abyss: his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek tongue he hath the name Apollyon.

 

Rev 17:7  And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou wonder? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and the ten horns.

Rev 17:8  The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss, and to go into perdition (perdition here is a reference to the lake of fire where the beast ultimately cast into ; Rev 19:20; 20:10) . And they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, they whose name hath not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast, how that he was, and is not, and shall come.

 

Rev 20:1  And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand.

Rev 20:2  And he laid hold on the dragon, the old serpent, which is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years,

Rev 20:3  and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years should be finished: after this he must be loosed for a little time.

 

Deep (KJV), abyss , 2

Luk_8:31, Rom_10:7

Luk 8:31  And they entreated him that he would not command them to depart into the abyss.

 

Rom 10:6  But the righteousness which is of faith saith thus, Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down:)

Rom 10:7  or, Who shall descend into the abyss? (That is, to bring Christ up from the dead.)

Rom 10:8  But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach:

 

ἄβυσσος; abussos

Thayer Definition:

1) bottomless

2) unbounded

3) the abyss

3a) the pit

3b) the immeasurable depth

3c) of Orcus, a very deep gulf or chasm in the lowest parts of the earth used as the common receptacle of the dead and especially as the abode of demons

Robertson in his “Word Pictures” writes the same . . .

The common receptacle of the dead in Rom_10:7 and especially the abode of demons as here (Luke 8:31) and Rev_9:1-11; Rev_11:7; Rev_17:8; Rev_20:1, Rev_20:3.

It is clear from these verses that the “abyss” is not the eternal fire, but merely a temporary abode for the wicked until That Day of the Final Judgment, it is referred to in the Scriptures as “Sheol” (abaddon) in the OT, and Hades (torments) in the NT.

      I believe “the time” (Mt 8:29) refers to the time when the miraculous manifestations would have ceased, both “good and evil.” Remember that in the Garden of Eden and wilderness Satan knew and attempted to twist scripture to his opponent’s demise,

      He also tried this with Jesus but met his match in God’s Son

I believe the demons also know God’s word and sadly better that many professed followers of Christ today and is destroying them with it (look at Zech 13:1-2; Dan 9:24; Mic 7:15; John 9:1-4; 1 Cor 13:8-10; Eph 4:8-13),

 

Zec 13:1  In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness.

Zec 13:2  And it shall come to pass in that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered; and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.

 

      Here the prophet Zechariah by inspiration tells us that sometime near “that day” when the “fountain” being opened for sin and uncleanness (which is clearly a reference to the sacrifice of Christ) the prophets and the unclean spirit (a term interchangeable with demons in the NT) would pass out of the land, again miraculous manifestations both good and bad. My belief is that within 40 years of Christ’s death the entire New Testament was miraculously delivered, confirmed and recorded by AD 70.

 

Dan 9:24  Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy.

 

      Again this is speaking of a “sealing up” an “ending” of vision and prophecy, both of which are miraculous gifts.

 

Mic 7:15  According to the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt will I shew unto him marvellous things. (KJV; YLT; DRB; GB)

 

      “According to the days” here is a reference to the approximate 40 years of wilderness wanderings in which God performed miracles which were consummated in their deliverance from Egypt by the plagues sent upon pharaoh and his peoples and lands and ended when the manna ceased after the next generation crossed the Jordan into the Promised Land. In New Testament times miracles were performed from Jesus’ baptism till the faith was once and for all time delivered (Jude 3; AD 69), which was also a period of about 40 years

 

Joh 9:1  And as he passed by, he saw a man blind from his birth.

Joh 9:2  And his disciples asked him, saying, Rabbi, who sinned, this man, or his parents, that he should be born blind?

Joh 9:3  Jesus answered, Neither did this man sin, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.

Joh 9:4  We must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.

 

        Clearly in this context “day” speaks of the time that God would perform miraculous acts which confirmed God’s Son and the word, and “night” denotes a time when these manifestations would cease “when no man can work … the works of God”.

 

1Co 13:8  Love never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall be done away; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall be done away.

1Co 13:9  For we know in part, and we prophesy in part;

1Co 13:10  but when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away.

 

      God’s revelation was given in part and pieces, but when the perfect law of liberty (Ja 1:25) was complete, once and for all time delivered (Jude 3), miraculous manifestations which delivered and confirmed Christ’s Law (Mk 16:20; Acts 14:3; Heb 2:4) would cease (Ja 1:25; Jude 3).

 

 Jam 1:25  But he that looketh into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and so continueth, being not a hearer that forgetteth but a doer that worketh, this man shall be blessed in his doing.

 

Jud 1:3  Beloved, while I was giving all diligence to write unto you of our common salvation, I was constrained to write unto you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints.

 

Eph 4:8  Wherefore he saith, When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, And gave gifts unto men.

Eph 4:9  (Now this, He ascended, what is it but that he also descended into the lower parts of the earth?

Eph 4:10  He that descended is the same also that ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things.)

Eph 4:11  And he gave some to be apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;

Eph 4:12  for the perfecting of the saints, unto the work of ministering, unto the building up of the body of Christ:

Eph 4:13  till we all attain unto the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a fullgrown man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:

 

      These miraculous manifestations would continue “till” the “unity” or the “oneness” (Strong’s) of the faith was likened to a “fullgrown” man, a “complete” man as Christ is complete. Thus when God’s revelation to man was complete these miraculously given gifts were to cease.

To be an evangelist or pastor (elder) or teacher today, one would have to look to the word of God and align one’s self with that in order to bring such about (there are no longer apostles and prophets).

        I believe that demons are in torments now (2 Pet 2:4; Jude 6) in “Tatarus” (tartaroo), along with the angels that sinned. Strong’s defines “Tatarus” (tartaroo; 2 Pet 2:4) as “the deepest abyss of Hades” where they are awaiting the Final Judgment.

 

2Pe 2:4  For if God did not spare sinning angels, but delivered them to chains of darkness, thrust down into Tartarus, having been kept to judgment; (LITV)

 

Jud 1:6  And angels that kept not their own principality, but left their proper habitation, he hath kept in everlasting bonds under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

 

Mat 8:30  Now there was afar off from them a herd of many swine feeding.

Mat 8:31  And the demons besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, send us away into the herd of swine.

Mat 8:32  And he said unto them, Go. And they came out, and went into the swine: and behold, the whole herd rushed down the steep into the sea, and perished in the waters.

 

      The demons specifically requested the swine as a temporary habitat, being fully aware of the immediate alternative (i.e., torments; Luke 16:23; in the abyss; Luke 8:31). 

      These swine, not created to house a spirit, one made in God’s image, but rather they operate by what we refer to as “instinct” that which God put in them in order that His will concerning them may be done, such as these were uncontrollable by the demons and thus rushed off a cliff.

 

Mat 8:33  And they that fed them fled, and went away into the city, and told everything, and what was befallen to them that were possessed with demons.

Mat 8:34  And behold, all the city came out to meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they besought him that he would depart from their borders.

 

These people of the Gadarenes (Gergesenes; KJV) cared more for their sausages than their souls.

The same can be said today, if physical things of this world suffer lost because of Christian’s spiritual priorities, they are likely also to be asked to leave by those who love the things of the world, but it would be more pleasing to God that this would peak the interest of those lost souls into the things of the kingdom of God.

 

Therefore let us continue to shine as lights in this sin darkened world in order that we might come upon those with honest and good hearts who would hear, believe and obey from the heart (manifest the obedience of faith; Rom 1:5; 16:26) unto the life eternal which God. Who cannot lie promised before time began (Tit 1:2).

 

VII. THE DOCTRINE OF DEMONS OR DEMONOLOGY?

 

A. Look at some facts concerning demons (devils; KJV) of the New Testament.

 

1. Demons were objects of worship (Acts 17:22; I Cor. 10:20; Rev 9:20).

 

a. They were offering sacrifices to demons not to God.

 

b. Though the idol was nothing, the demon symbolized by the idol was real.

 

2. In the days of Jesus and the apostles, demons took possession and led individuals (Matt. 9:32-38; 12:22-30; Mark 9:17-22; Luke 8:26-33; 7:33; Matt. 8:28-31; John 7:20).

 

3. Demons could speak (Mark 1:23-24; 3:11-12; 5:7).

 

4. Demons possessed at times knowledge superior to men (Mark 1:24; Acts 16:16), this is sad seeing many Christians know little of the bible yet they are commanded otherwise (Acts 17:11; 2 Tim 2:15; 1 Pet 2:2; 2 Pet 3:18)

 

5. Demons recognized their individuality apart from of the person possessed (Matt. 8:31), do we accept the responsibility of our actions? (Rom 14:12)

 

6. Demons recognized the authority of Christ, they were rebuked, commanded, and cast out by Jesus (Mark 5:7-13; Matt. 8:28-34; 12:22-28; Luke 11:14-20), we also need to recognize and act upon Jesus authority (Mt 28:18; Col 3:17).

 

7. Demons also recognized the deity of Jesus (Mt 8:29; Luke 4:33-34; James 2:19),

 

Mat 8:29  And behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?

 

Luk 4:33  And in the synagogue there was a man, that had a spirit of an unclean demon; and he cried out with a loud voice,

Luk 4:34  Ah! what have we to do with thee, Jesus thou Nazarene? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.

 

Jam 2:19  Thou believest that God is one; thou doest well: the demons also believe, and shudder.

 

a. So must we (John 8:24).

 

Joh 8:24  Therefore, I said to you that you will die in your sins. For if you do not believe that I AM, you will die in your sins.

 

8. Demons were also rebuked, commanded and cast out by the apostles, they were given the authority by Christ (Matt. 10:8; Mark 3:14-5; 16:17-20). There is no one that can qualify as an apostle of Christ today (Acts 1:21-24), we have the complete apostles doctrine in the NT (Acts 2:42), which is the same as the doctrine of Christ (2 John 9-11)

 

9. Of 80 references to demons in the New Testament; eleven instances clearly distinguish between demon-possession and diseases ordinarily caused (Matt. 4:24; 8:16; 10:8; Mark 1:32,34; 6:13; 16:17,18; Luke 4:40,41; 9:1; 13:32; Acts 19:12), much of modern scholarship attempts to do away with such thoughts as those of the simple and unlearned, in actuality those thoughts come from faith (Rom 10:17)

 

10. Demons cast into swine couldnt control swine, those not made in the image of God, thus they ran and drown themselves (Matt. 8:30-32), therefore we see that demons were unable to properly posses the lower forms of Gods creation.

 

11. Demons were recognized by Jesus as being distinct, not all are the same (Mark 9:29; Luke 10:17-20).

 

Mar 9:29  And he said unto them, This kind (implying various kinds) can come out by nothing, save by prayer.

 

12. Demons knew they were doomed, that they were only loosed for a season, and they acknowledged it (Matt. 8:29; Luke 8:31).

 

Mat 8:29  And behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?

 

Luk 8:31  And they entreated him that he would not command them to depart into the abyss.

 

a. I believe they like Satan (Mt 4:6) knew scripture thus knew it wouldnt be until Christs blood was shed that they would pass from the land (Zech 13:1-2).

 

Zec 13:1  In that day a fountain shall be opened to the house of David and to those living in Jerusalem, for sin and for impurity.

Zec 13:2  And it shall be in that day, I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall be remembered no more, says Jehovah of Hosts. And I also will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.

 

13. Demons habits were used by Christ to describe Israels doom (Matt. 12:43-45).

 

Mat 12:43  But the unclean spirit, when he is gone out of the man, passeth through waterless places, seeking rest, and findeth it not.

Mat 12:44  Then he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished.

Mat 12:45  Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man becometh worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this evil generation.

 

B. Who are these demons?

I. There are several theories concerning demons and their origin.

 

1) One group asserts that there is no such thing as demons and there never has been. They claim that the New Testament references to demons were merely an accommodation of Biblical language to the peoples superstitions with respect to the certain diseases which caused the victims to become crippled and/or overcome by seizures.

 

2)  A second group of theorist declares that demons, like Satan, are none of Gods order of creation and that the Bible just does not give any information regarding their origin or background.

 

a. The first two theories can be dispensed with as being false with an absolute certainly (Neh. 9:6).

 

Neh 9:6  Thou art Jehovah, even thou alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee.

 

b. Clearly God always was, is, and will always be, and all others things are the works of His hands (Gen 1:1).

 

Gen 1:1  In the beginning God,  created . . .

 

3) The third group of theorist concludes that demons, like Satan, belong to Gods order of creation, but who, because of sin, have been consigned to the evil spirit world. There are great variations among this group.

 

II. There are five prominent theories concerning the question of just who the demons were:

 

1) One theory is that the demons were departed spirits of a mongrel angel-human race arising from the intermarriage of angels with the daughters of men. This is based upon books such as Enoch and Jubilees which were accepted by many early Christians, but lost favor as time went on and the doctrines of men grew.

 

2) Another theory is that the demons are the evil spirits of a pre-Adamic creation.

 

a. This is likely a false theory because this asserts that there was another creation that lived upon the earth sometime between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:3). This is the basic Gap theory; Moses (Ex 20:11) and Jesus (Mk 10:6) both teach us that there is no so called Gap.

 

Exo 20:11  for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

 

Mar 10:6  But from the beginning of the creation, Male and female made he them.

 

3) A third theory is that the demons are the spirits of the evil world which perished in the flood. This theory may have some credence.

 

4) A fourth theory is that the demons were the fallen angels who joined Satan in his rebellion against God. This theory falls because in NT times when 2 Pet was penned, these were already bound in the deepest abyss of Hades (2 Pet 2:4).

 

2Pe 2:4  For if God did not spare sinning angels, but delivered them to chains of darkness, thrust down into Tartarus (the deepest abyss in Hades; Strongs), having been kept to judgment; (LITV)

 

5) A fifth theory is that the demons were souls of the wicked of this creation that God allowed to be loosed from torments in Hades (those who perished in the flood and others).

 

III. The Jews thought that the demons were souls of the wicked dead.

 

IV. The Gentiles thought that the demons were the souls of bad men.

 

V. Many great men of the past have held the position that the demons (devils; KJV) were spirits of wicked men.

 

a. E.A. Elam wrote that the demons were evil spirits, departed spirits of wicked men (Elams Notes, 1928, p. 28).

 

b. R.L. Whiteside wrote demons were evil spirits that took possession of people; that appears to have been the accepted idea among the Jews (Annual Lesson Commentary, 1939. pp. 276,277).

 

c. Guy N. Woods, Leslie G. Thomas, J.W. McGarvey, Alexander Campbell are others from the restoration movement who wrote concerning the demons being the departed spirits of wicked men.

 

7. Paul speaks of the doctrine of demons (I Tim. 4:1) which is a reference to the hypocrisy of men that speak lies (1 Tim 4:2).

 

a. these were propagators of false doctrines,

 

b. And in Acts 17:22 in Athens, the audience were worshippers of the doctrine of demons, or dead men deified.

 

c. In paganism nearly all their gods were supposed to have once lived on the earth.

 

d. I tend to believe a mix of what is brought forth based upon the bible and extra biblical references I assert that demons are the spirits of the offspring of angels and women, of which God allowed 10% of these to continue in this realm after the deluge.

 

C. So what happened to the demons (devils; KJV) (John 12:31; 16:11; Heb. 2:14; Zech. 13:2)?

 

1.    It seems that the NT teaches that Satan through Demons would not be allowed to continue his onslaught on humanity through miraculous manifestations (John 12:31; 16:11)

 

Joh 12:31  Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.

Joh 16:11  of judgment, because the prince of this world hath been judged.

 

  1. Yet Satan is still actively working through the unlawful desires of individuals even to this day (Ja 1:14-15; 1 Pet 5:8-9; 2 Cor 2:11; Col 1:12-13; Ja 4:6b-7).

 

Jam 1:14  but each man is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed.

Jam 1:15  Then the lust, when it hath conceived, beareth sin: and the sin, when it is fullgrown, bringeth forth death.

 

1Pe 5:8  Be sober, be watchful: your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour,

1Pe 5:9  whom withstand stedfast in your faith, knowing that the same sufferings are accomplished in your brethren who are in the world.

 

2Co 2:11  that no advantage may be gained over us by Satan: for we are not ignorant of his devices.

 

Col 1:12  giving thanks unto the Father, who made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light;

Col 1:13  who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the kingdom of the Son of his love;

 

Jam 4:6b  Wherefore the scripture saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.

Jam 4:7  Be subject therefore unto God; but resist the devil, and he will flee from you.

 

1. The age of miracles has ended (Zech 13:1-2; Dan 9:24; Micah 7:15; John 9:1-4; Cor. 13:8-10; Eph. 4:10-13; James 1:25; Jude 3).

1Co 13:10  but when that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away.

 

Jam 1:25  But he that looketh into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and so continueth, being not a hearer that forgetteth but a doer that worketh, this man shall be blessed in his doing.

 

Jud 1:3  Beloved, while I was giving all diligence to write unto you of our common salvation, I was constrained to write unto you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered unto the saints.

 

2. Demon possession ended with the end of the miraculous age (Zech 13:1-2).

 

Zec 13:1  In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness.

Zec 13:2  And it shall come to pass in that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered; and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.

 

3.    When God’s true prophets once for all time delivered God’s will for mankind to mankind (special revelation completed; the Bible; Jude 3), then in like manner the unclean spirits passed out of the land and were consigned to the abyss in Hades (Mt 8:29; Luke 8:31) until That Day, the Final Judgment at which time they will be cast into the lake of fire (Rev 20:15).

 

Rev 20:15  And if any was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire.

 

4. Let us do our best to keep our names written therein and not blotted out for  eternity (2 Cor 7:1; Phili 2:12; John 14:15; Jude 1:21)

 

2Co 7:1  Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

 

Phi 2:12  So then, my beloved, even as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling;

 

Joh 14:15  If ye love me, ye will keep my commandments.

 

Jud 1:21  keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. 

Comments