The increasing diversity of languages used on the web introduces a new level of complexity to Information Retrieval (IR) systems. We can no longer assume that textual content is written in one language or even the same language family. In this paper, we demonstrate how to build massive multilingual annotators with minimal human expertise and intervention. We describe a system that builds Named Entity Recognition (NER) annotators for 40 major languages using Wikipedia and Freebase. Our approach does not require NER human annotated datasets or
language specific resources like treebanks, parallel corpora, and orthographic rules. The novelty of approach lies therein - using only language agnostic techniques, while achieving competitive performance.
Our method learns distributed word representations (word embeddings) which encode semantic and syntactic features of words in each language. Then, we automatically generate datasets from Wikipedia link structure and Freebase attributes. Finally, we apply two preprocessing stages (oversampling and exact surface form matching) which do not require any linguistic expertise.
Our evaluation is two fold: First, we demonstrate the system performance on human annotated datasets. Second, for languages where no gold-standard benchmarks are available, we propose a new method, distant evaluation, based on statistical machine translation.
We present DeepWalk, a novel approach for learning latent representations of vertices in a network. These latent representations encode social relations in a continuous vector space, which is easily exploited by statistical models. DeepWalk generalizes recent advancements in language modeling and unsupervised feature learning (or deep learning) from sequences of words to graphs. DeepWalk uses local information obtained from truncated random walks to learn latent representations by treating walks as the equivalent of sentences. We demonstrate DeepWalk’s latent representations on several multi-label network classification tasks for social networks such as BlogCatalog, Flickr, and YouTube. Our results show that DeepWalk outperforms challenging baselines which are allowed a global view of the network, especially in the presence of missing information. DeepWalk’s representations can provide F 1 scores up to 10% higher than competing methods when labeled data is sparse. In some experiments, DeepWalk’s representations are able to outperform all baseline methods while using 60% less training data. DeepWalk is also scalable. It is an online learning algorithm which builds useful incremental results, and is trivially parallelizable. These qualities make it suitable for a broad class of real world applications such as network classification, and anomaly detection.
Distributed word representations (word embeddings) have recently contributed to competitive performance in language modeling and several NLP tasks. In this work, we train word embeddings for more than 100 languages using their corresponding Wikipedias. We quantitatively demonstrate the utility of our word embeddings by using them as the sole features for training a part of speech tagger for a subset of these languages. We find their performance to be competitive with near state-of-art methods in English, Danish and Swedish. Moreover, we investigate the semantic features captured by these embeddings through the proximity of word groupings. We will release these embeddings publicly to help researchers in the development and enhancement of multilingual applications.
Online content analysis employs algorithmic methods to identify entities in unstructured text. Both machine learning and knowledge-base approaches lie at the foundation of contemporary named entities extraction systems. However, the progress in deploying these approaches on web-scale has been been hampered by the computational cost of NLP over massive text corpora. We present SpeedRead (SR), a named entity recognition pipeline that runs at least 10 times faster than Stanford NLP pipeline. This pipeline consists of a high performance Penn Treebank-compliant tokenizer, close to state-of-art part-of-speech (POS) tagger and knowledge-based named entity recognizer.
SpeedRead is joint work with Steven Skiena.
Analyzing writing styles of non-native speakers is a challenging task. In this paper, we analyze the comments written in the discussion pages of the English Wikipedia. Using learning algorithms, we are able to detect native speakers’ writing style with an accuracy of 74%. Given the diversity of the English Wikipedia users and the large number of languages they speak, we measure the similarities among their native languages by comparing the influence they have on their English writing style. Our results show that languages known to have the same origin and development path have similar footprint on their speakers’ English writing style. To enable further studies, the dataset we extracted from Wikipedia will be made available publicly.