ROBINS-I tool

(Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions)

Welcome to the website for the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions)

Please see our current version.

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Further resources are available at on the University of Bristol risk of bias pages.

Go to Cochrane main web site.


To cite the ROBINS-I tool, please use:

Sterne JAC, Hernán MA, Reeves BC, Savović J, Berkman ND, Viswanathan M, Henry D, Altman DG, Ansari MT, Boutron I, Carpenter JR, Chan AW, Churchill R, Deeks JJ, Hróbjartsson A, Kirkham J, Jüni P, Loke YK, Pigott TD, Ramsay CR, Regidor D, Rothstein HR, Sandhu L, Santaguida PL, Schünemann HJ, Shea B, Shrier I, Tugwell P, Turner L, Valentine JC, Waddington H, Waters E, Wells GA, Whiting PF, Higgins JPT. ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions. BMJ 2016; 355; i4919; doi: 10.1136/bmj.i4919.


Note: The tool was previously called A Cochrane Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool: for Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ACROBAT-NRSI). See archived version.

To cite the earlier ACROBAT-NRSI tool, please use:

Sterne JAC, Higgins JPT, Reeves BC on behalf of the development group for ACROBAT-NRSI. A Cochrane Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool: for Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ACROBAT-NRSI), Version 1.0.0, 24 September 2014. Available from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/population-health-sciences/centres/cresyda/barr/riskofbias/robins-i/acrobat-nrsi/ [accessed {date}].

ROBINS-I was developed by members of the Cochrane Bias Methods Group and the Cochrane Non-Randomised Studies Methods Group. See a list of the team who were involved. It was supported by a grant from the Cochrane Methods Innovation Fund (2011) and by Medical Research Council (MRC) grant MR/M025209/1.