PHP单元测试工具PHPUnit初体验 


   作者:张杰 
   时间:2005年10月
   首次发表于chinaunix:链接

  今天接到了个任务,需要对数字进行计算,因为涉及到整数,小数,和科学计数法等很多条件,所以人工测试非常麻烦,于是想到了PHP的单元测试工具PHPUnit,所以写个文档备查。

看了PHPUnit的文档之后基本有了一些了解,
http://pear.php.net/manual/en/packages.php.phpunit.intro.php

工作流程如下:
1.设计你的class/API
2.创建测试程序集
3.实现class/API
4.运行测试
5.修正测试失败或错误,回到第4步。

我们来举个例子:
下面是你要测试的class,其中formatn函数一个取任意数字的5位有效数字的函数。

CODE:
----------format_number.php-----------
class fo {

        function fo() {
        }

        function formatn($num) {
                $num = rtrim($num,"0");
                $pos = strpos($num,".");
                $num = str_replace(".","",$num);
                $count1 = strlen($num);
                $num = ltrim($num,"0");
                $count2 = strlen($num);
                $zeroc = $count1 - $count2;
                $num = substr($num,0,6);
                $num = round($num/10);
                //$num = str_pad($num, 5, "0");
                if ($pos !== false) {
                        $num = str_pad($num, (strlen($num)+$zeroc), "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
                        $dotl = substr($num,0,$pos);
                        $dotr = substr($num,$pos);
                        $num = $dotl.".".$dotr;
                }
                return $num;
        }

}
接着创建TestCase,继承自PHPUnit_TestCase

CODE:
----------testcase.php-----------
<?php

require_once 'format_number.php';
require_once 'PHPUnit.php';

class foTest extends PHPUnit_TestCase {

        //这个成员变量是存放要测试的类引用
        var $abc;

        //构造函数
        function foTest($name) {
                $this->;PHPUnit_TestCase($name);
        }

        //new一个要测试的类为成员变量abc赋值
        function setUp() {
                $this->;abc = new fo;
        }

        //unset要测试的类
        function tearDown() {
                unset($this->;abc);
        }

        //自定义的testcase
        function testFormatn1() {
                //调用要测试的类的方法,结果放到$result变量
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("100.234");
                //期望结果
                $expected = "100.23";
                //判断是否相等,这里使用assertTrue方法来判断布而值是否为true。
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn2() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.100234");
                $expected = "0.10023";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn3() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.100235");
                $expected = "0.10024";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn4() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.000100235");
                $expected = "0.00010024";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn5() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.000100232");
                $expected = "0.00010023";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn6() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("1343");
                $expected = "1343";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn7() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("1343.01");
                $expected = "1343";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn8() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("1343.05");
                $expected = "1343.1";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn9() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0");
                $expected = "0";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn10() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("105.2342");
                $expected = "105.23";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn11() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("105.2375");
                $expected = "105.24";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn12() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.000523751");
                $expected = "0.00052375";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

        function testFormatn13() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("0.000523755");
                $expected = "0.00052376";
                $this->;assertTrue($result == $expected);
        }

}
最后还需要一个运行测试的程序

CODE:
----------runtest.php-----------
<?php
require_once 'testcase.php';
require_once 'PHPUnit.php';

$suite = new PHPUnit_TestSuite("foTest");
$result = PHPUnit::run($suite);

echo $result->;toString();
?>;
现在就可以通过命令行运行这个testcase
php runtest.php

得到结果如下:

CODE:
[Copy to clipboard]
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn1() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn2() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn3() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn4() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn5() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn7() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn8() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn9() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn10() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn11() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn12() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn13() passed
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn6() failed: expected TRUE, actual FALSE
其中testFormatn6的测试失败,
我们就可以去检查一下我们的代码在什么地方出问题了。


补充一点
也可以把assertTrue方法换assertEquals,如下:

CODE:
[Copy to clipboard]
        function testFormatn6() {
                $result = $this->;abc->;formatn("1343");
                $expected = "1343";
                $this->;assertEquals($expected, $result);
        }
如果失败得到对应的结果会直观一些(可以显示错误的结果):

CODE:
TestCase foTest->;testFormatn8() failed: expected 1343 , actual 134.