Iglesias, V., Krause, T.R., and Whitlock, C. Complex response of pine to past environmental variability increases understanding of its future vulnerability. PLoS One. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., McWethy, D.M. Tepley, A., Veblen, T.T., Holz, A., McGlone, M.S., Perry, G.L.W., Wilmshurst, J., and Wood, S. Past and present vulnerability of closed-canopy temperate forests to altered fire regimes. BioScience. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. Understanding Yellowstone's past to anticipate its future. Crown of the Continent and the Greater Yellowstone e-magazine. University of Montana. [pdf].

Iglesias, V., Yospin, G., and Whitlock, C. Reconstruction of fire regimes through integrated paleoecological proxy data and ecological modeling. Frontiers in Plant Science. [pdf].

Krause, T.R., Lu, Y., Whitlock, C., Fritz, S., and Pierce, K.L. Patterns of terrestrial and limnologic development during the late-glacial/early-Holocene transition inferred from multiple proxy records from Dailey Lake, Montana, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 422: 46-56. [pdf]

Iglesias, V., and Whitlock, C. Fire responses to postglacial climate change and human impact in northern Patagonia (41-43 S). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. E5545-E5554. [pdf] 

Fletcher, M.-S., Wolfe, B.B., Whitlock, C., Pompeani, D.P., Heijnis, H., Haberle, S.G., Gadd, P.S., and Bowman, D.M.J.S. 2014. The legacy of mid-Holocene fire on a Tasmanian montane landscape. Journal of Biogeography 41, 476-478. [pdf]

Hallac, D.E. and Whitlock, C. 2014. The quest to link science with decision-making (editorial). Yellowstone Science 22: 1.

Hallac, D.E. and Whitlock, C. 2014. Retrospective on the 11th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Greater Yellowstone in Transition--Linking Science and Decision Making. Yellowstone Science 22: 8-11.

Higuera, P.E., Briles, C.E., Whitlock, C. 2014. Fire-regime complacency and sensitivity to centennial- through millenial-scale climate change in Rocky Mountain subalpine forests, Colorado, USA. Journal of Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12296. [pdf]

Iglesias, V., Whitlock, C., Markgraf, V., Bianchi, M.M. Climate-vegetation-fire linkages at local to regional scales along the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S). Quaternary Science Reviews 94: 120-135. [pdf]

McWethy, D.M., Wilmshurst, J.M., Whitlock, C., McGlone, M.S., and Wood, J. 2014. A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transition following Polynesian arrival in New Zealand. PLoS One. [pdf]

Kehrwald, N.M., Whitlock, C., Barbante, C, Brovkin, V., Daniau, A.-L., Kaplan, J.O., Marlon, J.R., Power, M.J., Thonicke, K., and Van der Werf, G.R. 2013. Fire research: Linking past, present, and future data. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 94: 421-422. [pdf]

Krause, T.R. and Whitlock, C. 2013. Climate and vegetation change during the late-glacial/early Holocene transition inferred from multiple proxy records from Blacktail Pond, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Quaternary Research 79: 391-402. [pdf]

Markgraf, V., Iglesias, V., and Whitlock, C. 2013. Late and postglacial vegetation and fire history from Cordon Serrucho Norte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 371: 109-118. [pdf]

McWethy, D.B., Higuera, P.E., Whitlock, C., Veblen, T.T., Bowman, D.M.J.S., Cary, C.J., Haberle, S.G., Keane, R.E., Maxwell, B.D., McGlone, M.S., Perry, G.L.W., Wilmhurst, J.M., Holz, A., and Tepley, A.J. 2013. A conceptual framework for predicting temperate ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts on fire regimes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22: 900-912. [pdf]

McWethy, D.B., Cross, W.F., Baxter, C.V., Whitlock, C., and Gresswell, R.E. 2013. Natural Disturbance Dynamics--Shaping the Yellowstone Landscape.  In White, P.J., R.A. Garrott and G.E. Plumb editors. "Yellowstone's Wildlife in Transition". Harvard University Press, pp. 127-146.

Boslough, M., Nicoll, K., Holliday, V., Daulton, T.L., Meltzer, D., Pinter, N., Scott, A.C., Surovell, T., Claeys, P., Gill, J., Paquay, F., Marlon, J., Bartlein, P., Whitlock, C., Grayson, D., Jull, T. 2012. Arguments and evidence against a Younger Dryas Impact Event.  AGU Chapman Conference Proceedings: Climates, Past Landscapes, and Civilization. [link]

Briles, C.E., and Whitlock, C.  Poster. Holocene substrate influences on plant and fire response to climate change.  Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, 2012. [link]

Briles, C.E., Whitlock, C., and Meltzer, D. 2012. Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation. Quaternary Research 77: 96-103. [pdf]

Clark, P.U., Shakun, J.D., Baker, P.A., Bartlein, P.J., Brewer, S., Brook, E.J., Carlson, A.E., Cheng, H., Kaufman, D.S., Liu, Z., Marchitto, T.M., Misx, A.C., Morrill, C., Otto-Bliesner, B., Pahnke, K., Russell, J.M., Whitlock, C., Adkins, J.F., Blois, J.L., Clark, J., Colman, S.C., Curry, W.B., Flower, B.P., He, F., Johnson, T.C., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., Markgraf, V., McManus, J.F., Mitrovica, J.X., Moreno, P.I., Williams, J.W. Global climate evolution during the last deglaciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [pdf]

Gill, J.L., Blois, J.L., Goring, S., Marlon, J.R., Bartlein, P.J., Holliday, V.T., Nicoll, K., Scott, A., Whitlock, C. Comment: Paleoecological changes at Lake Cuitzeo were not consistent with an extraterrestrial impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
McWethy D.B., Cross, W.F., Baxter, C.V., Whitlock, C. and Gresswell, R.E. 2012. Natural Disturbance Dynamics – Shaping the Yellowstone Landscape. In White, P.J., R.A. Garrott and G.E. Plumb. editors. “Yellowstone’s Wildlife in Transition”. Harvard University Press. [pdf]

Iglesias, V., Whitlock, C., Bianchi, M., Villarosa, G., Outes, V. 2012. Climatic and local controls of long-term vegetation dynamics in Northern Patagonia (lat 41oS). Quaternary Research 78: 502-512. [pdf]

Iglesias V., Whitlock C., Bianchi M.M., Villarosa G., Outes V. 2012. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (49o29'37.89"S, 71o24'14.57"W) and Laguna del Cóndor (42o20'47.22"S, 71o17'07.62"W). The Holocene 22: 1297-1307. [pdf]

Mumma, S., Whitlock, C., and Pierce, K. 2012. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centenial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 326-328: 30-41. [pdf]

Perry, G.L.W., J.M. Wilmshurst, M.S. McGlone, McWethy, D.B., C. Whitlock. 2012. Explaining fire-driven landscape transformation during the ‘initial burning period’ of New Zealand’s prehistory. Global Change Biology 18: 1609–1621. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. 2012. Review of Fire Management in the American West: Forest Politics and the Rise of Megafires, by Mark Hudson, University Press of Colorado. Wyoming Academy of Sciences.

Whitlock, C., Dean, W.E., Fritz, S.C., Stevens, L.R., Stone, J.R., Power, M.J., Bracht-Flyr, B.B., Rosenbaum, J.R., Pierce, K.L., and Bracht-Flyr, B.B. 2012. Holocene seasonal variability inferred from multiple proxy records from Crevice Lake, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 331-332: 90-103.

Briles, C.E., Whitlock, C., Skinner, C.N., and Mohr, J. 2011. Postglacial forest development on different substrates in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA.  Ecology 92: 590-601. [pdf]

Power, M.J., Whitlock, C., and Bartlein, P.J. 2011. Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history across an elevational gradient in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA and Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 2520-2533. [pdf]

McWethy, D.B., C. Whitlock, J.M. Wilmshurst, M.S. McGlone. 2011.  Feedbacks and consequences of early human-set fires. Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, August 2012.

Romme, W.H., Boyce, M.S., Gresswell, R., Merrill, E.H., Minshall, G.W., Whitlock, C., Turner, M.G. 2011. Twenty Years after the 1988 Yellostone Fires: Lessons about Disturbance and Ecosystems. Ecosystems 14: 1196-1215. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Briles, C.E., Fernandez, M.C., and Gage, J. 2011. Holocene vegetation, fire, and climate history of the Sawtooth Range, central Idaho, USA. Quaternary Research 75, 114-124. [pdf]

[no author] Panel, writing position statement on Climate Change Policy for the Geological Scoeity of America. Ruddiman, W.F., GSA Today 2010.

Gonzalo, J.M., Anderson, R.S., Desprat, S., Grigg, L.D., Grimm, E.C., Heusser, L.E., Jacobs, B.F., Lopes-Martinez, C., Whitlock, C.L., Willard, D.A. 2010. Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial in vegetation records from Northe America. Quaternary Scinece Reviews 29: 2865-2881. [pdf]

Higuera, P., Whitlock, C., and Gage, J. 2010. Fire history and climate-fire linkages in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A., 1240-1975 AD.  The Holocene. [pdf]

Jimenez-Moreno, G., Anderson, R.S., Desprat, S., Grigg, L.D., Grimm, E.C., Heusser, L.E., Jacobs, B.F., Lopes-Martínez, C., Whitlock, C.L., Willard, D.A. 2010. Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial in vegetation records from North America.  Quaternary Science Reviews, in press. [pdf]

Kiefer, T., Otto-Bliesner, B.L., Whitlock, C. and Wolff, E. (eds.) Retrospective views on our planet's future - PAGES Open Science Meeting 2009. Climates of the Past 6 [special issue].

McWethy, D.B., Gray, S.T., Higuera, P.E. Littell, J.S., Pederson, G.T., Ray, A.J., Whitlock, C. 2010. Climate and terrestrial ecosystem change in the U.S. Rocky Mountains and Upper Columbia Basin: Historical and future perspectives for natural resource management. Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR - 2010/260. Nationa Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

McWethy D. B., S. T. Gray, P. E. Higuera, J. S. Littell, G. T. Pederson, A. J. Ray, and C. Whitlock. 2010. Climate and terrestrial ecosystem change in the U.S. Rocky Mountains and Upper Columbia Basin: Historical and future perspectives for natural resource management. Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2010/260. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. [pdf]

Olliff, T., Plumb, G., Kershner, J., Whitlock, C., Hansen, A., Cross, M., Bishcke, S. 2010. A Science Agenda for the Greater Yellowstone Area.  Yellowstone Science 18: 14-22. [pdf]

Walsh, M.K., Pearl, C.A., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and Worona. 2010.  An 11,000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley.  Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 1093-1106. [pdf]

Walsh, M.E., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J. 2010. 1200 years of fire and vegetation history in the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 297: 273-289. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. Using Yellowstone’s Past to Understand the Future.  Knowing Yellowstone (ed. J.D. Johnson), Taylor Trade Publishing, Maryland.

Whitlock, C. Comment on Holliday, V.T. and Melter, D.J. 2010. The 12.9ka ET impact hypothesis and North American Paleoindians.  Current Anthropology 51, No. 5. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., and Tinner, W.  2010. Fire in the Earth System: A paleoperspective: editorial. PAGES News 18, no. 2.p. 55-57. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., P.E. Higuera, D.B. McWethy, C.E. Briles. 2010. Paleoecological Perspectives on Fire Ecology: Revisiting the Fire-Regime Concept, The Open Ecology Journal 3: 6-23. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Tinner, W., Newman, L. (ed.).  Fire in the Earth System: A paleoperspective.  PAGES News 18, no. 2. [pdf]


Brubaker, L. B., P. E. Higuera, T. S. Rupp, M. Olson, P. M. Anderson, and F. S. Hu. 2009. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests, Ecology 90: 1788-1801. [pdf]

Higuera, P. E., L. B. Brubaker, P. M. Anderson, F. S. Hu, and T. A. Brown. 2009. Vegetation mediated the impacts of postglacial climate change on fire regimes in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska, Ecological Monographs 79: 201-219.

Huerta, M., Whitlock, C., and J. Yale. 2009. Holocene Vegetation-Fire-Climate Linkages in Northern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 271: 170-181. [pdf]

Marlon, J.R., Bartlein, P.J., Walsh, M.K., Harrison, S.P., Brown, K.J., Edwards, M.E., Higuera, P.E., Power, M.J., Anderson, R.S. Briles, C., Brunelle, A., Carcaillet, C., Daniels, M., Hu, F.S., Lavoie, M., Long, C., Minckley, T., Richard, P.J.H., Shafer, D.S., Tinner, Umbanhowar, C.E., Jr., and C. Whitlock. 2009. Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science. [ pdf] Supplementary Info: [pdf]

Markgraf, V., Whitlock, C., Anderson, R.S., and A. García. 2009. Late Quaternary vegetation and fire history in the northernmost Nothofagus forest region: Mallín Vaca Lauquen, Neuquén Province, Argentina. Journal of Quaternary Science 24: 248-258. [pdf]

McWethy, D.B., Whitlock, C., Wilmshurst, J.M, McGlone, M., and Li, X. 2009. Rapid deforestation of South Islan, New Zealand, by early Polynesian fires. 2009. The Holocene 19: 883. [pdf]

Swetnam, T.W. and Whitlock, C. 2009. Chapter 3: Paleofire and Climate History: Western America and Global Perspectives’. In Johann Goldammer (Ed.) ‘UN White Paper on Vegetation Fires and Global Change’ (by the Global Fire Monitoring Center).

Briles, C. E., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and P.E. Higuera. 2008. Regional and local controls on postglacial vegetation and fire in the Siskiyou Mountains, northern California, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 265: 159-169. [pdf]

Higuera, P. E., Brubaker, L.B., Anderson, P.M., Brown, T.A., Kennedy, A.T., and F.S. Hu. 2008. Frequent Fires in Ancient Shrub Tundra: Implications of Paleorecords for Arctic Environmental Change. PLoS ONE 3: e0001744. [pdf]

Jacobs, K., and C. Whitlock. 2008. A 2000-year environmental history of Jackson Hole, Wyoming, inferred from lake-sediment records. Western North American Naturalist 68: 350-364. [pdf]

Marlon, J. R., Bartlein, P.J., Carcaillet, C., Gavin, D.G., Harrison, S.P., Higuera, P.E., Joos, F., Power, M.J. and I.C. Prentice. 2008. Climate and human influences on global biomass burning over the past two millennia. Nature Geoscience 1: 697-702. [
pdf] Supplementary Info: [pdf] Supplementary Material: [pdf] Figures: [pdf]

Minckley T.A., Bartlein, P.J., Whitlock, C., Shuman, B.N., Williams, J.W., and O.K. Davis. 2008. Associations among modern pollen, vegetation, and climate in western North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1962-1991. [pdf]

Power, M. J., Marlon, J., Ortiz, N., Bartlein, P.J., Harrison, S.P., Mayle, F.E., Ballouche, A., Bradshaw, R.H.W., Carcaillet, C., Cordova, C., Mooney, S., Moreno, P.I., Prentice, I.C., Thonicke, K., Tinner, W., Whitlock, C., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y., Ali, A.A., Anderson, R.S., Beer, R., Behling, H., Briles, C., Brown, K.J., Brunelle, A., Bush, M., Camill, P., Chu, G.Q., Clark, J., Colombaroli, D., Connor, S., Daniau, A.L., Daniels, M., Dodson, J., Doughty, E., Edwards, M.E., Finsinger, W., Foster, D., Frechette, J., Gaillard, M.J., Gavin, D.G., Gobet, E., Haberle, S., Hallett, D.J., Higuera, P.E., Hope, G., Horn, S., Inoue, J., Kaltenrieder, P., Kennedy, L., Kong, Z.C., Larsen, C., Long, C.J., Lynch, J., Lynch, E.A., McGlone, M., Meeks, S., Mensing, S., Meyer, G., Minckley, T., Mohr, J., Nelson, D.M., New, J., Newnham, R., Noti, R., Oswald, W., Pierce, J., Richard, P.J.H., Rowe, C., Goni, M.F.S., Shuman, B.N., Takahara, H., Toney, J., Turney, C., Urrego-Sanchez, D.H., Umbanhowar, C., Vandergoes, M., Vanniere, B., Vescovi, E., Walsh, M., Wang, X., Williams, N., Wilmshurst, J., and J.H. Zhang. 2008. Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data. Climate Dynamics 30: 887-907. [pdf]

Sugimura, W., Sprugel, D.G., Brubaker, L.B., and P.E,. Higuera. 2008. Millennial-scale changes in local vegetation and fire regimes on Mt. Constitution, Orcas Island, Washington, USA, using small hollow sediments. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 566-575. [

Walsh, M.K., Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2008. A 14,000-year-long record of fire-vegetation-climate linkages at Battle Ground Lake, southwestern Washington. Quaternary Research 70: 343-466. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Marlon, J., Briles, C., Brunelle, A., Long, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2008. Long-term relations among fire, fuel, and climate in the north-western US based on lake-sediment studies. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 72-83.

Higuera, P. E., Peters, M.E., Brubaker, L.B., and D.G. Gavin. 2007. Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records with a simulation model. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 1790-1809. [pdf]

Long, C., Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2007. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Coast Range, western Oregon, USA. The Holocene 17: 917-926. [pdf]

Markgraf, V., Whitlock, C., and S. Haberle. 2007. Vegetation and fire history during the last 18,000 cal yr B.P. in southern Patagonia: Mallin Pollux, Coyhaique, Province Aisén (45º41'30" S, 71º50"30" W, 640 m elev.). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 254: 292-507. [pdf]

Pederson, G., Whitlock, C., Watson, E., and L.E. Graumlich. 2007. Paleoperspectives on climate and ecosystem change. In Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes: science, policy, and management of the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (T.Prato and D. Fagre, eds), pp. 151-170. RFF Press.

Peters, M.E., and P.E. Higuera. 2007. Quantifying the source area of macroscopic charcoal with a particle dispersal model. Quaternary Research 67: 304-310. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Moreno, P.I., and P.J. Bartlein. 2007. Climatic controls of Holocene fire patterns in southern South America, Quaternary Research 68: 28-36. [pdf]

Hu, F.S., Brubaker, L.B., Gavin, D.G., Higuera, P.E., Lynch, J.A., Rupp, T.S., and W. Tinner. 2006. How climate and vegetation influence the fire regime of the Alaskan Boreal Biome: the Holocene perspective. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 829-846. [pdf]

Marlon, J., Bartlein, P.J., and C. Whitlock. 2006. Fire-fuel-climate linkages in the northwestern U.S. during the Holocene. The Holocene 16: 1059-1071. [pdf]

Pierce, K.L., Despain, D., Whitlock, C., Meyer, G., Licciardi, J., and K. Cannon. 2006. Quaternary of the Northern Yellowstone Area Field Trip Guide. American Quaternary Association Biennial Meeting, Bozeman MT, August 17-20, 2006

Power, M.J., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and L.R. Stevens. 2006. Fire and vegetation history during the last 3800 years in northwestern Montana. Geomorphology 75: 420-436. [pdf]

Theriot, E.C., Fritz, S.C., Whitlock, C., and D.J. Conley. 2006. Late-Quaternary rapid morphologic evolution of an endemic diatom in Yellowstone Lake, USA. Paleobiology 32: 38-54. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bianchi, M.M., Bartlein, P.J., Markgraf, V., Walsh, M., Marlon, J.M., and N. McCoy. 2006. Postglacial vegetation, climate, and fire history along the east side of the Andes (lat 41-42.5S), Argentina. Quaternary Research 66: 187-201. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., and A. Brunelle. 2006. Pollen records from northwestern North America. In: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science (S.Elias, ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam. [pdf]

Williams, J.W., Shuman, B., Bartlein, P.J., Whitmore, J., Gajewski, K., Sawada, M., Minckley, T., Shafer, S., Viau, A.E., Webb, T. III, Anderson, P. M. Brubaker, L. B., Whitlock, C. and O.K. Davis. 2006. An Atlas of Pollen-Vegetation-Climate Relationships for the United States and Canada. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas.

Briles, C., Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2005. Holocene fire, vegetation, and climate history of northern Siskiyou mountains, Oregon. Quaternary Research 64: 44-56. [pdf]

Brunelle, A., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and K. Kipfmuller. 2005. Postglacial fire, climate, and vegetation history along an environmental gradient in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 2281-2300. [pdf]

Daniels, M., Anderson, R.S., and C. Whitlock. 2005. Vegetation and fire history since the Late Pleistocene from the Trinity Mountains, northwestern California, USA. The Holocene 15: 1062-1071. [pdf]

Higuera, P.E., Brubaker, L.B., and D.G. Sprugel. 2005. Reconstructing fire regimes with charcoal from small hollows: a calibration with tree-ring records of fire. The Holocene 15: 238-251. [pdf]

Shafer, S.H., Bartlein, P.J., and C. Whitlock. 2005. Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of global environmental change in mountainous regions. Global change and mountain regions: an overview of current knowledge (U.M. Huber, H.K.M. Bugmann, M.A. Reasoner, eds), pp. 21-31. Kluwer. [pdf]

Millspaugh, S.H., Whitlock C. and P.J. Bartlein. 2004. Postglacial fire, vegetation, and climate history of the Yellowstone-Lamar and Central Plateau provinces, Yellowstone National Park. In After the Fires: The Ecology of Change in Yellowstone National Park (L. Wallace, ed.), pp. 10-28. Yale University Press.

Whitlock, C. 2004. Land management: Fire, climate, and landscape response. Nature 432: 28-29. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2004. Holocene fire activity as a record of past environmental change. In Developments in Quaternary Science Volume 1 (A. Gillespie and S.C. Porter, eds.). Elsevier, pp. 479-489. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Skinner, C.N., Bartlein, P.J., Minckley, T.A., and J.A. Mohr. 2004. Comparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the eastern Klamath Mountains California, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 2110-2121. [pdf]


Alaback, P., Veblen, T.T., Whitlock, C., Lara, A., Kitzberger, and R. Villalba. 2003. Climatic and anthropogenic influences on fire regimes in temperate forest ecosystems in western North and South America. In How Landscapes Change: Human Disturbance and Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas (G.A. Bradshaw and P.A. Marquet, eds.), Ecological Studies 162: 49-89. Springer Verlag.

Brunelle, A., and C. Whitlock. 2003. Holocene vegetation, fire, and climate history in the Clearwater Range, Northern Idaho. Quaternary Research 60: 307-318. [ pdf]

Overpeck, J.T., Whitlock, C., and B. Huntley. 2003. Terrestrial biosphere dynamics in the climate system: past and future. In Paleoclimate, Global Change, and the Future (K.D. Alverson, R.S. Bradley and T. Pedersen, eds), pp. 81-103. Springer, Berlin. [pdf]

Pierce, K.L., Despain, D., Whitlock, C., Cannon, K.P., Meyer, G., and L. Morgan. 2003. Quaternary geology and ecology of the greater Yellowstone area. In Quaternary Geology of the United States (D.J. Easterbrook, ed.), pp. 313-344. INQUA 2003 Field Guide Volume (Desert Research Institute, Reno). [

Whitlock, C., and R.S. Anderson. 2003. Fire history reconstructions based on sediment records from lakes and wetlands. In Fire and Climatic Change in the Americas (T.T. Veblen, W.L. Baker, G. Montenegro, and T.W. Swetnam, eds.), pp. 3-31. Ecological Studies, vol. 160. Springer-Verlag, New York. [ pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., Marlon, J., Brunelle, A., and C. Long. 2003. Holocene fire reconstructions from the northwestern U.S.: an examination at multiple time scales Second International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress (extended abstract) 4C.1, 7 pp. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Shafer, S.H., J. and Marlon. 2003. The role of climate and vegetation change in shaping past and future fire regimes in the northwestern U.S., and the implications for ecosystem management. Forest Ecology and Management 178: 5-21. [pdf]


Blinnikov, M., Busacca, A., and C. Whitlock. 2002. Reconstruction of the late-Pleistocene grassland of the Columbia Basin, Washington, USA, based on phytolith records in loess. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177: 77-101. [ pdf]

Grigg, L.D. and C. Whitlock. 2002. Patterns and causes of millennial-scale climate change in the Pacific Northwest during the last glacial period. Quaternary Science Reviews 21: 2067-2083. [pdf]

Long, C.J., and C. Whitlock. 2002. Late Holocene fire and vegetation history from the Picea sitchensis forest of the Oregon Coast Range. Quaternary Research 58: 215-225. [pdf]

Spies, T.A., Hibbs, D.E., Ohmann, J.L., Reeves, G.H., Pabst, R.J., Swanson, F.J., Whitlock, C., Jones, J.A., Wemple, B.C., Parendes, L.A., and B.A. Schrader. 2002. The ecological basis of forest ecosystem management in the Oregon Coast Range. In Forest and Stream Management in the Oregon Coast Range (S.D. Hobbs, J.P. Hayes, R.L. Johnson, G.H. Reeves, T.A. Spies, J.C. Tappeiner, and G.E. Wells, eds), pp. 31-67. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Whitlock, C., Reasoner, M.A., and C.H. Key. 2002. Paleoenviromental History of the Rocky Mountain region during the last 20,000 years. In Rocky Mountain Futures: An Ecological Perspective (J.A. Barron, ed.), pp. 41-59. Island Press, Washington.

Whitlock, C. 2002. Variations in Holocene fire frequency: a view from the western United States: Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 101B: 65-77.

Whitlock, C., and M.A. Knox. 2002. Prehistoric Burning in the Pacific Northwest. In: Fire, Native Peoples, and the Natural Landscape (T.R. Vale, ed.), 195-231. Island Press, Washington, D.C.


Blinnikov, M., Busacca, A., and C. Whitlock. 2001. A new 100,000-year phytolith record from the Columbia Basin, Washington, USA. In Phytoliths: Applications in Earth Science. and Human History (J. Dominique Meunier, ed.). A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Gardner, J.J., and C. Whitlock. 2001. Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies. The Holocene 11: 541-549. [ pdf]

Grigg, L.D., Whitlock, C., and W.E. Dean. 2001. Evidence for millennial-scale climate change during marine isotope stages 2 and 3 at Little Lake, western Oregon, USA. Quaternary Research 56: 10-22. [

Whitlock, C. 2001. Doing fieldwork in the mud. The Geographical Review 91: 19-26. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. and C.P.S. Larsen. 2001. Charcoal as a Fire Proxy. In Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments: Volume 3 Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous indicators (J.P. Smol, H.J.B. Birks, and W. M. Last, eds), pp. 75-97. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. [

Whitlock, C. and Millspaugh, S.H. 2001. A paleoecologic perspective on past plant migrations in Yellowstone and its relevance for the invasion of exotic species. Western North American Naturalist 61: 316-327. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., Markgraf, V., and A.C. Ashworth. 2001. The mid-latitudes of North and South America during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Holocene: Similar paleoclimatic sequences despite differing large-scale controls. In Interhemispheric Climate Linkages; Present and Past Interhemispheric Climate Linkages in the Americas and their Societal Effects (V. Markgraf, ed.), p 391-416. Academic Press.

Kershaw, A.P., and C. Whitlock. 2000. (editors). Introduction: Paleoecological records of the last glacial/interglacial cycle: patterns and causes of change. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology (special issue) 155: 1-5.

Millspaugh, S.H., Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 2000. Variations in fire frequency and climate over the last 17,000 years in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28: 211-214. [

Minckley, T. and C. Whitlock. 2000. Spatial variation of modern pollen rain in Oregon and southern Washington, USA. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 112: 97-123.

Mohr, J.A., Whitlock, C., and C.N. Skinner. 2000. Postglacial vegetation and fire history, eastern Klamath Mountains, California. The Holocene 10: 587-601. [

Wimberly, M.C., Spies, T.A., Long, C.J., and C. Whitlock. 2000. Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Conservation Biology 14: 167-180.

Whitlock, C., Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M., Bartlein, P.J., and R.J. Nickmann. 2000. Vegetation history and tephrostratigraphy at Carp Lake, Southwestern Washington, U.S.A. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 155: 7-29. [


Whitlock, C., and L.D. Grigg. 1999. Paleoecological Evidence of Milankovitch and Sub-Milankovitch Climate Variations in the Western U.S. during the late Quaternary. In Mechanisms of millennial-scale global climate change (R.S. Webb P.U. Clark, L.D. Keigwin, eds). American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 112: 227-241.


Bartlein, P.J., Anderson, P.M., Anderson, K.H., Edwards, M.E., Thompson, R.S., Webb, R.S., Webb, T. III, and C. Whitlock. 1998. Paleoclimate simulations for North America over the past 21,000 years: features of simulated climate and comparisons with paleoenvironmental data. Quaternary Science Reviews 17, 549-585. [pdf]

Grigg, L.D., and C. Whitlock. 1998. Late-glacial climate and vegetation changes in western Oregon. Quaternary Research 49: 287-298. [pdf]

Long, C.J., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and S.H. Millspaugh. 1998. A 9000-year fire history from the Oregon Coast Range, based on a high-resolution charcoal study. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 774-787. [

MacDonald, G.M., Cwynar, L.C., and C. Whitlock. 1998. The late-Quaternary history of pines in northern North America. In Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus (D.M. Richardson, ed.), pp. 122-136. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Bartlein, P. J., Whitlock, C., and S. Shafer. 1997. Future climate in the Yellowstone National Park region and its potential impact on vegetation. Conservation Biology 11: 782-792. [

Hebda, R.J. and C. Whitlock. 1997. Environmental history of the coastal temperate rainforest of northwest North America. In The Rain Forests of Home: Profile of a North American Bioregion (P.K. Schoonmaker, B. von Hagen, and E.C. Wolf, eds), pp. 227-254. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Whitlock, C., and P.J. Bartlein. 1997. Vegetation and climate change in northwest America during the past 125 kyr. Nature 388: 57-61. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bradbury, J.P., and S.H. Millspaugh. 1997. Controls on charcoal distribution in lake sediments: case studies from Yellowstone National Park and Northwestern Minnesota. In Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change (J.S. Clark, H. Cachier, J.G. Goldhammer, and B.J. Stocks, eds), pp. 367-366. Springer Verlag.


Whitlock, C. and S.H. Millspaugh. 1996. Testing assumptions of fire history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park. The Holocene 6: 7-15. [pdf]


Millspaugh, S.H. and C. Whitlock. 1995. A 750-yr fire history based on lake sediment records in central Yellowstone National Park. The Holocene 5, 283-292. [pdf]

Sea, D.S. and C. Whitlock. 1995. Postglacial vegetation and climate of the Cascade Range, central Oregon. Quaternary Research 43, 370-381. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and K.J. Van Norman. 1995. Stability of Holocene climate regimes in the Yellowstone region. Quaternary Research 43, 433-436. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. 1995. The history of Larix occidentalis during the last 20,000 years of environmental change in Ecology and management of Larix forests. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station General Technical Report GTR-INT-319. pp. 83-90.

Whitlock, C. 1995. Review of "Mountains and Plains: the Ecology of Wyoming Landscapes" by Dennis H. Knight. Yellowstone Science 3: 15-16.

Worona, M.A. and C. Whitlock. 1995. Late-Quaternary vegetation and climate history near Little Lake, Central Coast Range, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 107, 867-876. [


Engstrom, D.E., Whitlock, C., Fritz, S.C., and H.E. Wright, Jr. 1994. Reinventing erosion in Yellowstone's northern range. Journal of Paleolimnology 10: 159-161. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. 1994. Long-term vegetational response to climatic change and edaphic conditions in Yellowstone National Park. In Plants and Their Environments: Proceedings of the First Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. National Park Service Technical Report NPS/NRYELL/NRTR, 301-304.

Bartlein, P.J. and C. Whitlock. 1993. Paleoclimatic interpretation of the Elk Lake pollen record. In Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central, United States: The Elk Lake record (J.P. Bradbury and W.E. Dean, eds). Geological Society of America Special Paper 276: 275-293.

Thompson, R.S., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., Harrison, S., and W.G. Spaulding. 1993. Climatic changes in the western United States since 18,000 yr B.P. In Global climates since the Last Glacial Maximum (H.E. Wright, Jr., J.E. Kutzbach, T. Webb III, W.F. Ruddiman, F.A. Street-Perrott, and P.J. Bartlein, eds), pp. 468-513. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Whitlock, C. 1993. Postglacial vegetation and climate of Grand Teton and southern Yellowstone National Parks. Ecological Monographs 63: 173-198. [pdf]

Whitlock, C. and P.J. Bartlein. 1993. Spatial variations of Holocene climatic change in the Yellowstone region. Quaternary Research 39: 231-238. [pdf]

Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J., and W.A. Watts. 1993. The vegetation history of Elk Lake. In Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central, United States: The Elk Lake record (J.P. Bradbury and W.E. Dean, eds). Geological Society of America Special Paper 276: 251-274.

See Whitock CV for a complete list of Whitlock publications.

Dean, 1974 - loss on ignition [pdf]
Doher, 1980 - pollen preparation
Gedye, 2000 - magnetic susceptibility [pdf]
Schnurrenberger et al., 2003 - lithologic analysis [pdf]
Whitlock and Larson, 2001 - charcoal preparation and counting