Yoruba Pronouns and its Usages (L2)


          PRONOUNS

4.1 Vocabulary for use:

come -

eat - jẹ

know - mọ

write – kọ

read – kà

clap – patẹwọ

bring - mú….wá

to leave - fi……sílẹ

sleep - sùn

 

4.2 Pronouns are words used instead of a noun.

          E.g.   (i)      Charles comes - He comes                               

                   (ii)    Charles wa –Ó wá.

          ‘Ó’    is used instead of ‘Charles’ therefore ‘Ó’   is a pronoun.

          Note:

        ‘Ó’ is used as the pronoun for he, she and it.

 



Below are the first set of pronoun:

            Pronoun                                       Usage

(i)      I – Mo                      e.g. I sleep - Mo sùn

(ii)    You - O                    e.g. You sleep - O sùn

(iii)   He/She/It – Ó           e.g. He/She/It sleep - Ó   sùn

IV)    They – Wọn              e.g. They sleep - Wọn sùn

(v)     We – A                     e.g. We sleep - A sùn

(IV)  You (plural) -        e.g. You sleep - Ẹ sùn.

 

 

The second sets of pronoun are still on the use of I, you, he, she,it and they e.t.c. They can take another forms when:

 

i    When Laying Emphasis on Person/s.

For instance:        

                   It is I – Èmi ni

It is you - Ìwọ ni.

It is they - Àwọn ni

It is we - Àwa ni

It is she/he - Òun ni

It is you {plural} - Ẹyin ni

It is Meg – Meg ni

 

ii.     Making a Negative Statement

         It is not I - Èmi kọ.

It is not you - Ìwọ kọ.

It is not they - Àwọn kọ.        

It is not Bonnke - Bonnke kọ.      

 

iii.              When Introducing Oneself         

   E.g. I am Francis - Èmi ni Francis

           I am not Gerald - Èmi kọ ni Gerald.

                He is not Usman - Òun kọ ni Usman

              We are Chinwe and Silvia – Àwa ni Chinwe ati Silvia.

 

                                      ETC

 

In summary, these pronouns have two forms each:

I - Mo or Èmi

You - O or Ìwọ

They - Wọn or Àwọn

We - A or Àwa

He/She/It - Ò or Òun

 You [pl.] = Ẹ, or Ẹyin

 

 

BRAINWORK

1.   It is they - …………….

2.    Ìwọ kọ ni Tunde - ………………

3.    Àwa ni, ìwọ kọ - ……………………..

4.    They are Liverpool FC - ……………………

5.   We are not Chinwe and Silvia - …………………

6.   I am not Sola - ……………………….

7.   It is not Ghana - ………………..

8.   It is not Physics, it is Chemistry - ………………

9.   I am Auwa Ahmed - …………………..

 

4.2         The Third Set of Pronoun are as Follows:   

my -  mi

your - rẹ

 his/her -  

 our - wa

 their - wọn

your [all or both] - yin

         

USAGE - LÍLÒ

My book - Ìwé mi           [not mi ìwé]           

          Not my book - Ìwé mi kọ

        Your chair - Àga rẹ.

          Not your chair - Àga rẹ kọ

          His/Her chair - Àga rè

          Their house - Ilé wọn

          Our teacher - Olùkọ wa

          Not our teacher - Olùkọ wa kọ

          Your [pl.] teacher - Olùkọ yin

 

BRAINWORK

b.    olùkọ mi - ……………

c.     olùkọ mi kọ - ……………

d.    our house - ……………..

              e. orí mi - ….. head

              ẹ. ọmọ rè - her child

              f. their chair - ………………..        

              g. our book - ………………….

              h. ilé yin - …………………

              i. àga rẹ - …………………….

              j. ọmọ rè kọ - ….... her child

           

 

4.3           In forming fairly long sentences, the first set and the third set of the pronouns can be combined and used as below.

 

We know - A mọ

NOTE:

“not” =  k

“do not/does not/did not” = kò

 our = wa

 come = wá

 

 
We do not know - Awa mọ.                                                         

I see my book -   Mo rí ìwé mi

They see your chair - Wọn rí àga rẹ

He enters his house - Ó wọ ilé rè

He does not enter his house - Òun wọ ilé rè

She enters her house - O wọ ilé rè

They see their house - Wọn rí ile wọn.

We greet our teacher - A kí olùkọ wa.

We do not greet our teacher - Àwa kò kí olùkọ wa

You see your teacher - Ẹ rí olùkọ yín

You do not see your teacher - Ẹyin kò rí olùkọ yin.

        It enters our houseÓ wọ ilé wa

        It does not enter our houseÒun kò wọ ilé wa

 

 

4.4           Pronouns as Objects in Sentences:

          E.g. me, them, us, you, him, her, it, e.t.c

The sentence;

                              I saw Francis and Louis. 

Can be rewritten as:

                             I saw them

         ‘them’ is the object of the sentence ‘I saw them’

         

                            I saw them  =  Mo   wọn.

“wọn” is the object in the sentence, ‘Mo    wọn

as

“them” is the object of the sentence,  I saw them’  

 

 

 

 

All the pronouns in this category are:

                  me - mi

                  them - wọn

                           us - wa

                  you - ọ

   yin – you [plural] i.e. ‘you both’ or ‘you all’

 

        We see them  -  A    wọn.

        We do not see them  -  Àwa kò rí  wọn.

        He knows me - Ó mọ mi.

          I know you  [all] – Mo mọ yin.

                   I do not know you all  - Èmi kò mọ yin.

                   They see you - Wọn rí .

                  They do not see you - Awọn kò rí

                 

‘Fi…sílè’ and ‘Mú…wá are examples of split verbs in Yoruba

 
                  Leave me -  Fi   mi   sílẹ

                  Do not leave me -  Má fi mi sílẹ

                  Bring them - Mú wọn

                  Do not bring them - Má mú wọn

 

BRAINWORK

1. Jackson saw them – Jackson rí …………..

2. We know you [all] - A mọ …….

         3. We do not know them – Àwa kò mọ ………

         4. Tami greeted us – Tami kí ………………….

         5.  You do not know me - Ìwọ kò ………….

         6. Leave us – Fi …… sílẹ

         7. Má fi mi sílè - ………………………

         8. I do not see you -  Èmi ………………………………..

 

The object pronouns; him, her or it, are treated differently.

It has two forms namely:

                               i.             him/her/it = rè

         rè” is used for non-two letter verbs:

 

Examples of such verbs are:

                  To enjoy – gbádùn                e.g. enjoy him – gbádùn rè

                  To overcome – borí               e.g. overcome it – borí rè   

                  To love - féràn                       e.g. love her - féràn rè

                  To hate – kòrira                     e.g. hate him – kòrira rè            

                  To speak [of] – sòrò              e.g. speak [of] him - sòrò rè

                 To envy – ṣèlara                                                            ETC.

                  To pursue – lépa

                  To announce – kéde

                 

For instance:  

           Femi enjoys Indomie – Fémi gbádùn Indomie.

           Femi enjoys it – Fémi gbádùn .

         

          Stephanie hates him – Stephanie kòrira rè            

        

          We spoke of her – A sòrò rè.

          

           Vishwas loves her – Vishwas féràn rè  

Usage:

          Sandra enjoys him – Sandra gbádùn

          Jemilat overcame it - Jemilat borí

          You all love her - Ẹ   féràn  

          Akin did not speak of him – Akin kò  sòrò rè

          Don’t envy her -  Má ṣèlara

                                                                     

 ii.             him/her/it = duplicating the vowel that ends a two-letter Yoruba verb that comes before a pronoun:

 

Examples of such verbs are:

To like [want] – fẹ                          e.g. like [want] it – fẹ

To eat – jẹ                                       e.g. eat it – jẹ

To drink – mu                                 e.g. drink it – mu u

To bring – mú …… wá                   e.g. bring her – mú u

To kill – pa                                      e.g. kill him – pa a

To see – rí                                        e.g. see him – rí i

To know – mò                                 e.g. know it – mò ọ

To write – kọ                                   e.g. write it – kọ ọ

To carry – gbè                                 e.g. carry her – gbè e

To collect – gbà                               e.g. collect it – gbà a     

 

To use – lò

To do – ṣe

To sell – tà

To buy - rà

 ETC

 

 

For instance:

         

           She wants [likes] Indomie - Ò fé Indomie.

           She wants [likes] it - Ò fẹ 

           She doesn’t want [like] it – Òun kò fẹ 

 

 

             Bashir saw `Laide – Bashir rí `Laide.

             Bashir saw him - Bashir rí i.

 

             They know Sharon - Wọn mò Sharon.

             They know her Wọn mò .

              

                       Leave Bingo - Fi   Bingo  sílẹ

                        Leave it - Fi   i   sílẹ

                       Don’t leave it - Má fi i sílẹ

                             

                       Come and do it – Wá, ṣe e

        

                       Go and carry it - Lọ gbé e

 

              He brings Bingo - Ò mú Bingo wa

              He brings it - Ò mú u wa

              He does not bring it - Òun kò mú u

              

              Don’t bring it - Má mú u wa

 

               They cooked it - Wọn   ṣè e.

               They did not cook it - Àwọn ko ṣè e.

                       

                        Don’t cook it – Má ṣè e.

 

                         Look at it  -    o

                         Don’t look at it -   Má wò o

                        You did not look at it - Ìwọ kò wò o.

                         Use it -  Lò o                                              

 

          BRAINWORK

          Fill in the gaps below

1       It is you -         -----------------------------

2       My teacher  -    ----------------------------

3       -----------------------------     - Mo mò

4       Their chair -        ----------------------------

5                   His father -    -------------------------------

6                   Your teacher -     --------------------------------

7                   ---------------------------------------  - Ilé wa

8                   He sees it -  ---------------------------------

9                   Look at her -  -----------------------------------

10             Our teacher knows it -  --------------------------------------

11             Amaka enters their house - -------------------------------------

12             We greet our father -  -------------------------------------------

13             Leave us -  ---------------------------------

14             Don’t leave us - -----------------------

15             Ìwọ kò mò o - -------------------------

16             Má ṣè e - -----------------

17              Àwọn ko ṣè e - -----------------------

18             ----------------------- - Fi   wọn   sílẹ.

19             Don’t leave it -  …………………………

20             We did not see it - ………………………….

21             Mo fẹ ẹ - ……………………….

22             Don’t use him - ……………………………..

23.    Come and carry it -  ……………………………..

 

 

4.7 Remember the Third Set of Pronoun namely:                                                

 

my – mi

your  -  rẹ                     

his/her/it   

our -  wa   

their - wọn   

your - yin               

 

Hence Possessive Pronouns are:

mine – témi        

yours  -  tìrẹ       

 his/ hers/its - tirè        

 ours - tiwa         

 theirs - tiwọn

 yours {pl.} - tiyin

 

 

 

 

  Usage – Lilo:

1. It is mineTèmi ni

2. It is not mine – Tèmi kọ

3. That book is yours – Ìwé yẹn tirẹ ni

4. That book is not yours – Ìwé yẹn tirẹ kọ

5. That is yours - Tirẹ ni yẹn

6. That is his – Tirè ni yẹn

7. This is his - Tirè ni yìí

8. Ours is ours – Tiwa ni tiwa

9. Those are hers -  Tirè ni  awọn yẹn

10. These are hers – Tirè ni àwọn yìí

11. Those oranges are hers - Tirè ni awọn ọsàn yẹn

12. Those oranges are not hers - Tirè kọ ni awọn ọsàn yẹn

13. This school is yours [pl.] – Tiyín ni ilé ìwé yìí

14. Look at it, it’s ours – Wò o, tiwa ni

 

      BRAINWORK  - IṢÉ ỌPỌLỌ

1                   This book is mine - --------------------------------------

2                   It is not yours - ---------------------------------------------

3                   Those are his - ---------------------------------------------

4                   Mo      i,   tirè ni  -  I see it, -----------------------

5                   It is theirs -----------------------------------------

6                   Wò o, tiwa kọ --------------------------------------------

7                   This child is his ------------------------------------------

8                   That house is not ours ------------------------------------

9                   They saw it, it is not mine --------------------------------

10             Leave me, it is not yours ---------------------------------

11             Ọmọ wa, tiwa ni  -  Our child ----------------------------

                  12.    It is mine, use it - ………………………………….

                  13.    Temi ni yẹn - …………………………………..

                  14.    Tiwa ni, mu u wa - ………………………………

                  15.    Tirè ni ọsàn yẹn - ……………………………..

                  16.    These are his – …………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

         Asking of Questions. [Interrogative Pronouns]

These are pronouns used to ask questions or are used instead of a noun. E.g. Who, Whose, Which, What, Do/Does, How, e.t.c

 

          What - Kíni

          Who? –Tani?

            Whose? – Titani?

            Where? – Nibo?                          

           Why? - Kíni   ìdí/Nítorí   Kíni?

            When? – Nígbàwo?

            How? – Báwo?

           Do/Does/Did - Ṣé

 

Let’s now treat them deeper:

A.     When? - Nigbàwo?

          When is it?  -  Nigbàwo ni?  

          When do you sleep?  -  Nigbàwo ni o sùn?

 

B     Where? – Níbo?

         Where is it/he/she? - Níbo ni ó wà?

         Where am I - Níbo ni mo wà?

          Where are you? - Níbo ni o wà?

         Where is your book?  -  Níbo ni ìwè rẹ wà?

 

         Where are they living?  - Níbo ni wọn n gbé?

         Where are they sleeping?  - Níbo ni wọn n sùn?

 

                   

C      What?  -  Kíni?

          What is that?  -  Kíni yẹn?

          What is your name?  -  Kíni oruko rẹ?

          What do you want? – Kíni o fẹ?

          What happened? -  Kini o sẹlẹ?

 

D       Which?  -  Èwo?

          Which is ours? -  Èwo ni tiwa?

          Which does he want – Èwo ni ó fẹ?

          Which cloth? -  Aṣọ èwo?

          Which cloth do you want?  - Aṣọ èwo ni o fẹ

 

E.     How? -  Báwo

          How is it? – Báwo ni?

          How is mine? -   Báwo ni tèmi?

          How about mine? -   Báwo ni tèmi?

          How is her health? -  Báwo ni àlàáfíà rè?

                   

N.B.

‘How many’ means‘mèló ni?’    

While

 ‘how much?’   is translated as  ‘èló ni?’

         

        E.g.    How many books? -   Àwọn ìwé mèló ni?

                   How much food? -     Oúnjẹ èló ni?

                   How much is mine? -   Èló ni tèmi?

                   How many are mine? – Mèló ni tèmi?

 

F. Do/Does/Did - Ṣé

Do you know? - Ṣé o m?

Do they come? - Ṣé wọn wá?

Does he want? - Ṣé ó wá?

 

BRAINWORK – IṢÉ ỌPỌLỌ

1.    Nigbàwo ni o sùn -  _________________________

2.   Nigbàwo ni o lọ ilè ìwé - ________________

3.   Níbo ni wọn wà? - _______________

4.   Where are you going? - ___________________

5.   Kíni èyí? - ______

6.   What does he want? – Kíni ___ fẹ?

7.   Which is his? - __________tirè?

8.   Ọmọ èwo? - ____________

9.   Which food do you all want?  - Oúnjẹ èwo ni __ fẹ?

10.               How is her school?

11.               Báwo ni tiwa? - __________________

12.               How many houses – _____________

13.               Mèló ni tìrẹ? - _________________

14.               Does she know? - ________________

15.               Ṣé tèmi ni? - ________________

16.               Did you eat? - ________________

 

We can now continue with the remaining

F.             Why? - Nítorí kini?

                   N.B. 

                    ‘Why’ means ‘because of what’, hence,

                     Why? = Nítorí kíni?

                     Why is that? = Nítorí kíni èyí?

                      Why are these? = Nítorí kíni àwọn èyí?

                     Why are those?  = Nítorí kíni àwọn yẹn?

 

G.            Who? – Tani?

                Who is this – Tani èyí?

                   Who are these? – Tani àwọn èyí?

                   Who knows? – Tani ó mọ?

                   Who does not know? – Tani kò mọ

                   Who is going? – Tani ó n lọ?

 

H.            Whose? – Titani?

                Whose is it? – Titani?

                Whose is that? – Titani yẹn?

                Whose house is that? – Titani ilé yẹn?

 

BRAINWORK - IṢÉ ỌPỌLỌ                      

Fill in the gaps below:

1       Who is that? - ------------------------------

2       Who is Kemi? - -----------------------------

3       Whose book is that? - ---------------------------------

4       Where are you going? - ------------------------------------

5       ------------------------------ - Níbo ni a n lọ?

6.      Kíni wọn f? - …………………….

7.      What is my name? - ----------------------?

8.      -------------------------? - Kíni ó rí?

9.      ------------------------? -  Kíni a fẹ?

10.    Which is mine? - ---------------------------- ?

11.    ------------------------? - Báwo ni olùkọ yin?

12.    Whose house is this? -----------------------------?

13.    What is today? - -----------------------------?

14.    Where is ours? - ------------------------------?

15.    How is it, Kunle? - -----------------------?

16.    ------------------------- - Èwo ni wọn fẹ?

17.    ------------------------ - Ọmọ titani yẹn?

18.    Which orange is yours? - ----------------------------?

19.    Where is your house? - -------------------------?

20.    -------------------------? – Kíni ó rí?

21.    Níbo ni ẹ n lọ? - ...............................

22.    Where are they? - ………………………………

23.    What is his name? - ……………………………..

24.    When do you come? - ………………………

25.    Which is hers? - …………… tirè

 

 

 

 

4.7         Other forms of pronouns are these:

myself – arami

yourself – ararẹ

ourselves – arawa

himself/herself – ararè

themselves -  arawọn

yourselves -  arayín

 

Usages:

i.       I know myself – Mo mọ arami

ii.      Mind yourselves - Ẹ sọ arayin

iii.     Mind yourself - Sọ ararẹ.

iv.     They see themselves - Wọn ri arawọn.

v.      We love ourselves - A ní fẹ arawa.

vi.     He likes himself - Ó fẹràn araré.

vii.    I went by myself - Mo lọ fún arami.

 

          BRAINWORK - IṢÉ ỌPỌLỌ                      

1       You {all} know yourselves - Ẹ ------------------------------------?

2       She likes herself - ---------------------------------------------------

3       Who knows himself - -----------------------------------------------

4       We see ourselves - --------------------------------------------------

5       ---------------------------------------------- - Wọn   nífẹẹ arawọn

6       ----------------------------------------------- - Sọ ararẹ.

7       I mind myself - ------------------------------------

8       Where is theirs? - ---------------------------------?

9.      I love my school - ---------------------------------------

10.    Which book do you want? - ----------------------------?

12     ------------------------------------------ - Tani olùkọ rẹ?

13     -------------------------------------------- - Kíni orúkọ bàbá wọn?

14     --------------------------------------------------- - Àga titani yẹn?

15     Look at me - -------------------------------------

16     They go by themselves - -----------------------------------------

                  

4.8         Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjective

Demonstrative pronouns usually comprise of ‘this’, ‘these’, ‘that’ and ‘those’.

 
                  Singular                       Plural

          This – èyí           these – àwọn èyí or àwọn yìí

          That – ìyẹn         those – àwọn ìyẹn or àwọn yẹn

 

         

Therefore:

                   A child – ọmọ ọkan

                   Children -àwọn ọmọ

                   Two children - àwọn ọmọ méjì

                   Five men - àwọn ọkùnrin mẹwaa

                   Ten boys - àwọn ọmọkùnrin mẹwaa

                   Three girls – àwọn ọmọbìnrin mẹta.   e.t.c.

 

Lets go back to the demonstrative pronoun/instances:

Singular                                Plural

         see this - wò èyí.                              see these - Wò àwọn èyí.

         eat that -  jẹ  ìyẹn.                            eat those - Jẹ àwọn ìyẹn.

         see this woman - wò obìnrin èyí.   see these women -  Wò àwọn obìnrin èyí.

 

                  

 

BRAINWORK - IṢÉ ỌPỌLỌ                      

1.    olùkọ ọkan - _______________

2.    Two legs - __________________

3.    Ten heads - _________________

4.    Four people - _______________

5.    Àwọn ilé yẹn - _______________

6.    See these children - ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­___________

7.     I yẹn tiwa ni - _______________

8.    Whose book is that? - ____________

9.    I like those bananas - _______________

10.     _____________ -  A mọ àwọn ọkùnrin màrùn yẹn.

11.     They love these schools - ______________________

12.     These five men know those ten boys - ________________

13.     What is this? - ___________________________________

14.     He wants that girl - _____________________________

15.     Who is that child? - ___________________________

16.     These are ours - ________________________________

17.     This is ours - ___________________________________

18.     How is your child? - _____________________________

19.     How________________ -  Mèlòó ni àwọn ọsàn yẹn?

20.     Which is theirs? - ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­___________________

21.     Know yourself - _____________________

 

 

 

 

Comments