Datasets / Solution Concepts

Solution concepts I created:

The Strongly Stable Core. For greater detail, see  HeeMin Kim.1995. "The Strongly Stable Core in Weighted Voting Games." Public Choice 84:77-90 

Data sets I created (with Richard c. Fording)

Over the years, Richard Fording (University of Alabama) and I created several measures of ideology based on the Comparative Manifestos Project data.*  They include:

 [1] The Kim-Fording Measure of Party Ideology                                                                                      [2] The Kim-Fording Measure of Voter Ideology                                                                                                 [3]  The Kim-Fording Measure of Parliament Ideology I  (A Weighted-Mean Version).                          [4]  The Kim-Fording Measure of Parliament Ideology II (A Median Version).                                        [5]  The Kim-Fording Measure of Government Ideology.                                                                       [6]  The Kim-Fording Measure of Democratic Performance (Congruence).

Here the data are available for 25 Western democracies for 1945-2013.

  Actual Data (in STATA format)**                                                                                                       Codebook (pdf file)

If you use [1] or [2] above, cite HeeMin Kim and Richard C. Fording. 1998. "Voter Ideology in Western Democracies, 1946-1989." European Journal of Political Research 33:73-97 and HeeMin Kim and Richard C. Fording. 2003. "Voter Ideology in Western Democracies: An Update." European Journal of Political Research 42:95-105. A similar measure based on slightly different formula is available in a CD that came with Ian Budge, et al. Mapping Policy Preferences: Parties, Electors, and Governments, 1945-1998. Oxford University Press, 2001.

If you use [5] above, cite HeeMin Kim and Richard C. Fording. 2002. "Government Partisanship in Western Democracies, 1945-1998." European Journal of Political Research 41:165-184.

If you use [4] or [6] above, please cite Kim, HeeMin, G. Bingham Powell, Jr., and Richard C. Fording. 2010. "Electoral Systems, Party Systems, and Ideological Representation: An Analysis of Distortion in Western Democracies" Comparative Politics 42:167-185  (

You may also want to cite HeeMin Kim and Richard C. Fording. "
Party Manifesto Data and  Measures of Ideology in Western Democracies." Florida State University and University of Alabama. This unpublished manuscript contains details about how we constructed all our ideology measures.   

*The Kim-Fording Measures of Parliament Ideology, Government Ideology, and Democratic Performance are based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-0237820.  Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).                                                                **Jong-Heum Chung and Duri Song helped with the updating of these data.

  • Data sets I created (with Marius Radean):

    The Measures of the Median Voter Ideology, the Median Constituency Ideology (the supporters of the current government), the Government Ideology based on Citizen Survey, the Government Ideology based on Expert Survey, and Congruence/Distortion Measures (the distance between any pair above).  They are based on the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) Data and Created with Marius Radean, a Lecturer at the University of Essex.  We will continue to update these data as the CSES becomes updated.

    Data in Excel Format
    Data in Stata Format