GRAVITY WAVE, discovery of gravitational waves

https://sites.google.com/site/ondegravitazionali/

Strengths of the reserch:
       
                             

The theory of gravitational waves is now fully demonstrated and well-establish. The following study, which was published first in February 1989, demonstrates the direct relation between gravitational waves and their speed. The theory was confirmed (although in an indirect way) also by the study of a binary star carried out in 1974 by Russel, Hulse and Joseph Taylor, Nobel prize winners in 1993. They watched and studied a neutron star made up of two parts which were going to merge according to the increase in their angular velocity; that was the so-called Pulsar PSRB1913+16 and its obscure rotating component which goes round for an eight-hour period.

Even the double Pulsar PSR J0737-3039 gave relativistic confirmation on this topic: it is made up of two very small neutron stars, whose diameter is about some kilometres long, which are however very dense, pulsating and orbiting one round the other in 2.4 hours. It was discovered in 2003 by an international team and was considered extremely interesting since it confirmed the gravitational “redshift” and the orbit decay, which is supposed to make the two stars merge in about 85 million years.

Seriously undermines the theory of relativity by Albert Einstein on the recent discovery of neutrino luminal;although possessing mass these particles were even faster at the beginning of the light. Relativity, this study indicated more than twenty years as outdated and inconsistent in some respects, it is violated twice. The first is that objects exist materials capable of traveling at the same speed of c. The second matter is that while traveling at the same speed of the photon is not liable under the assumption that its relativistic mass becomes unmanageable.The observation since 1998 of some distant supernovae in constant acceleration had raised the issue of Big Strip, or to place a limit on the speed of the expansion of the Universe without any possibility of observing distant celestial bodies and the possible violation of limit the speed of light as provided by the special relativity. The constant of Einstein so removed for manifest error was returned in part to curb speeding the expansion of the cosmos.In fact, Einstein never accepted quantum mechanics and initially even the idea of ​​an ever expanding universe and therefore inserted in its formulas to make an arbitrary constant static. But when the overwhelming evidence he turned himself admitted the error. In June of 2012 have been presented in Japan, the conclusive data of four experiments on the speed of neutrinos: the results reveals the infn, derived from the measurement of so-called "flight time" that is the time that neutrinos takes to travel the 730 km away from CERN and Gran Sasso. These results show that neutrinos travel at the speed of light. Beyond these results, however, nothing prevents us to assume that the distant galaxies of our universe are traveling at a speed greater than that of light and that many neutrinos escape even now to the possible analysis of their presence. In fact the only result of having a massive particle, like the neutrino, which travels at the speed c drops the pillar of Relativity, which provides for an increase to the infinite mass and the inability to reach such a speed as we approach this to it.The Royal Swedish Academy of Science 4 October 2011 it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2012 by the American Saul Perlmutter, Adam Riess and Brian Schmidt for discovering the accelerated expansion of the universe through observation of the explosion of distant stars . Thus demonstrating that the universe expands faster and at an accelerating rate of discovery in the presence of neutrino mass suggested by Bruno Pontecorvo was confirmed both in Italy, always in the underground laboratory at Gran Sasso since 2006, as well in Japan, in 2000, where there is a detector of neutrinos largest in the world, the SuperKamiokande. In June of 2012 in Kyoto scientists Opera have announced that they observed a second neutrino "changed" after tau that observed in 2010.The sure proof of the existence of a mass for neutrinos is the discovery that they remain stable in the three types exist in nature, tau neutrinos (the less rilavabili), electronic and muon, but that during their lives oscillate between one type and the other. In quantum mechanical oscillation is demonstrative of the presence of mass. The presence of mass in the neutrinos has virtually dropped one of the pillars of relativity, that of the mass to travel at the speed of light.By the presence of matter in these elusive subatomic particles born a scientific speculation of some interest. Neutrinos could be just the candidate to become our expansive universe to imploding. The Big Crunch or implosion might be actually caused by the contribution of neutrino mass far wrong to just wave from one point of view, although we must remember that their mass is very elusive. So the famous missing mass in the neutrinos could be located precisely. The problem, as often happens in physics, is a dual meaning: on one hand contribute to the neutrino mass is missing but the other lumen being in certain conditions may escape the same gravity. Unless they themselves may be involved more directly in the determination of the force of gravity. And here is a scenario would open again unexpectedly.Another consideration is that neutrinos show luminal going across the field and behave as if the mass of the planets or stars did not exist, a behavior that recalls the force of gravity.

 Is put into question the well-known formula poincariana

E=MC2
endorsed by Einstein erroneously attributed to him and now can not indicate the speed of light as a constant. If we add that the principle of equivalence is not fully shown and that gravity does not vanish completely in the free-falling bodies and that constant acceleration is not even on the bodies of different masses in free fall, we can conclude that there is very little the much ballyhooed Einstein relativity.
They end up that way, although sadly, all the assumptions of the time grew shorter and dilated in relation to the speed as well as upset by all that space is curved by the presence of masses and the time varies depending on the severity. Become a thing of the scientific-philosophical speculations about the time of the twins, the first aged and remained static because the earth, but for what it was traveling at speeds close to light once flowed slowly, as if to give the gift of youth.
All things, however, already known by scientists as Liebiniz emeritus, Tesla and Mach and others, and for years to be replicated this study on gravitational waves now, freed from the idea that gravity could be a mysterious force capable of bending space, even more shows that gravitational waves exist, and are both ellettromagnetica. So ends the era of intelligent and dynamic space-time staff related to speed and different from others.
The announcement of the discovery of superluminal neutrinos is given by prof. Antonino Zichichi, emeritus President of the European physicists and promoter of the Gran Sasso Laboratory, in September 2011 on experiments carried out between CERN and Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy and has been officially confirmed by Antonio who leads the group of inherited international scientists, three years engaged in the continuous monitoring of the experiment. The discovery has been verified many times to be announced later. The current scientific event following on from a few years ago when it was found in the presence of a neutrino mass. This arose from the fact that a neutrino mutant - is passed from swinging to the muon tau always in the laboratories of CERN. At the time the Italian physicist Bruno Pontecorvo, the group of boys in via Panisperna Enrico Fermi in Rome, had speculated in the middle of last century, the possibility of transformation of neutrinos and the standard model, neutrinos have no mass. The standard model is therefore to reconsider.
If there are further confirmation of this discovery become historical support the explosion of Supernova 1987 ° that was observed in visible light on Earth February 23, 1987, the photons had taken 160,000 years to reach us from the Large Magellanic Cloud. In examining the records, it was noted that a pulse of neutrinos was received on Earth before the light of the supernova. The particles were identified as neutrinos emitted by the dying star at the time of the collapse of its core, about three hours before the energy released by the collapse itself sweep away the outer layers of the star by releasing the intense brightness of visible light. The neutrinos would not be the first party so as we have assumed so far, but they trail the space with a higher speed of photons, or particles such as these are in some respects enrgetici gravitational waves, and therefore able to penetrate deep into matter, having traveled a straight trajectory to that of photons and then finish first. But the experiment at CERN Gran Sasso called Opera and a huge detector that uses 4 000 tons shows that even if neutrinos are a little faster. We must clear the field by all the fanciful imaginations that lead to the hypothesis that one can now reverse the causality of events. Simply see the first neutrinos with what had happened at the same time. A bit like when we see a supersonic plane and then darting his death heard the roar of its engines.The experiment at CERN neutrinos, which has exceeded the speed of luuce, was tried last year at Fermilab in Chicago and even then were detected deviations from the theory of relativity '. But, unlike the Opera program, were interpreted as part of a normal margin of error. Probably will touch 'at Fermilab in Chicago to make further measurements of the Gran Sasso experiment: "If this proves correct, said Jenny Thomas, a professor of American laboratory," it would be of enormous impact and would change everything' we know about relativity 'and speed 'of light. "

Key points of the research:

Gravitational waves and their actual speed can be demonstrated through both the failed phase displacement of the Sun and the Moon and through the Olaus Roemer’s astronomic method about the speed of light (according to G. D. Cassini’s calculations).

Newton stated in his principles that when the Sun (or the Moon or even both) is at the Zenith (or the opposite meridian) there is the maximum attraction. Actually the exact Siziege alignment takes place 8.5 minutes before the conjunction we can see; this is the time the Sun light takes to reach our eyes. We can see the Moon where and as it was almost one second before and we can see the Sun where it was 8.5 minutes before. This is because in astronomy we can see in the present the past of the celestial bodies. In other words, if Newton was right by stating that gravity is instantaneous, the tides influenced by the Sun would be anticipated than those influenced by the Moon.

If the Sun disappeared, we would be able to see it for further 8.5 minutes in the sky. Anyway Siziege tides (as demonstrated by Bernoulli, Laurin, Eulero, La Place, Proudman and Newton of course) take place exactly at the moment of the visible (but not actual) alignment of the star. Therefore the speed of gravity is the same of the light.

 

The work band of gravitational waves Earth-Sun-Moon is in accordance with the Tesla-Schumann electromagnetic waves (7Hz) and this is related to the transduction of resonant antennas on the Earth. This frequency band, from 1 Hz to 10 Hz, is currently subject of a European university study, which is financed by the European Union (starting from October 2008) within the so-called FP7 programme and is relevant to a preliminary study of the Einstein Telescope (ET).

 

The perihelion feed of planets is hereafter defined and explained according to the Doppler effect.

 

The natural motion of bodies subject to the force of inertia (which makes things move uniformly in absence of any impulse) is only theoretical. The natural motion of bodies is actually influenced by the force lines or by the geodesics of the gravity field of the Universe.

 

According to the Newton’s law of gravity, all bodies are attracted towards their shared centre of mass. If we make a pebble and a stone fall on Earth, they will fall at the same speed and will touch the ground at the same time just because their shared centre of mass does not change position (if not in an infinitesimal way); on the contrary if we imagine to make a stone and a heavier planet fall, it will be the Earth to rise towards the planet itself!

Therefore the gravity field does not exert the same acceleration on all bodies as Galileo Galilei and previously Filopono stated; Galilei’s and Filopono’s empirical results are referred to static bodies, which are unable to modify (if not slightly) the centre of mass of the Earth. Moreover the acceleration of Earth’s gravity changes according to the latitude, the height and below masses; acceleration is variable because even its field of force is variable.

The differential gravitational attraction relevant to the comets under the Roche limit and the subsequent detachment of masses explains the following statement: a body in free fall can be sometimes destroyed when it passes through such limit and some fragments fall before others (the same happened to some comets). This is also one of the aims of the European satellite GOCE (a sophisticated equipment built with the co-operation of 45 European companies) sent into orbit last 17 March 2009.

The mission aims at the achievement of a very precise mapping of the Earth’s gravity, since on our planet the gravity field is variable not only for its geodic shape but even for its different composition. Earth’s gravity above the oceans is slightly different to that above continents as the density of water is unitary in comparison with the three times as much value of the rocks. If the Earth was a regular sphere and made of homogeneous stratification, the weight of a given body would be the same anywhere on the land surface. Actually it is not like that.

By moving on a parallel, our weight slightly changes according to the position above the sea level, according to any cave or underground basin we might have under our feet and finally according even to our position either on the dry land or on oceans and so on (A.S.I. Agenzia Spaziale Italiana).


- The formula of gravity can be expressed also by adding the speed of light (c) and the speed variation (± Δ) of bodies so that it yields

F =  Mm/d2▪(c ± Δv) / c

This means that everything remains unchanged as regards motionless bodies, while as regards the bodies moving towards each other or moving away from each other there are gravity variations in accordance with the Doppler effect.

R. Mallett pointed out, in the 80's, which in classical mechanics of Newton is only matter generating the gravitational field, so the theory of general relativity and for symmetry, it follows that even light can be considered a source of gravity. E ' This, however, a relativistic concept that Einstein himself had stated in General Relativity when he asserted that the subject should include: "also the electromagnetic field. The gravitational field of a ray of light was studied years ago by R. Tolman, a contemporary of Einstein. Tolman was that in 1912 coined the concept of relativistic mass by writing that "the expression

M0 (1 - v2/c2) - 1 / 2

is best suited for the mass of a body in motion. "Determine also the 'acceleration of a particle stationary in the vicinity of the light beam and found that the acceleration of the particle appeared to be two times larger than assumed by the law of Newton for the gravitational field of a rod of similar length and compact density. This seems to indicate that light was more effective in generating a field of matter or the gravitational Newton's gravitational formula would be reviewed. But in context with the formula of calculating Newton's gravitational and considering the gravity of what is being and that is an energy wave, the solution is revealed and it agrees with the result of the formula

F = Mm/d2 •  (c ± Δv) / c

A particle that travels at the speed of light towards a mass doubles the frequency and strength of gravity, in fact (c + c) / c is 2. Instead luminal particle moving away from a body at the speed c becomes insensitive to the gravity of this because this energy is not achieved by    (c-c) / c  becomes zero.

 

Therefore it is impossible to overcome gravity on bodies completely (drift forces of bodies in free fall) and the equivalence principles (both strong and weak) are also limited.

 

The energy and the electromagnetism of gravitational waves can be demonstrated by the capacity of the bodies to influence photons (see the so-called lens effect, Red Shift and Shapiro) through the gravitational field.

The analogy between the electrical and the gravitational fields is very strong and the relevant formulas are almost identical, infact Newton’s law
F = G * M.m / d2

is changed into

F = K* Qq/d2

in the electrical field where there is an attraction or repulsion force among charged particles.

Moreover if a body in a gravitational field has got a potential energy, a charge in an electrical field has got a potential energy as well; the difference between the potential energies of these bodies or charges into different positions in the space corresponds to the work exerted by the force of the field (either electric or gravitational) on the displacement between the positions. In other words, from the mathematical point of view, both the electric and the gravitational fields are, although conservative, very similar and often identical. This means that the energetic characteristics correspond to each other and therefore gravity is an electromagnetic wave. Even Gauss’s flux theorem is essential for both gravity and electromagnetism.

The principle of the superposition of the electric field is also applicable to the gravitational field.

Since the gravity force is weaker and fading as regards the neutrinos, it travels in free space on a straight line even if there is the presence of other masses; according to the Fermat’s principle it traverses the shortest path in the least time. In other words there could be a lack of assonance and coherence among photons and gravitons in astronomical distance.

Therefore the lens effect demonstrates that we can feel first the gravity physically and then we can see it.

 

The centre of the universe will be identified.

 

The Italian Ministry of Education has recently stated that “the current study and research on gravitational waves carried out by the Italian University and the Ministry itself are proof of the skilful and competent Italian school laboratories” (letter no. 3016 dated 23/02/09).

 

Prospects:

Mass media could be highly influenced by a possible modulation and control of gravitational waves in the future. Most of satellites, broadcasting bridges and telephone systems could be dismantled.

Gravitational waves cannot be interfered by any obstacle and can pass through whole heavenly bodies with no damage at all. Moreover the polarization and the spin of such waves show how the universe could have been at dawn.






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 GRAVITY WAVES
 
 
The Relativity bases its foundation on three considerations axiomatic:
- The constancy of the speed of light in a vacuum;
- The inability to overcome this speed;
- The denial of any instantaneous interaction.
It follows that any event can not happen or occur instantaneously, but only with an increasing speed.
When Maxwell studied the electric charges and their scope, their influence resulted from a mathematician and attached to the phenomenon magnetism covering the fields of power generation, thus forming a summary of the laws of Gauss and Faraday; until the twentieth century all studies on electrical and magnetic phenomena referred to the laws of Coulomb, Ampere and Faraday-Neumann. J. C. Maxwell (1831-1879) managed to condense in a few equations (four) all electromagnetic phenomena (including optical). The interactions between the electric charges and magnetic poles, light, and radiation became so different manifestations of a single entity energetic. And the first major unification of forces. Maxwell noticed two asymmetries between electric and magnetic fields E→ and B →. The first, on the one hand, the presence of Q in the law office of Gauss for the electric field and the absence of a similar charge in the law of Gauss for the magnetic field, the other in the presence of electricity in the law of Ampère el 'Absence of a current "magnet" in the law of Faraday-Neumann. This asymmetry is explained by the fact that were not detected isolated magnetic poles. While we can release positive and negative charges and have them run independently, the same can not be done with magnetism.It can reduce to an infinitesimal level magnet and will always two poles. The same electron, the elementary particle of electricity, in its kinetic always produces a magnetic  bipolar
field. There is also another important asymmetry between the two camps. In the law of Ampère was missing a term similar to that which is the second member of the Law of Faraday-Neumann, a term that is proportional to the speed with which changes the flow of electric field:
Λф (→ E) / Λ
t

Then starting from considerations of symmetry, Maxwell adds that "missing time" that allowed to resolve some theoretical concerns. If the law of Ampère add a term proportional to the speed with which changes the electrical field, namely
Km/2Ke
Λф * (A →) / Λ
t

this' ambiguity disappears. A variable magnetic field generates an electric field variable (Law Faraday-Neumann) and a variable electric field generates a magnetic field variable (term added by Maxwell). We face to electromagnetism and the magnetic induction phenomenon, almost a perfect example of symmetry corresponding.
 

Like the electric field, the magnetic field can be represented by its general thrust, from the Lorentz force can be traced back to the measurement of the carrier B. We consider the fourth Maxwell equation. In the case of a particle that oscillates in a vacuum (i = 0) it will become

F (→ B) = Km/2Ke
Λф * (A →) / Λ
t

The equation can be written in a form equivalent
F (→ B) =
ε0 μ0 Λф (→ E) / Λ
t

where
μ0 is called "permeability magnetic devoid of a 4π10 value-7 m T / A and ε0 is called" dielectric constant absolute vacuum "equal to 8.85 * 10-12C2/Nm2. Calculating the size of the product ε0 μ
0 you get to the end that equals
V


The ratio 1 / √
ε0 μ
0 equivalent to √ 2Ke / Km then the size of a speed numerically equal to 2.997925 * 108 m / s. Since this coincides with the speed of light in a vacuum, Maxwell made the assumption that the light was made up of electromagnetic waves. The facts will then right. Faraday had shown that the photon suffers the influence of the electromagnetism(Diamagnetism), is what today is called "Faraday effect": the floor of a beam of linearly polarized light that spreads through half the material can be diverted through 'application of an external magnetic field aligned to the direction of propagation, thus demonstrating that light and the electromagnetic field are of the same nature. At many had determined the exact speed of light in a vacuum and Michelson and Morley with their famous experiment showed that the speed of the photon is not affected either by the movement of the source and even that of receiver. Per explain what the proposed Lorentz contraction of space and matter at high speed and mathematical speculation as he introduced the concept of local weather, so the time was not always fixed and the same. From these conditions left Einstein.
The maximum speed in the universe is the light fixed in a vacuum in 300.000 Km / sec.

The Relativity is the sum of a series of considerations about some facts from which we infer other concepts consequential, it was an attempt (unfortunately not made) to standardize species with General Relativity, also called theory of gravitation, all physics.
In Einstein's General Relativity departed from the fundamental experiences of Faraday, Maxwell, Lorentz and Poincaré, the mathematician who in 1900 wrote in his article that the mass is equal to the ratio between energy and the square of the velocity of light. Also  Olindo De Pretto had reached the same conclusion and stated in his written of 1903, the famous formula E = MC2 then had its way. Einstein tried to unify so the Physics through the Gravity. Newton, the precursor brilliant,
set in law the product of the masses and the ratio of the square of the distance 's attraction of bodies. This formula is not the time. Newton will pose the problem (in the third letter to Bentley) and for him it was difficult to conceive an instantaneous action at a distance, but his comments are not the tram in formulas. Einstein on the assumption that poincarian  matter is energy and vice versa, says that the severity, being a force, must necessarily possess energy. And this force, creating a field, must obey the laws of Maxwell. In practice the other gravity can not be that electromagnetic wave traveling at 300.000 km / sec.
On all bodies interfere with them and create an attraction that limits cases - says Einstein - coincides exactly with the formula dictated by Newton. Einstein predicts so (even if not explicitly) the Graviton, undulatory element in space that moves from one field to another at the speed of light. 

According to the Classical mechanics so if the sun if  disappear
instantly, the land will suffer catastrophic consequences immediately. According to the Relativity instead the land will "realize" the disappearance just after 8 minutes, time that the gravitational waves from the sun come to our planet. The dispute, sometimes philosophical, but has a scientific basis: on the one hand the classical physics and the other modern. Since Einstein predicted, in 1916 the waves of gravity physicists and astrophysicists in particular, have tried in all ways that they can intercept but without concrete results. The first difficulty - they say - is mainly due to the low energy of these waves. This also enables the body to maintain its mass for billions of years without consumed in gravitational energy.
Weber was the first to actually groped detect these waves through a large cylinder of aluminum that was to vibrate every time a particular cosmic event - the explosion of a supernova, for example - produce waves of matter. The results were not very bright. Since then the "tracers" of Graviton have multiplied but the results are slow to arrive. Weber noted in particular that two of its resonant places the cylinder to a distance of 1,000 km on the other, on average once a day came into vibration simultaneously for at least a minute. But that was not enough.
Physicists rightly bind the gravitational tidal wave, after all these other natural phenomena that are not proof of the strength of gravity of the moon and sun. Each time that the sun or the moon, or all, and two celestial bodies, pass on the meridian of a place produces a tide. Lo same phenomenon occurs in the opposite point of the Earth where the attraction decreases for increasing the distance and the prevailing strength centrifuge. This deceive the same Galilei convinced that all the tides were caused by the force of "shaking of the Earth" that is the thrust of centrifugal rotation .E here can open a brief parenthesis that relates to this force, because we perceive to Likewise is the force of gravity than that in Centrifuge both orbital stations for 1 "g" is rotated in space, at a certain speed station same. Is another strange force mass. E' the Relativistic principle of equivalence, Einstein noted that it was not in any way possible to differentiate between acceleration and the force of gravity. The force of gravity can be simulated which is cleared to compete in a reference accelerated, although it should be clear that you can not erase the gravitational interactions between objects that is present and forces tide. Moreover   the year is only theoretical because when practical universal gravity is not totally erase. The gravity well lose its autonomous nature and would cease to be a force becoming a real geometric properties of space-time. The acceleration of gravity is therefore a pure geometric effect and the trajectories along which the bodies are falling geodetic dictated by the curvature of space four dimension (General Relativity and G. Controls, Thesis). In a satellite orbiting around the earth centrifugal acceleration cancels the gravity locally, it is in free fall, we return to the classic lift Einstein in downhill and isolated, was losing the sense of seriousness to occupants. In the  reality are used in air free fall over short stretches to get the absence of gravity and make the coach astronautics. Also if the principle is not entirely correct, for the reasons stated above, in practice and in the macro experiments it works, rather like the principle of ' acceleration due to gravity (g) Galilei by intuition that all bodies are attracted by earth with the same acceleration. In reality, and applying the classic formula of Newton,
F = G.(m.M)/r2
 

 
all bodies "fall" to their common center of mass, in relation to the individual amounts of matter divided of the square distains. In conclusion if I leave a falling stone and a boulder toward the Earth these come with the same speed and at the same time to Earth (Simply because they do not actually moving the center of mass of the Earth). Instead I had to drop a stone and a planet would be the ground, which attracted more towards the mass, it would raise. It was Henry Cavendish, who first measured the force of gravity between different masses in the laboratory and the first to give a precise value on the constant of gravitation Universal G, suggested earlier experiment by John Michell and then more accurately by starting Eötvös Loránd since 1895 (this value, as A. Rivetti, is also under test on groped to remove some uncertainties emerging). The experiment was designed to measure the weak gravitational attraction between two small metal balls and two large raised directly in front through a a torsion balance. The gravitational attraction between protons in the nucleus is about 10 raised to 36 times less power weakest of repulsion coulombiana but while the strong nuclear interaction has a short range, the gravitational force acting on cosmic. We know  distance that you can measure the density of a mountain from a weak approach to plumb the vertical because terrestrial gravitational waves exist in the presence of masses irrespective of the dynamism of such reality shows us, moreover atomic vibrations from the shifts, the masses have always kinetic energy . "The type of swings needed for gravitational waves is to generate variations of what is defined mathematically four poles  time to serve or not technically swings that change the shape of the object. The four poles  four poles  (which measure the shape of an object) is usually much smaller than the dipole (which for a charged particle implies his swing). This, together with weak gravitational interaction compared to that electromagnetic says the difficulty of observing with the media laboratory gravitational waves "(S. Freed .).
 The tide phenomenon, although designed for a very long time - from Posidonio, Dondi up to Kepler and Newton - is quite complex. Not just for the heterogeneity of the earth, the water is affected more the tide unlike the mainland, but also for the difference in depths. Also in the phenomenon of the tides come as key components, the distance of the moon and the sun is not constant for elliptical orbits, the tilt and rotation of the earth, the plans of rotation (ecliptic). Just remember that the moon has something - exemplified by the boards of E. Brown - as of 1475 disturbances. Nevertheless, the tide phenomenon is quite known. So much so that one can predict the tide per minute in a given place. The tide may be regarded as so extended period is 12h and 25m and wavelength of around one half circle  land. The change of tide level over time can be considered as a swinging phenomenon resulting from the interaction of a large number of periodicals simple terms (Tides Partial), each with periods, amplitudes and phases constant. The harmonic representation of the evolution of tidal level is the sum of many sine waves of simple type
 
       h = a cos (A. t + B)

in which "A", the tidal pulse depends on the conditions considered astronomical and therefore is constant over time for each location, while "a" and "B", respectively amplitude and phase, representing the harmonic constant, unpredictable astronomical , Which vary from place to place and deductible only from the long series of observations. Note the constant harmonics is possible to predict (forecast harmonic tidal) development tide over time for every place. The most obvious tides occur when the Sun and the Moon are aligned to the earth, in which case the gravitational waves of the two stars are added and the water rises significantly (Sizigie). The sun will participate in the minus tides of the moon while having a significantly greater mass, but in this case is determining the distance to the Moon more than twice as effective.


 


The question now is whether it is true that during the exact conjunction visual Earth - Moon - Moon or the Sun - Earth - the Sun - or simply when only the Sun and Moon are only passing on the meridian of the place - it has the effect of greater attraction. From all the studies and the official calculations Capitaneria office of naval what is considered an axiom, because the passage visual dell'astro meridian is calculated on time delivery to meet the wave of the incoming tide; Newton in his " Principles "says that when the Sun is at Zenit is the greatest attraction. So it follows that since the alignment optical effect only occasionally when we see the Sun and Moon aligned indeed our star has already come more than a diameter of space (Moon and Sun apparently have the same sizes in the sky) then we are facing a undulatory. In fact, the exact alignment is done real time 8 minutes and a half before joining visible to our eyes. If the sun sparisse fact, we shall see even 8 minutes and a half in the sky. But the tides sizigiali as the formulas emeriti scholars in the field (Bernoulli, Laurin, Euler, La Place, Proudman and obviously Newton), occur exactly at the time of (there is in fact a delay due to inaction rotation, all'attrito water with the bottom and coastal morphology, the high tide does not always occur at the exact moment when the Moon or the Sun transiting the meridian of the place, but at present it can be a lag ; This delay, which is constant for each locality and varies from place to place, you can extrapolate and take the name of hours of port). This shows that the strength of gravity of the Sun is not instantaneous, but as light travels at 300.000 km / sec.  And then by careful study of tides that we can now decide if that Newton or Einstein, or even if Gravity is a particular type of energy. If carefully controlling the timing of high and low tide perhaps through telemetric satellite systems (a gravity to interference fringes should be sufficient) will notice that sizigie happen before we join the fastest waves of light (except by Relativity) and if As is clear from studies (theory Static and Dynamic) tides and lives in particular, occur at the time of passage or the meridian of the place, this means that there Graviton and travels as electromagnetic wave. Moreover all proceedings arising from analysis of the well-known principle of minimum square. Newton had demonstrated that the gravitational pull of the two bodies is directed along the straight line joining them. But the reality we confirm that there is no lag between the lunar tides and solar during the quadrature or steps intermediates. These occur when the star passes over the meridian of the place or its opposite, in fact, the Moon is so close to the ground that its light takes just over a second, so it can be considered "in contact". The solar tides should instead lag time (we see him with more than 8 minutes late on its real position), but this does not occur - the highest tide is formed visual of the astral the exact passage on the meridian - and then Gravity is a force crews to 300.000 Km / sec. as light.


The force of gravity acting in the infinite distance and, as it is for the electromagnetic field, the intensity gravitational interaction decreases with increasing distance between the bodies interacting with a law of inverse square of the same distance. Also Newton it was noticed - The eighth from his studies - that the field of a light source decreased with the inverse square of distance. The a torsion balance of Cavendisch, for measuring the gravitational force, has the equivalent of torsion balance Coulomb for the electrostatic field.
Are strong indications of correlation between photon and therefore Graviton: relativistic same speed, same infinite field of action, that no mass at rest and the same life almost infinity. But while the photon is born especially dall'interscambio leptons - except the process of annihilation and Nuclear transition - the Graviton is apparent from the exchange of baryons atomic nucleus where it concentrates more than 99.9 percent of the mass and proportion to the mass, are mediated more gravitoni.Einstein in his Relativity, he made an explicit distinction between matter and gravitational field Including in the field but also the electromagnetic field: He wanted Gravity more than a force field, a particular ability to modify the mass space and time around (and lens effects Lense-Thirring), a kind of intrinsic feature the reality of space and time. Even if not explicitly, he predicts a mediator of forces then called Graviton and that would be a vector boson gouge.Tale mediator being able to influence the photon (gravitational lens effect) shows the possible connaturality two field forze.Il electromagnetic and gravitational field are therefore linked by an interchange relational energy of those who lead us close to both sought unification of fundamental forces of natura.La Gravity, or rather its area of strength, not bending space as even influnzerebbe time ( spaziotempo), but simply interferes indirectly with the two parameters and influence, under the connaturality of Graviton to be a wave of electromagnetic nature, is capable of changing the direction of fotone.Così as Faraday said that the polarized light undergoing l ' influence of magnetism was of the same nature and Maxwell for the correlation rates in various fields of radiation that they were of the same state, we can say the same for gravitational waves that agree in speed, scope and existence with the light .
Mach and Tesla have always been very skeptical about relativistic interpretations of Relativity; rest of the Einstein initially favorable, never accept the Quantum Mechanics. From a scientific summary literary gravifotone can define the mediator of the force of gravity. (this theory demonstration - in short - was presented to RAI UNO Morning in October 1991 and the first in 1989, the daily newspaper "La Tribuna di Treviso", a Radio Conegliano discussed and written about a publication in 1990 entitled " Issues of science and delivered to the Nobel Prize Carlo Rubbia, in October 2008 in Science and Space "Il Corriere della Sera" web.
The binary systems, namely the double stars that orbit a sull'a1tra (white dwarf), are a kind of gravitational source that many laboratories of physics keep under control, but their enormous distance ago, the law of the inverse square , And the intensity is weak for a type of energy that is weak for its natura.Nel 1922 A. Eddington, an interest in gravitational waves hypothesized by Einstein, calculated the radiant power of a rotating shaft at full speed compatible with the yield strength of the resulting material and energy was equal to that calculated for un'atomo hydrogen. This led to the conclusion to exclude the possibility of observing the emission of gravitational waves from any detector. Calculated the gravitational energy produced by a double star and found that the energy was still under any limit Observability. We might wait an exceptional occurrence, type supernova, to hope to be able to intercept some signal.But this an experiment observing a rare fact become difficult replicated in the laboratory that would not, in a sense, the beginning repetitive demonstration of the brain and In any case, here the probability of intercept a supernova are very tiny. Not just for the huge distance, but also because in an explosion at a stellar mass that is approaching it is one that moves away (an explosion is usually a matter of overall dimensions) and the center of gravity remains almost stationary .
There is always the risk that any signals are removed from the gravitational power on Earth, from micro movies telluric and external vibrations from atomic and molecular interiors of antenna itself.
The gravitational waves in fact lead changes in density (and therefore vibration) on everything. For this reason it is extremely difficult to capture and groped produce gravitational waves on Earth because the principle of equivalence, according to Bergmann, would be able to use any tool that itself becomes an active part in your less than careful extrapolations and sophisticated precautions as in the draft Virgo using reflected laser beams to detect interference and technology the over  high vacuum. The project currently operating within the Virgo Ego laboratory (European Gravitational Observatory), specially constituted dall'Infn and the CNRS. 'The difficulty of capturing the waves hypothesized by Einstein demonstrates that we still need to understand much about the strength of gravity, although it has attracted the attention of man from time immemorial, since among all the forces is one that shows the effects more evident in daily life, he says - rightly - F. Menzinger, head of Ego.
LISA then that there is a space experiment - designed by ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States), in search of gravitational waves - and provides for the launch, probably in 2010, three satellites designed to rotate around the Sun. Thanks to the accurate calculation of orbits, the three satellites remain for years training with a equilateral triangle of 5 million square kilometers that form an interferometer. The range of frequencies for the detection of the detector extends from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz. The high sensitivity is this - the designers say - that reveal a great deal of gravitational signals from several different sources (binary star systems, Pulsars, blacks holes, ...). LISA should be operational within ten years and certainly - say scholars - will pave the way for a new way of studying the universe through the "sound" of gravitational waves. In Italy there is also a project Legnaro AURIGA of Padua where and 'installed a gravitational wave detector based on an ultracriogenica (ie' kept at low temperature near absolute zero - 273 C). When gravitational wave passes through the detector, would cause some sort of distortion with increased distance between the test masses in one direction and a decrease in the other. The changes are extremely small - about 10-21 meters --
 
An indirect confirmation of the emission of gravitational waves came from viewing of a binary star system (through the observation of a pair of neutron stars spinning around one another and intended to increase their angular velocity to merge)), studies conducted by Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor - and for this discovery received the Nobel Prize in 1993 -.
Starting from our thoughts we can see the sun - Earth and Moon - Earth a binary system; their gravitational weakness is fully compensated in this case by the proximity. The tides are so concrete and tangible signs of Gravity. If we assume - rightly - that the gravitational energy is part of relativistic physics and quantum mechanics, we must consider a set of gluons that from the sun and the moon come to Earth and vice versa. About all that is the discourse on the stages of tide. In practice we are applying for transfer, method astronomy Olaus Roemer (and before GD Cassini) and through the observations of discrepancies sull'apparizione and concealment of Jupiter in removal rapprochement and respect for the Earth, showed that light propagates at a finite speed, and determined by observing the eclipses of Jupiter, in particular on ephemeris of Io.
All this explains in a definitive way forward missing the perihelion of planets in orbits with a Doppler effect of gravitational waves when approaching the planet (increased frequency, and therefore speed and is what is called assist or Severity birch space probe has enabled the Woyager I (and other) to overcome the barrier of the solar system using precisely the acceleration of planets that closely) and vice versa during the expulsion (may also be called gravitational redshift and can be quantitatively determined through the theory of General Relativity, it can be shown that, like order of magnitude, the variation of fractional wavelengt         
 dλ / λ 
is equal to 
                      G × M / (R × c2)
where G is the universal constant of gravitation, c is the speed of light, M is the body mass of the issuer and R is the radius of the area broadcaster. We try to verify that for the Sun (R = 700,000 km, M = 2 × 1030 kg) is obtained dλ / λ ≈ 2 × 10^-6. (D. Malesani) -. It is therefore reduced the concept of orbit but will talk about bound routes where all'ellisse Kepler is replaced an oval open, determined by the forces, in which the Sun is in a position median of the area where the ovolo shrinks. dell'Orbo The shrinkage is due to variation of the field. Confirmation comes from the circumference of an electron when it moves from a region of strong magnetic field to a weaker.
This work can be extremely simple and immediate for its demonstration and perhaps this, an honor that seems, can become a physical defect, even as the scholar R. Ruffini, and without wishing to do with profanity: "The Special Relativity is extremely simple both in its mathematical structure that in its conceptual framework: it grows from a small set of basic physical considerations, fortified and illustrated by some experiments ideals (Gedanken experiments), using mathematical concepts elementarissimi. However, acceptance of Special relativity from the physical was hampered by the difficulty of his take this extreme simplicity of the theory and to overcome those prejudices rooted in their minds by extremely narrow concepts acquired as part of traditional culture.

"The nobel R. Feynman says that the truth always be easier than you think and it can be recognized by its beauty and its simplicity." Nearly two decades after its first publication, this work remains the only study on the direct demonstration and the pace of the Tensor of this fundamental strength of the Universe.
Applying a similar frequency to the method of measuring the speed of gravitational waves come to define so realistic enough, the wavelength and frequency of the waves of matter of our research pianeta.La the physical characteristics of gravitational waves in these long decades was based on the use of antennas and interferometers to feel the resonance of these waves. Ultimately Weber is that all other researchers, until now, trying to intercept the weak waves of mass and then through a transducer to record the characteristics. All this now has not produced great results because the antennas and receivers are "disturbed" by a myriad of signals on Earth and in our universe despite all the precautions put in atto.Tentiamo therefore reverse the ragionamento.Invece to filter and cancel gravitational signals existing pending the arrival of an event likely (explosion of a supernova), we analyze the events on the ground before exploring those lontani.Studiamo namely the gravitational effects of our planet Earth or Luna.Sappiamo that the effects of strength notevoli.Noi of gravity are we stuck on Earth thanks to this force and the Moon remains anchored in its orbit for the same methodology motivo.Trasferendo antennas echoed to our planet, we can consider the Earth as a formidable and powerful resonant antenna capable of make us feel the vibrations of gravitational force that crosses. Whereas most of Earth's magma is constantly moving and that friction becomes ionized and able to create electricity can now collect the electrical waves produced by the Earth and view them as trasduttive as consequences of gravitational waves referred to it. Edmond Halley and the first W. Gilbert, noticed that the interior of the Earth consisted of layers of different materials, in other spheres sfere.Ogni ball was magnetized independently and each revolved slowly than the other. We know that the Earth's core consists mainly of iron and nickel to the state time and it is believed that between now originating terrestrial magnetism. There are strong currents in the nucleus of ionized iron and nickel, and the difference in speed with which rotate, one inside the other, explain in a satisfactory manner, as well as terrestrial magnetism, the current resonant.

Nikola Tesla (1856 - 1943), author of no less than 300 patents in the field of application, which gave its name to measure the density of magnetic flux, tried to develop waves of very low frequency electromagnetic circuit of the earth . Based on observations made, reported that a type of resonance land - involving the vibrational energy of the earth - could be energized with a transmitter amplification. He discovered that the frequency of resonance of the earth is approximately 8 Hz. In 1950 researchers confirmed that the resonant frequency of the cavity Ionospheric earth was in that range. This phenomenon of global electromagnetic resonance is named today by physical Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonance - but it would be fairer to say Tesla - is because the space between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere conductive acts as a waveguide. A sort of symmetrical current mirror. The limited size of the Earth shall lead this wave guide as a cavity resonance for electromagnetic waves in ELF band (band of radio frequencies between 3 and 30 Hz.). The cavity is, according to some scholars, of course energized than discharges of lightning. The Schumann resonances are observed in the spectrum of electromagnetic noise power of natural background, as separate peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) around 8, 14, 20, 26 and 32 Hertz.Ed is on this range of frequency that many efforts among astrophysicists are oriented to pick up gravitational waves of different research stations in the world. Scholars tend to interpret the resonant energy of the Earth as a direct result of the atmosphere thunderstorms. The lightning and the lightning that are generated worldwide would be reflected by the ionosphere and the field would be resonant. That interpretation does not explain the isotropic of such energy and above all does not agree with the electromagnetic frequency of lightning ranging from KHz to MHz threshold. A simple radio receiver tuned to these wavelengths is capable of making us hear the classic crept lightning. The fundamental resonance frequency of Tesla-Schumann is a wave stationary in the cavity Earth-Ionosphere with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. The lower frequency fundamental (and higher) of the resonance of Tesla-Schumann occurs at a frequency of around 7.8 Hz. The ninth hypertonia (harmonics) is at about 60 Hz. The resonance of Schumann was also used for research and monitoring of low ionosphere and the earth was suggested for the Exploration of the parameters of the low ionosphere on celestial bodies. They can also be used to track geomagnetic disturbances and ionosphere. Recently, the resonances of Schumann were used to track bright transient events - sprites, elves, jets and other high-atmosphere lightning. Another area of interest in the use of the Schumann resonance is on the short-term forecasting of terremoti.La surprising coincidence of the resonant frequencies of Tesla and Schumann indicate that there could be precisely these frequencies work of gravitational waves thus eliminating l ' aura of mystery that was created around these interactions of low frequency electromagnetic always present around the Terra.In theoretically all frequencies of matter (from browniani motions to quark, the fenoni acceleration of a pulsar, the translation of a planet as the simple rotation of a turbine) become more frequencies or frequency gravitational variations, but these obviously outweigh the strongest in relation to the masses and distanza.Ma could also have a wide band of frequencies gravitational, how many nuclear material can express.
 In recent months to October 2008 the European Economic Community has allocated three million euros in FP7 program for the preliminary study dell'Einstein Telescope (ET), an observatory for gravitational waves pan-European (the project involves eight institutes of research). This instrument should be sensitive to gravitational waves across the range of frequencies available on earth, from 1 Hz to 10 kHz. The resonant wave of Tesla-Schumann are therefore in full view of theoretical ricerca.Ma outset of the project is already talk of a third generation of resonant antennas for the next two decades. 
Gravitational wave is recognized as the cross-cutting nature of propagation and twice state of polarization and transmission should result in masses they encounter, natural variations perpendicular to their direction of travel. Eddington in 1919, during a 'solar eclipse, place the deflection of light in stellar pass near the surface of our star and it gave great reputation in the Einstein.Secondo Relativity, a gravitational field created by a mass curve space and time . A sentence of Eddington: "Not too much trust the results of an experiment, unless they are confirmed in theory, could return good for our considerations from Newton fully understand the theory of General Relativity. The gravitational waves (or variations thereof) are created by massive bodies under acceleration, the relativistic principle of general covariance, which is the space pictures dimensional, the continuous space - time is not straight but curved. This curvature is the result of geometric gravitational fields that are everywhere but weakly. There are no screens antigravità. "A wave gravitational carries a specific angular momentum that is twice that of electromagnetic wave of equal intensity, because those dell'onda - the Graviton - have an intrinsic spin of 2 units of Planck (instead of 1, as photons). This is an important property that follows the character Tensor gravitational interaction, through which two masses of the same sign will instead attract-rejected, as in electromagnetism between two posts of the same sign - (M. Gasperini and others). " In addition, these fields are Newtonian intensity uneven. There is therefore a rectilinear coordinate system because there is a situation of forces or forces always homogeneous. There are mathematical procedures used to calculate the gravitational energy. A massive binary system is thought to have an energy such as potential resting mc2 and a 'kinetic mv2 other. This system is moving relative to its center of mass on the dynamic force of gravity and that resulting from the rotation V2. This balance brings us to the third law of planetary movements Kepler says that as the period of revolution is proportional to the length of the largest raised to the power of 3.
As the mechanical energy of a binary system is equivalent to the kinetic MV2 and I 'kinetic energy is the result
potency of gravitational waves, you get to make (according to Bergmann) as follows: 

                Em = c2= mV2 R / G. C2 R / d

Nell 'last century just passed has talked much and maybe even too much of the Theory of Relativity to the point that each of us can safely ask: what has changed with the Relativity? And the answer is disarming, "virtually nothing". Even in the era space to launch rockets and satellites for calculating escape velocity and orbital reentry enough Kepler, Galileo and Newton.Diversa the situation with the discovery of electricity and use of Alessandro Volta's battery and generator and Thus the birth of the electricity, our life has changed radically in abitudini.Oggi you can not conceive of a modern society without current elettrica.Lo same goes for shots that Guglielmo Marconi studies Hertz (which stated that waves his discoveries would not be served to nothing) to build the radio and then the phones of Meucci.Chi can do without the algorithm of Viterbi for the operation of its mobile phone in a crowd of all mobile phones after Martin Cooper invented the first phone? Great social impact was also the discovery of radioactivity with spouses Curie peaceful use in atomic power with Enrico Fermi.E 'mandatory here refer to war and the use of harmful nuclear power. Karl Ferdinand Braun did not provide certain that the study of its cathode ray tubes, the world was then invaded by television screens, and Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci never would have assumed that the engine burst they would have invented dominated on all roads in the world. Same for the motor rotating magnetic field invented by Nikola Tesla.
Today is a lot of noise around more gravitational waves, I believe, desire for discovery that for any practical applications. We have invested heavily in this direction and we talk about antigravità, the Casimir effect, the theory of Evans and other more or less fantascientifici.La mirabolanti or discovery of mass wave but should not change their lives: the gravity arises from the field and to generate gravitational waves should be mass movement. And gravity is by its nature but tenacious enough in itself debole.Un 'gravitational waves that cross the Sun, would lose only a billionth of decimilionesimo (one part in 10 high to 16) of its energy, a beam of neutrinos, which are particles with weak interaction with matter, nell'attraversamento of the Sun would lose one hundred billionth (one part in 10 to 7) of its energy. The gravitational waves could perhaps help in communications, because they represent the only form of energy at virtually no known obstacles and are in practice be even faster so as better to clarify avanti.Occorre more freedom to choose a frequency between all those the field and the dynamics impegna.L 'piezoelectric effect suggests a link between report symmetrical vibration of the crystal and formation of electricity between electromagnetic field and field of gravità.Similmente can be found correlations between the magnetostriction or effect or Matteucci with Wiedemann electromagnetic fields are capable of vibration and twisting materiale.Anche in an electrostatic field is capable of mass changes and shifts in materials obtained from his strength.
One of the most reliable theories about the end of the post Big Bang, is that of death due to heat of entropy as a result of the second principle of thermodynamics (subject to the cosmological principle dell'isotropia and since acquired by the principle of Hubble the expansion and global Einstein who committed the trivial mistake of including an arbitrary factor as gravitational constant constraint inflazionario the outcome of the cosmos). The density and composition of matter and energy in the are of fundamental importance - says Carlo Rubbia -. We now know-continuous - that the luminous matter contributes only a tiny fraction, 0.5% of the mass of the Universe, while ordinary matter, than it is the visible world to us, represents only 6%. Although the stars are extraordinarily interesting and attractive sight, they actually represent only a tiny fraction of the total matter and energy present in the universe. The answer, according to the Nobel prize, this problem is to be found in large laboratories particle elementari.Insomma microcosm of the many colorful and nuclear infinitesimal particles will be possible to have the answers to the macro cosmos.
Plot the dark matter by observing the effect of gravitational lens is what he did Yannick Mellier, who said, with his team, the deformation of galaxies located 5 billion light years. "All that matters is along this line to say" wall "of deformation-induced explains Yannick Mellier -. We see the effect accumulated along the path of light. The light therefore a cosmic distances is forced to directional curvature or shielding under the masses closer. There is a general principle in science, fascinating for the simplicity and power that has conceptual, which has almost the force of an absolute paradigm: the principle of minimum action and this suggests the principle of Fermat. Formulated in the most essential, the principle of minimum action stipulates that for any physical phenomenon, the laws that govern the dynamics are defined simply by the fact that this makes a particular minimum size associated with it: the action. And the action in turn is linked to a variable dynamics of the system, the "Lagrangian", a feature that Lagrange has taught calcolare.Assieme to this principle deserves more forcefully to indicate symmetry; Steven Weinberg said: " We increasingly believe that the missing element that must be added to quantum mechanics is a principle of symmetry or more principles of symmetry, (this already talked about Archimedes lever ndr). A principle of symmetry is a statement that says that our "observation point" on natural phenomena can be processed in various ways, which, although actually change the direction of the carrier state, but leave unchanged the laws that govern its evolution as a function of tempo.L 'set of these changes point of view is what is called the "group of symmetry" of nature. The theorem Amalia Noether us confirms that exist everywhere in nature and that the symmetries of conservation laws arise from symmetries viceversa.Dirac in 1928 and assumed l 'antimatter applying this principle, four years later Anderson or discover antielettrone the positone then was the time dell'antiprotone and then gradually all other antiparticelle.Il group of symmetries of space-time is, of course, the paradigm for all other symmetries of nature. It is formed by the symmetries that we ensure that laws are independent from the nature of our laboratory, from its position in space, its speed or the way we set our clocks. " The strength of mass seems to escape the natural principle of symmetry - there is the fact antigravità - but not that of minimum action and can not confine itself and cancel - ie can not be both cause and effect of itself - the violation penalty the principle of conservation of energy. 
The force of gravity being weaker and "evanescent" of the neutrino, a route almost go straight across the field and equal space cross comparison, Fermat's principle, the distance is shorter and less expensive, which means that a large cosmological distances not there could be more consistency and assonance between photons and gravitoni.Vedremo that after what we heard first physically with the gravity and effect Shapiro shows that the photons radioelttrici a pulsar slow down, or walk more space when passing through an intensive field gravitational just remember the explosion of Supernova 1987 ° was observed on Earth in visible light on February 23 1987, the photons but had spent 160,000 years to reach us by the Great Magellanic Cloud. In reviewing the records, we found that a pulse of neutrinos was received on Earth before the light of the supernova. The particles were identified as neutrinos emitted from the dying star at the time of the collapse of its core, about three hours before the energy released by the collapse itself swept away the outer layers of the star by releasing the intense brightness of visible light. The neutrinos are the first parties or, presumably, having run a more direct and less tortuous of photons given their nature low energy? Furthermore, "we can locally cancel the effect of gravity, but we can not in any way undo the tidal forces, which indeed constitute the true measurement of the gravitational field: in modern terms, say they measure the curvature of spaziotempo" ( G. Milanesi). Here we may ask then why, given that both the Gravity that the force being Electromagnetic both of the same nature between them prelave not the strongest, namely the Electromagnetic Field. The answer is found again in simmetria.Nel Electromagnetic fields are the two antagonists ie + e - or North and South which cancel out for the atom and matter always tends to neutralità.Per the gravitational force is not the case, it is and not only attractive to govern and in the end can affect the whole universe and life.
And 'know that a photon frequency
ν carries an energy E = hν
(Law Planck) and has a wavelength equal ac / v. By photoelectric, which shows the behavior of electromagnetic radiation corpuscular, suggests that the wave-particle duality is always presente.Infatti is undetermined say that the photon traveling wave but then it behaves by corpuscle-in Compton or fotoelettrico.Del Furthermore any such move should be so instant or so faster than c, which violates the narrow Relativity. On the other hand, say that the electromagnetic mass has nothing at rest, creates an obvious conflict leading to annulment of 'equivalence E = mc2, because if m = 0 everything goes to zero. The effect therefore "gravitational lens" reflects the necessary presence of mass photon or even considered axiomatic by Einstein that matter curve space and time or more simply, we say that the photon Gravity interfere because the issues are similar, although many of the same electromagnetic nature.
To prevent the relativistic formula
                          E = mc2
averages out to the field is usually introduce the concept of arbitrary photon has mass cinetica.In practice brings Planck's law to replace the term E.
                          m = hv/c2
another limit of the formula E = mc2 is that this is built for mass property, a bit like Newton did for his formula of Gravity, to make it dynamic need to divide the root of                 
                         1 - v2/c2.
Planck's Law 
                          E = h.
ν

clarifies property dualism, removing dall'imbarazzo, and identifies all the energy undulatory with the frequency for the universal constant 6.6 * 10-27 erg s.Dalla classic formula of 'kinetic energy
                         E = 1/2 mv2
the relativistic formula
                            E = mc2
until that quantum Planck it presents a synthesis throughout the evolution of physics. The classical view that the power belongs to the mass and its kinetic dynamism, the coexistence of energy that can be mass field with the formula relativistic E = mc2, to the formulation of quantum Planck where the field is now the main subject and energy depends only on the frequenza.Come say that the mass fall in a matter of highest density of the force field photo-electro-gravitational. For Einstein, who never accepted the idea indeterministica of Quantum Mechanics, this rescue seems almost provocatorio.Del rest scientists as Mach and always took Tesla distances by General Relativity why not accept the idea that gravity could bend space and time , Entities that alone does not hold if not linked to matter and its velocità.Oggi physicists tend to simplify the constant speed of light with the value 1.Del rest in astrophysics is measured space with a time of light (year light). The Planck constant or rather, the Planck time, brings together the frequency (inverse of time if we accept the speed c as a constant) and its wavelength with the energy of the length of fotone.La Planck length is the minimum universal, that is about 10-33 cm, which is 10-20 times the diameter of the proton. The time is the Planck length of time taken by light to travel in a vacuum Planck length. Since this measure is 10-33 cm, the Planck time goes 10-43 s. It should be the shortest time that can scan the clock of the universe. 
Through the narrow Relativity and Quantum Mechanics can define all the natural characteristics through the various ongoing planckiane.
Today it is obvious the claim that the Universe was created by the Big Bang and that this explosion will come out of time and space.
We know that the formula dictated Newton is always good especially when referring to non-relativistic masses. In our solar system, the formula
                        F =K (Mm)/d2
is the exact empirical practice, given the relative low velocity of bodies in the solar system and also because it thought at a time when the electromagnetic fields were not yet part of experimental science. Now, as was relativistic (or rather quantum) the formula E = mc2 for electromagnetic fields, replacing the mass of the photon nothing the formula of E = f Plank in which the energy of a wave is identified with any frequency can similarly intervene on Newton's formula for adding the relative speed of light ce ±
Δ
the change of speed of the masses so that the formula becomes
                                F = Mm/d2▪(c ±
Δ
v)/c

This means that everything remains relatively unchanged for the masses property, while masses in strong approach in high expulsion or apply the Doppler effect (this is because the masses moving generate changes in gravitational waves) so if either of the masses tends to speed hypothetically removal of light in the wavelength gravity produced by it expands toward the infinite and frequency tend to zero agreeing with the concept that you can not reach the seriousness with a wave of the same speed. In contrast, a relativistic mass approaching gravitational increases in frequency, keeping the speed of propagation, equal to that of light, and in fact tends to double in energy and strength. To remember that quantum mechanics is applied to the electromagnetic waves and physical discipline that considers this energy consists of discrete entity, while Maxwell considers the fields of energy photons undulatory continues, Planck will mean discrete packets of energy discontinuous. This diversification into the wave of mass explains the difficulty in their interception. The electromagnetic waves at high frequency (
γ
-rays, x) is the predominant aspect quantum and almost no one undulatory, vice versa in a low-frequency waves such as gravity, the quantum appearance is almost absent for a reason that ondulatorio.Dando Liebiniz Mach and therefore no need to contract or expand the space time but everything falls in speed and in accelerating.
Mellier and return to his calculations, the deformation of these distances are usually tiny and, since the galaxies are almost never perfectly round, it was necessary to observe a lot to see in which direction these small deformations had tendency to focus: a statistical analysis huge, conducted on many galaxies from telescopes Canada-France-Hawaii and VLT (Very Large Telescope). At the end of this weighing giant has delivered its verdict: the matter in reaching 30% of the critical density, the one beyond which the expansion of the universe would reverse in a gigantic big crunch. Announced in March 2000, this result has done much noise as confirmation that large amounts of matter are yet to be discovered, the entire mass actually observed in fact no more than 5% of this density critica.In this huge and unknown dark matter could finally find the place even throughout the antimatter missing so far under the law of simmetria.Non is also the first time that science is forced to reformulate or scenarios to produce a weather front that seemed to violate or evade the universal laws of physics ( fusion energy at low or cold, demonstrated in the laboratory - even if no shortage dilemmas and contradictions - and awaiting a clear explanatory theory, the superconduzione discovery in 1911 dall'olandese HK Onnes chilling the mercury to 260 degrees below zero and suddenly noticing that disappeared every electrical resistance and more recently the superfluidità, where the cryogenic liquid helium flows without friction, gravity and the challenges flowing from cold to hot). While the Relativity remains determined to stop as a result of the effect to the cause , All linked by the report space-time in quantum physics scenarios multiply: from wave-particle duality develop overlapping states (Schrödinger), the look granularity of energy and the principle of Heisenberg. In classical physics, given the characteristics of a particle and the forces involved, there is a specific trajectory that leads the same from one location to another. In quantum mechanics all configurations are possible for the passage of the plot from point to point. The impression is that it ends where the determinism arise all the theories that the human mind is capable of producing and that math can sostenere.E 'also true that the tunnel effect remains a mystery except in the mechanical quantistica.Ma end of every speech the result of laboratory galileana has the power to remove the hypothetical interpretations. "Science, by definition, is some knowledge," and is "an achievement of positive", which allows you to make "life more human," said Msgr. Rino Fisichella. But the passage of relativistic physics to quantum we metabolize the notion that a particle in a given space and a certain point can be represented by a wave that did not clear a space or a conspicuous definito.Sappiamo that exists for At least, a proportionality between the two systems. Already the Doppler effect creates a difference in function to osservatori.Un observer traveling with a sound (the same goes for a photon) Feel the same frequency sound when it is constant, approaching an observer, a sound more acute and another in a removal rate more grave.Eppure all three may prove to hear different things while having the same problem the only source. The same wave is perceived in different ways because different is the situation analisi.Anche relativism is not absolute but is linked to the reality of the observer, is what we call the relativity of simultaneity .. The same applies to the confirmation of such relativistic light ray seen by a passenger inside a train carriage and an inertial observer on the platform of stazione.Einstein propose to do so, in Relativity, the theoretical exercise of the light path on the rail wagon seen from two different osservatori.Egli such force as to the concept locale.Anche time here we have the relativity of simultaneity between the inertial system K and in train speed k '. As the speed of light c we act on time under the Lorentz transformations in a four dimensions, including local time (Minkowski space).
                     x = x - v * t 
                      v 1 - v2/c2
                        y '= y
                        z '= z
                    t '= t - v . x/c2
                       v 1 - v2/c2

For Lorentz velocity is:
              V = V + v / 1 + V . v / c 2
that's why in Relativity
V = Space relativ / Time relativ

For Mach, in agreement with Liebniz sull'inconsistenza absolute space, is accelerating the paradigm of 'Energy and identifies the matter with the acceleration. We return the wagon Einstein to say that this is an example only theoretical because the inertial observer is moving along the system and this Earth around the Sun and all on the road radial in our Galaxy. Moreover, observers stopped at the station can not see the ray of light known as photons travel online retta.Il ray of light seen from inside the Passenger car can not be seen simultaneously by the passenger waiting at the station.
Today we moved from the principle of symmetry to supersymmetry, which extends from general relativity to gravity supergravity pushed so Einstein's theory as to what surclassata.La theory of supergravity tend to dream final unification of forces and therefore provides the same experimental forecasts . A microscopic level, however, differs from the supergravity General Relativity for "symmetry" that links two broad classes of elementary particles, namely the fermions and bosons, and is also called supersymmetry introducing a fundamental relationship between them. For supersymmetry, bosons and fermions are two aspects of a single particle or mediator "superparticella." The supergravity General Relativity describes the framework of quantum mechanics, introducing, in its simplest form, a Tachyon a spin 2 (boson) and a gravitino to spin 3 / 2 (fermion), so far there are no experimental confirmation to that theory. The theory is that today most discussed for quantum gravity is the theory of supercorde, in which points materials are replaced by extended-dimensional objects (strings) where supersymmetry plays a key role. The supercorde provide a series of light particles, which coincides with the formulation of supergravity and therefore warrants, from first principles, supersymmetry an extension of the standard model. The theory of strings (string) developed over the years settanta.E 'also true that we can assume the supergravity but is even more true that we still know little of the classic strength of Gravity.Oggi we can confirm, attravesrso tidal waves, that the gravitational energy as the photon travels and through resonant energy of the Earth indicate a working frequency and power.
While in the recent past preceded the experiment and theory on this then built the laws today are often part of a theory to seek support in testing and research, as if the scientist claimed to bend the laws to the universe its insights or its regole.Da almost two centuries, in biological evolutionism of Darwin and awaits confirmation in the physical principle of equivalence of strong General Relativity does not coincide exactly with forecasts and it remains as postulated. But if all matter decade (as is expected for the proton) and if there is an interchange of forces between particles and equivalence according to the formula E = mc2 and even if the light is constrained by the weak gravitational force that becomes the pre-eminent in the "naked singularity" of much discussed but still theoretical, blacks holes (S. Hawking) point d 'prevent the release of all forms of energy, except gravity, is this the end the only force that escapes all the others. There are no barriers or screens or able to confine the Gravity - or weather or Faraday type Compton scattering or that interfere with the other physical realities, the strength of mass is not yet part of standard (MS) -, and being this wave and a member of quantum mechanics, bound less the area of the border, close to parameters of relativistic c, which is located on the borders of our universe, which is observable with our current means of astrophysics; substance which expands with speeds gradually increasing elevata. Inoltre the force of gravity tends to zero for particles traveling at the same speed, direction and towards, because they are hardly reached by weak particles (gluons carriers) of a pull. Application of Lorentz transformations and the group of Poincaré dimension into the behavior of relativistic gluon carriers.
L. Martina said: "field generated by the masses in motion must submit disturbance from time employees, who can think like overlapping harmonic oscillations. The frequency of these oscillations can take all the real values. But real packages or train gravitational waves are generated by mass distributions of rapidly evolving stellar systems such implodenti quickly because of its gravity (supernovae), or binary systems of neutron stars or holes blacks. Their version provides quantum particle (Graviton) without mass at rest, propagates at the speed of light and peculiar properties of polarization. "
The visible universe, therefore, to launch a relentless expansion continues to infinity, un'evaporazione of photons in an 'immense wave gravitazionale.Lo same Einstein formulated equations for gravitational field devoid of matter and consider, in agreement with Newton that theoretically provides a finite universe with a mass infinite, that the radiation emitted by celestial bodies can miss out radially on indefinitely without action.
E 'Gravity, that the dawn of the birth of the Universe, thickening of the simplest atom - hydrogen - triggered by the heat that is produced and the pressure is released, the nuclear fusion of stars to form then gradually all other elements (R. Feynman). Gravity is the force that governs the Universe, which gives the form (galaxies, stars, planets and comets), the size and route, as evidenced by the current cosmological reality even if it remains the problem of matter dell'incognita oscura. Ma was the excessive speed of rotation of galaxies, due to the strength of mass and gravitational lens effect to make us discover the dark matter, invisible to other tools.  at the  end Gravity is the last dominant force that will remain in cosmos, it will determine the place and time will be the final memory of our universe that will result from 'endless rush of photons bound by the tenacious strength gravitational. Il good God - master of the universe - seems to have decided that it will be the strength of the weakest' Universe's greatness that last the testimony our existence.

The entire history of our knowledge, you can compare to a complex chain that stretches as discoveries are advancing, but the whole chain needs of the individual rings even if the errors so often humiliate and research scientists and the chain seems break or shorten. Democritus and other philosophers had the intuition of the atom but did not have the means and knowledge to prove, spent more than two thousand years to have the modern concept of atom. the ether, in centuries past, has filled whole tomes but then decided to delete it, even if the Higgs bosons in a sense you try to do this fall from a window quantistica. Del rest are strongly suggests that the universe is born from the break of symmetry of anything as a result of the simultaneous creation and destruction of particles. The time is absolute, but believed the theory of Relativity has lost its impassibility. Galileo Galilei first sets out the basic principles of physics as the principle of inertia and the principle of relativity (that three centuries later will be generalized by Einstein); his studies on the fall of serious were then taken and formulated by the great I. Newton. As Galilei almost all ancient and modern scientists believe, for elementary logic, that the universe is governed by mathematical laws and certainly not from the chaos or causality. The  teacher  Antonino Zichichi (discoverer along with his team of the antideutone) speaks of mathematics and science as forms of rigorous logic. Claiming that the chaos or if they are at the root of the universe and of life is banal as to say that math is a discipline casual. Famous the words of Einstein: "God does not play dice with" and again: "" I want to know how God has created this world. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that 'element. I want to know his thoughts, the rest are details. " In more explicitly tell the genius Nikola Tesla, with a symbolic phrase that describes the nature of scientist: "The Gift of the force of reason comes to us from God, from Divine, and focus our minds on this truth, establish harmony with this great strength. My mother had taught me to seek any truth in the Bible. "
Harald Frtzsch noted that science and technology can not convey ethical values and that it is naive to the days where it was believed that with the increase of knowledge and dominion over nature could lead to a more right.
 Il meaning of life not there is progress in the knowledge.
Science and religion - as the Catholic Church - not mutually exclusive but rather are complementary aspects of truth. If we fail to understand a universe that is based on mathematics and other disciplines means, as Benedict XVI, that we too are created by the same hand and therefore able to understand the language of which we are all imbued, the universe and man.
Personally I do not know the bonus so that there is a God, the supreme creator of everything if we are far apart, if we are isolated, left to our human destiny and abandoned, without love. Ci if we wanted a God who did as little man and give a definitive answer to questions ataxic of human suffering and death to life. This God is only Christ. All else, including science, as even Einstein says, is simple detail.
... He speaks and everything is done, and it stood commands (Psalm 33).
 
 Copyrigt 1989
teacher Tecnology
***copyrait © 1990
in collaboration with
Dr. electrical engineer

Rino Federico Laudani
( Padua University)

The introduction has been translated by Francesca M.

Reproduction of this research is only partially

and always explicitly citing the source.
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