Welcome to my website! 

I am an assistant professor in the Department of Economics at Uppsala University. My research focuses on technological change, wage inequality, and the economics of education. 

Email: georg.graetz[at]nek.uu.se

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Working papers

College Admission Opportunities and Educational Outcomes, with Björn Öckert and Oskar Nordström Skans
Submitted. This version: May 2018.
Using discontinuities that arise when raw test results are translated into reported SAT scores, we estimate the causal effects of increased admission opportunities on college enrolment and graduation. Students with less educated parents are more likely to complete college if they get a higher score, even and especially those who already had access to a large number of programs. This suggest that expanding access to high quality colleges is a viable strategy to lower the intergenerational correlation of education.
Human Capital, Signaling, and Employer Learning: What Insights Do We Gain from Natural Experiments?
Revise and resubmit, Canadian Journal of Economics. This version: December 2017.
Understanding why people get education – in particular, distinguishing between human capital and signaling motifs – is of first-order importance for public policy. I discuss what we can learn from natural experiments that give rise to quasi-random variation in educational credentials.   
Revise and resubmit, Economic Journal. This version: October 2016.
What determines whether firms automate a given job? We argue that when two jobs are equally complex from an engineering perspective, then firms will automate the one that requires more training for a human to perform it. We document that job training requirements measured in 1970 are an important predictor of occupational employment growth in the US from 1980-2008, explaining much of job polarization during this period.   


Robots at Work, with Guy Michaels

Review of Economics and Statistics, forthcoming. Online Appendix Data
Industrial robots represent the latest stage of automation in manufacturing. We explore the relationship between their adoption and growth in productivity, employment, and wages across 14 industries in 17 countries from 1993-2007. 

A Question of Degree: The Effects of Degree Class on Labor Market Outcomes, with Andy Feng
Economics of Education Review, December 2017
Degree class is a coarse measure of university performance used in the UK and other Commonwealth countries. Comparing students who barely made a higher degree class to those who barely missed, we estimate a positive effect of degree class on the probability of working in a high-paying industry.

American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, May 2017; longer working paper version
Employment in the US has recently recovered more slowly from downturns, compared to its rapid rebounding prior to 1990. We document that this change is more pronounced in industries whose employment is more susceptible to technological replacement. However, we find no such changes in employment recoveries in developed countries outside the US, neither in the aggregate nor in specific industries.  

Work in progress

Individual Consequences of Occupational Decline, with Per-Anders Edin, Sofia Hernnäs, and Guy Michaels
Who Wants to Be a Teacher?, with Esteban Aucejo & Michael Böhm