1) Diffusion processes and Stochastic calculus, 285 pages, EMS textbooks in mathematics
This book aims to provide a self-contained introduction to the local geometry of the stochastic flows. It studies the hypoelliptic operators, which are written in Hörmander's form, by using the connection between stochastic flows and partial differential equations. The book stresses the view that the local geometry of any stochastic flow is determined very precisely and explicitly by a universal formula referred to as the Chen-Strichartz formula. The natural geometry associated with the Chen-Strichartz formula is the sub-Riemannian geometry, and its main tools are introduced throughout the text.
Table of contents
The main purpose of the book is to present at a graduate level and in a self-contained way the most important aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes in continuous time and to introduce to some of its ramifications like the theory of semigroups, the Malliavin calculus and the Lyons’ rough paths. It is intended for students, or even researchers, who wish to learn the basics in a concise but complete and rigorous manner. Several exercises are distributed throughout the text to test the understanding of the reader and each chapter ends up with bibliographic comments aimed to those interested in exploring further the materials. The stochastic calculus has been developed in the 1950’s and the range of its applications is huge and still growing today. Besides being a fundamental component of modern probability theory, domains of applications include but are not limited to: mathematical finance (pricing theory of derivatives, portfolio optimization), biology (genetics), physics (quantum physics, cosmology, statistical physics), and engineering sciences (controlled systems). The first part of the text is devoted the general theory of stochastic processes, we focus on existence and regularity results for processes and on the theory of martingales. This allows to quickly introduce the Brownian motion and to study its most fundamental properties. The second part deals with the study of Markov processes, in particular diffusions. Our goal is to stress the connections between these processes and the theory of evolution semigroups. The third part deals with stochastic integrals, stochastic differential equations and Malliavin calculus. Finally, in the fourth and final part we present an introduction to the very new theory of rough paths by Terry Lyons.
2) An introduction to the geometry of stochastic flows, 152 pages, Imperial College press, 2004
3) Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, LNM 1814, 2002
Financial markets obviously have asymmetry of information. That is, there are different type of traders whose behavior is induced by different types of information that they possess. Let us consider a "small" investor who trades in a arbitrage free financial market so as to maximize the expected utility of his wealth at a given time horizon. We assume that he possesses extra information about the future price of a stock. Our basic question is: What is the value of this information ?