Navigation

Recent site activity

HIDDEN LEGACIES: I. EARLY AFRICAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIANS IN ALABAMA

 

HIDDEN LEGACIES 

I. EARLY AFRICAN-AMERICAN PHYSICIANS IN ALABAMA

II. EARLY FEMALE PHYSICIANS IN ALABAMA
See http://sites.google.com/site/earlyfemaledocsalabama/   

 

A.J. Wright, M.L.S.
Clinical Librarian
Department of Anesthesiology
School of Medicine
University of Alabama at Birmingham
619 19th Street South, JT965
Birmingham AL 35249-6810

205--975-0158 [voice]
205-975-5963 [fax]

ajwright@uab.edu 

 

Some of this material formed the basis of the following presentations:

 

"Hidden Legacy: Black Physicians in Alabama before World War I," at the Southern Association for the History of Medicine and Science Second Annual Meeting, Birmingham, Alabama, February 18-19, 2000

"Female Physicians in Alabama before World War I," at the Alabama Women's History Forum, Birmingham, Alabama, March 10-11, 2000

"Hidden Legacy: Early Female and African-American Doctors in Alabama" at the 54th annual meeting of the Alabama Historical Association, Huntsville, Alabama, April 19-21, 2001

"Early Female Physicians in Alabama" to the UAB history class HY423, "Southern Women and Reality," October 29, 2001

"Early Black and Early Female Physicians in Alabama," at the 66th annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, August 19-25, 2002.

A presentation to a group of University of Alabama School Of Medicine female internal medicine residents on January 9, 2003.

"Early African-American Physicians in Alabama's Black Belt" presented April 22, 2005, at the Black Belt Symposium held at the University of West Alabama in Livingston. 

Early African-American Physicians in the Alabama Black Belt” presented at the Black Belt African-American Genealogical and Historical Society monthly meeting, Selma, Alabama, October 20, 2007

 

Black Physicians of the Alabama Black Belt” presented at the Black Belt African-American Genealogical and Historical Society 2nd Annual Genealogy Conference and Family History Fair, Selma, Alabama, February 16, 2008

 

“Early African-American Physicians in Alabama.” Wenonah High School, Birmingham, Alabama, February 26, 2009 [Eight classes in five sessions]

 

See also:

*Hasbrouck, Stephanie. "Wright uncovers state's overlooked physicians. UAB Reporter 2002 August 19-25; 26(43):1, 4

*Monitor, Leigh Anne. Pioneering physicians: Black women were some of Alabama's early doctors. BirmIngham Post-Herald November 13, 2002, B1, B3

*Wright AJ. Dr. Arthur McKinnon Brown. In: Jefferson County Heritage Book Committee. Heritage of Jefferson County, Alabama. Clanton, Alabama: Heritage Publishing, 2002, p. 190-191

*Wright AJ. Early female physicians in Jefferson County. In: Jefferson County Heritage Book Committee. Heritage of Jefferson County, Alabama. Clanton, Alabama: Heritage Publishing, 2002, p. 190

*“A.J. Wright to speak on early African American physicians in the Black Belt.” Selma Times-Journal 18 October 2007, p. A3

*Wright AJ. Early African-American physicians in the Alabama Black Belt. Journal of the Black Belt African American Genealogical and Historical Society 2008 March; 1(1): 28-39

 

Various volumes of the Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama from the 1880s until 1920 or so can be found at Google Books and on the Internet Archive.

Alabama physician listings can be found in the Standard Medical Directory of North America, 1902 on Google Books at http://tinyurl.com/lwaw4w 


"Opening Doors: Contemporary African American Academic Surgeons."
from the U.S. National Library of Medicine

 

 

Source:
W. Montague Cobb, “Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, M.D., 1852-1897”
Journal of the National Medical Association 52(6): 456-459, November 1960

 

 INTRODUCTION

In the late nineteenth century a number of black physicians began to receive certification to practice medicine in Alabama. The Medical Practice Act of 1877 named the Medical Association of the State of Alabama to establish standards and qualifications for medical practitioners. The society's Board of Censors became the Board of Medical Examiners and issued or refused licenses at the state level. However, each county's Board of Censors could also administer examinations and issue licenses that were recognized statewide. (1) By the 1880s black physicians applied for certification at both the state and county levels.

The presence of black physicians in the state in this period can be seen in the pages of the annual Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. This publication of the state medical society recorded all physicians who sat for examinations at both the state and county level; black physicians are noted by a "col." designation. Also recorded for each physician is medical school and year of graduation. One of the earliest black physicians to practice in Alabama was Arthur McKinnon Brown, who received certification from the Jefferson County Board in 1891. After practicing for three years in Bessemer, Brown set up practice in Birmingham where he remained for many years. Brown was commissioned as a lieutenant in the 10th U.S. Cavalry in July 1898 and co-authored an account of that unit's missions in the Spanish-American War, Tenth Cavalry Under Fire. He also served as President of the National Medical Association in 1914.

Two black female physicians worked for relatively brief periods at Tuskegee Institute. Halle Tanner Dillon, born in Pittsburgh in 1864, came to Tuskegee in 1891, the year she graduated from the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, and received Alabama state board certification. The board commented that "The case of H.T. Dillon is remarkable as that of the first colored women examined in the state." (2) Until she left Alabama later in the decade, Dr. Dillon provided care to the Institute's 450 students and the 30 officers, teachers, and their families. Ionia R. Whipper, a 1903 graduate of Howard Medical School, came to Tuskegee that same year and spent a few years as physician to female students only. (3)

Another black physician practicing in Alabama was Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, who graduated from the University of Buffalo School of Medicine in 1882 and who may have become the state's first certified black physician a year or two later. He practiced in Montgomery until his death in 1897 and in 1890 founded Hale Infirmary, the first Alabama hospital for blacks, which finally closed its doors in 1958. (4) Other blacks who began practice in the 1880s include Willis Edward Sterrs (University of Michigan, 1888) and S.S.H. Washington (Howard, 1886). Black physicians who began practice in the state in the 1890s include T.H. Brandon (Denver Medical College, 1898); Lincoln Laconia Burwell (Leonard Medical College, 1889); Robert Cruikshank (Howard, 1894); and Herbert Crunkshank (Harvard, 1895). Many other physicians followed in that decade and the next.

Since at least 1940 some scholarly attention has been directed toward black physicians in the United States and in the South. (5-9) According to one account, just over 900 black physicians were practicing in the United States in 1890. (10) This paper will identify and examine the black physicians practicing in Alabama during this period and attempt to place them in larger regional and national contexts.  

1. Holley HL. The History of Medicine in Alabama. University: University of Alabama Press, 1982, pp 260-261

2. Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, 1892

3. Hine DC. Co-laborers in the work of the Lord: nineteenth-century black women physicians. In: Abram RJ, ed. Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985, p 114

4. Savitt TL. Dorsette, Cornelius Nathaniel. In: Kaufman M, Galishoff S, Savitt TL, eds. Dictionary of American Medical Biography 2 vols. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1984, 1:211

5. Beardsley EH. Making separate, equal: black physicians and the problems of medical segregation in the pre-World War II South. Bull Hist Med 57: 382-396, 1983

6. Bousfield MO. An account of physicians of color in the United States. Bull Hist Med 17:61-84, 1945

7. Farmer HE. An account of the earliest colored gentlemen in medical science in the United States. Bull Hist Med 8:599-618, 1940

8. Savitt TL. Entering a white profession: black physicians in the New South, 1880-1920. Bull Hist Med 61:507-540, 1987

9. Summerville J. Formation of a black medical profession in Tennessee, 1880-1920. J Tenn Med Assoc 76:644-646, 1983

10. Johnson LW Jr. History of the education of Negro physicians. J Med Ed 42:439-446, 1967

 

BACKGROUND OF THIS PROJECT

 

[Comments for panel discussion, annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Birmingham, Alabama, August, 2002]

For the past fifteen years or more most of my research and writing has related to the history of anesthesia, primarily in the United States. One of my research areas is the history of anesthesia in Alabama, and over a decade ago I began going through the nineteenth and early twentieth century volumes of the Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama looking for material on anesthesia. The Transactions at that time included the full texts of medical papers presented at the annual meeting, and I began to find a few papers about aspects of anesthetic practice and other papers which included significant material on anesthesia.

As I plowed slowly through these volumes, I began to notice something else that grabbed my attention. Each of these annual volumes contains a snapshot of the Alabama medical profession: a county-by-county listing of physicians in the state. Members of the county medical society are listed first, then non-members. As I reached the late 1870s and early 1880s, I began to see among the non-member listings physicians with the designation "(col.)" after their names. Hmmm, I thought to myself, so African-American physicians had begun to practice in the small, rural state of Alabama this soon after the Civil War. Interesting. I started collecting these entries, which usually also gave medical school attended and year of graduation, and the year the physician became certified under the Alabama Medical Practice Act of 1877.

When I reached the 1890s, I also began finding names of female physicians and even found a few of those listed among the members of the county medical society in Jefferson County, where the state's largest city of Birmingham is located. When I had combed the Transactions through about 1920, I thus had a number of names of early black and early female physicians in Alabama. I even had a few names that appeared on both lists!

About three years ago I decided to find out more about these individuals. In order to do that, I have been using primarily genealogical records--census, marriage, and death records, city directories and so forth. On a few individuals I have been able to find other contemporary materials--obituaries and an occasional article by or about a few of the physicians. Some of these physcians have also popped up in more recent secondary materials, such as reference works on notable black Americans or Kaufman et al, Dictionary of American Medical Biography [1984]. Several of the early Alabama black physicians are included in the National Cyclopedia of the Negro Race published in 1919 and John A. Kenney's groundbreaking work, also from early in the 20th century, The Negro in Medicine.

One archival source I am beginning to tap is the collection of physician certification exams at the Alabama Department of Archives and History in Montgomery. Those exams include a biographical information sheet that will give me birth date and location and other information I don't have for many of these doctors. Recently I have also found information on two women "doctors" outside the formal certification system. Just after the Civil War these women--recently-freed slaves--made deposits in the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company branch in Huntsville and identified their occupations as "doctor" or "doctors." At the moment, most of these individuals remain empty outlines that I am still trying to complete.

As a way of consolidating the mass of materials I was beginning to accumulate, about two years ago I set up two web sites:

Black Physicians in Alabama before World War I

http://www.anes.uab.edu/blackdoctors.htm [no longer active; see the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine]

Hidden Legacy: Early Female Physicians in Alabama

http://www.anes.uab.edu/female.htm [no longer active; see the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine]

On these pages I am dumping everything I know about these individuals. I am generally working only on physicians who started practice in Alabama before 1920; I may begin to add others later. The page on black physicians is primarily a listing of names with information about each individual. On the female physicians page I have begun a narrative history in addition to the listings. For both groups I have much material not yet included on these pages but I am adding information on a regular basis.

Setting up these pages has produced an unanticipated but welcome consequence. I have been contacted over the past couple of years by people doing family research on the Internet who have stumbled across these pages and are related to someone listed. Needless to say, most of these people have helped me more than I have been able to help them. I have received much information and leads from these searchers. The most spectacular example is Dan Bloodworth, Jr., the great grandson of one of the female physicians, Laura Burton. He has provided me with photographs and leads to newspaper articles related to his ancestor. Her spectacular story can be found at the web page

Laura Burton, M.D.

http://www.anes.uab.edu/lauraburton.htm [no longer active; see the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine]

I am unsure what I am going to do with all this material other than continue to build these web pages. Despite all the material I have placed on those pages--and the material I have gathered but yet to place there--I feel this project is just getting started. Thus I have not prepared a formal "paper", since I will be simply describing this background and then use slides to highlight a few of the interesting individuals I have found.

The standard history of medicine in Alabama is Howard Holley's History of Medicine in Alabama [1982]. Although Dr. Holley's book is a good overview of its subject, only a single one of these black or female physicians I have identified is mentioned. Dr. John A. Kenney's participation in the founding of the John A. Andrew Clinical Society in Tuskegee in 1912 is briefly described on page 207. Except for that item, Holley's work does not acknowledge African-American or female physicians in Alabama at all. Perhaps my efforts can uncover some of this "hidden legacy" in the state's medical history.

[The web sites noted above are more or less combined at https://sites.google.com/site/earlyblackdocsalabama/ ]

 

NOTE:

Some physicians are included more than once under variant spellings; they are listed this way in different volumes of the Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. SCOPE: In general, I am trying to document physicians who began practice in Alabama before 1950. I am adding physicians and other health professionals who began practice after that date as I run across them. Future additions might include early black dentists and nurses in the state.

 

ALPHABETICAL ENTRIES

[format: name; birth and death dates; medical school, year; certification, year; practice location, dates; miscellaneous; (reference)]

 

*Adair, Roman Thomson. b. 15 November 1880. Residing in Montgomery. [WWI Civilian Draft Registrations database at http://www.ancestry.com ] Dates given as 1884-1961 [Sammons, Vivian Ovelton, ed.  Blacks in Science and Medicine. Hemisphere Publishing, 1990] Dates given as 9 March 1908-June 1972 [Social Security Death Index] Had office, clinic and lab and a nurse's training school on Monroe Street, Montgomery, for many years. Published medical papers and lectured on male diseases. Physician at Alabama State College and attended all football games as the doctor on call. Graduate of Meharry. Father was Thomas Green Adair [Bullock County], had a brother named Alonzo Adair. Adopted a son whom he named Roman T. Adair who died before his father. [Personal email communication 1 November 2001 from Alice Marie Watson, Dr. Adair's great-great niece.] “(b’84). 109 Watt St. ; office, 222 Dexter Ave. ” (American Medical Directory 1912, p. 96) “(col.) (b’84) 234 W. Jeff. Davis Ave. ; office, 36 ½ N. Lawrence St .” (American Medical Directory 1921, p. 147)

*Aldridge, Jonas W: Meharry, 1902; Etowah Co Bd, 1899?; Bessemer, 1904, 1905, 1910  (Trans 1904, p535) (Trans 1905, p541) (Trans 1910, p641)

*Allen, Alexander George William: Meharry, 1899; Russell Co Bd, 1899; Union Springs, Bullock Co, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1901, p156) (Trans 1903, p474)(Trans 1904, p499) (Trans 1905, p504) (Trans 1910, p598) Examined by Board of Medical Examiners of Russell County 20-24 March 1899 in Seale. Application for examination note he was born in Smith Station, Alabama, on 10 August 1859, and that he is currently living in Girard. [Alabama boards of medical examiners collection, Alabama State Department of Archives and History] Listed in American Medical Directory 1912, p. 101 and 1921, p. 152

*Archer, Hiram Ethan. Selma . “(col.)(b.’70) not in practice. Payne University ” (American Medical Directory 1921, p. 150) Also listed in Selma , American Medical Directory 1912, p.100

*Attaway, William Alexander: Meharry, 1902; Etowah Co Bd, 1903; Bessemer, 1904; Birmingham 1905 (Trans 1904, p535) (Trans 1905, p541)

*Baldwin, L.W. Pratt City. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 641]

*Beard, Robert Samuel. Huntsville.


*Booth, C.O. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 641] BOOTHE, CARLTON O. Leonard Medical College, 1904 Birmingham, AL. [Bates, It’s Been A Long Time, p. 111]

*Brandon, Thomas H.: Denver Med Coll, 1898; Madison Co Bd, 1899 (Trans 1905, p541 says 1900) ; cert held until 1901; Madison Co 1901, 1902; ; Bham, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905 (Trans 1901, p202) (Trans 1902, p455) (Trans 1903, p510) (Trans 1904, p535) (Trans 1905, p541)

*Brewer, James A. Leonard Medical College, 1909. Successful applicant/exam 13-16 July 1909. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 100]

*Brothers, W.H. state board 1909. Talladega. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 679]

*Brown, Arthur McKinnon:  b. Nov 9, 1867 Raleigh NC d. Dec 4, 1939 Birmingham, Alabama; Michigan, 1891; Jeff Co Bd, 1891; Bessemer 1891-1893; Birmingham, 1894-1902; 1904-1910. President, National Medical Assoc, 1914; surgeon, 10th U.S. Cavalry as lieutenant, Spanish-American War, 1898-99; first black officer commissioned in regular army, July 1898, but denied pension; highest score in history of Alabama Medical Examining Board; co-author, Tenth Cavalry Under Fire. (Johnson, 13-14) Brown's residence at 319 4th Terrace in the Smithfield neighborhood, designed by black architect Wallace A. Rayfield, has been used as a community center during the 1990s. Moved from Bessemer to Dayton, Ohio, sometime before March 1894 (Trans 1894, p235) (Trans 1895, p190: is this listing a mistake? Or did he move to Dayton after March 1894??) Moved from Birmingham to Chicago (Trans 1903, p513) . Moved from Chicago to Birmingham sometime before March 1899 (Trans 1899, p181)   (Trans 1901, p191) (Trans 1902, p443) (Trans 1904, p 535, 538) (Trans 1905, p541) (Trans 1910 p641; middle name spelled "McKinnen"] When he moved to Birmingham in 1894, he took over the practice of Dr. Norman H. Hudson [see below]. 


Arthur McKinnon Brown, M.D.
1867-1939

Arthur McKinnon Brown, M.D.
Source: Hamilton, Beacon Lights of the Race [1911]



*Brown, William F. Leonard 1905. state board 1905. Mobile. 1910. [Trans 1910 p. 660]

*Brummett, William: Meharry, 1904; Tallapoosa Co Bd, 1904-05 (Trans 1905, p576)

*Brummett, W.H. Meharry, 1904. cb Talladega 1904. Talladega. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 679]

*Buggs, John Wesley: Meharry, 1898; Jeff Co Bd cert refused 1902 or 1903 (Trans 1903, p87)

 *Burwell  [Burrell??], Lincoln Laconia [1867-March 6, 1928]: Leonard Med Coll [Shaw; Raleigh NC], 1889; State Bd, 1889? Dallas Co Bd, 1889? ; Selma, 1889, 1890, 1895, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1910 (Trans 1889, p173-174) (Trans 1890, p158) (Trans 1891, p202) (Trans 1894, p218) (Trans 1895, p175) (Trans 1899, p167) (Trans 1901, p173) (Trans 1902, p425) (Trans 1903, p492) (Trans 1904, p517) (Trans 1905, p522) (Trans 1910, p617) Died around 5:30 on a Tuesday morning of a cerebral hemorrhage. Graduated Leonard Medical School of Shaw University in 1890; practiced in Selma his entire career. Owned a drug store and set up Burwell Infirmary. Member of the National Medical Association for many years and a charter member of the Alabama State Medical Association. Active with civic, educational, fraternal, and religious activities, and was a deacon and trustee of his church. "We had the privilege of a personal acquaintanceship with Doctor Burwell and always found him the same: even-tempered, friendly, regular in his habits, always ready to help a worthy cause, and of a most kindly disposition." [J Natl Med Assoc 20:75, April-June 1928] Born 1867 in Marengo Born into poor family in Marengo County; sent to live with older brother when he was 8 years old. Graduated valedictorian from both Selma University and Leonard Medical College. Married former Lavinia Richardson. Two daughters attended Oberlin College in Ohio. Older daughter Almedia L. graduated from the Conservatory of Music at Oberlin and taught music at Florida A&M. Younger daughter graduated from Oberlin in 1915 and served as secretary to the Selma University President. By 1919 Burwell had served thirteen years as secretary of the board of trustees of Selma University. [Bailey, Richard. They Too Call Alabama Home: African American Profiles, 1800-1999. Montgomery: Pyramid Publishing, 1999, pp 54-55. Includes portrait; Bailey's source is Richardson] Listed in American Medical Directory 1912, p. 100 and 1921, p. 150. “Lincoln Laconia Burwell, Selma, Ala.; Leonard Medical School, Raleigh, 1889; also a druggist; on the staff and formerly proprietor of an infirmary bearing his name; aged 61; died suddenly, March 6, of cerebral hemorrhage.” (JAMA 90:1728, May 26, 1928) According to his application for medical examination, he was born in McKinley, Marengo County, Alabama, on 28 October, 1866. [ Alabama boards of medical examiners collection, Alabama State Department of Archives and History] Graduated from Selma University in 1886. (John A. Kenney, The Negro in Medicine. Tuskegee Institute, 1912, p.21; this book includes portrait and photo of interior of his drug store) Also mentioned in Richardson , Clement. National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race. (Montgomery, Alabama, 1919). Burwell Infirmary operated until at least 1965. Strider Jim Benston, a civil rights worker from Arkansas , reports he “Spent night of Feb 18 at Burwell Infirmary treating injured from Marion .”
 [
http://www.crmvet.org/vet/arkansas.htm   accessed 25 July 2002] Burwell Infirmary opened in 1907. “He established his practice here, opened a drugstore on Franklin Street and, later, Burwell Infirmary on Philpot Avenue .” [Fitts, Alston III. Selma : Queen City of the Black Belt. Selma: Clairmont Press, 1989, p103] Dallas County, Alabama, 1930 Federal Census Microfilm #T626-14 notes Burwell Infirmary in Selma, Ward 2, Enumeration District 24-33.



[From Kenney, The Negro in Medicine, 1912]


 


[From Kenney,
The Negro in Medicine, 1912]

 


Selma University ca. 1895
[from Boothe,
Cyclopedia of the Colored Baptists of Alabama 1895]


*Caffee, F.C. Montgomery Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 666] [Same as Coffey, Frank C., below?]

*Cashin, Newel. Howard Univ, 1908. state board 1908. Decatur. Morgan Co. 1910 [Trans 1910  p. 668]

*Coffey, Frank C. Montgomery. “(col.) (b’70). 2 Houston St .” (American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97) (same entry, (American Medical Directory, 1921, p. 147) [Same as Caffee, F.C., above?]

*Coffey, G.W. Howard, 1903. cb Lauderdale 1906. Gadsden. Etowah Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 623]

*Coleman, William Henry: Meharry, 1900; Etowah Co Board cert refused 1900-01 because he applied to Etowah less than 12 months after refusal by Hale Co Board 1900-01 (Trans 1901, p118, 178, 183). Limestone County Board, 1901; residence Birmingham (Trans 1902, pp 89 and 452) (Trans 1904, p536) Meharry 1900. cb Limestone 1901. Bessemer. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 641] 

*Council, W.L. Meharry, ?. cb Jefferson 1899. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 641]

*Council, W.L. Meharry, 1906. cb Jefferson 1899. Huntsville. Madison Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 654]

*Councill, W.L.: Meharry, ?; Jeff Co Board, 1899; Birmingham, 1904, 1905 (Trans 1904, p536) (Trans 1905, p542) 

*Cruikshank, Herbert. Harvard Medical School, 1895. state board 1898. Mobile. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 660]

*Cruikshank, Robert: Howard, 1894; State Board, 1897; Birmingham, 1902-03, 1904-05 (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1905, p542)

*Crum, John Daniel. Howard, 1887. State Board cert refused (Trans 1892, p129)

*Crunkshank, Herbert: Harvard MC, 1895; State Board, 1898; Mobile, 1904, 1905 (Trans 1904, p536) (Trans 1905, p559)

*Dale, Ellis Andrews: Cleveland Homeopathic Med Coll, 1900; State cert refused, 1900-01 (Trans 1901, p112)

*Darden, John Wesley. Graduated Leonard Medical School, 1901. Internship in New York. Moved to Opelika, 1903. Built home at 1323 Auburn Street, 1904. Married Maude Jean Logan, pianist at his church, 1905. Died, 1949. Darden High School opens, 1951; merges with Opelika High School, 1971. Darden Foundation formed to restore house, 2001. [Nix, Jason. AU students and a retired black educator work to preserve a piece of Opelika's history. Opelika-Auburn News 23 February 2003] J.W. Darden foundation is at http://www.jwdarden.org/ ; according to that site, Dr. Darden grew up in Wilson, North Carolina. 




Darden House in September, 2002


*Davis, Arthur Willis. b. 1875, Marion. Meharry, 1903. Set up practice in Tuscumbia. Within 14 years had a home, drug store, two farms and rental property in Sheffield. Married Hattie Lee Jackson of Nashville 26 December 1905. (Richardson, p. 37)

*Dennis, Samuel Bufford. Meharry, 1905. cb Madison 1905. Troy. Pike Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 672]

*Derrick, W.W. Meharry, 1906. Huntsville. Madison Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 654]

*Dillon, Halle Tanner: b. 1864, Pittsburgh, d. April 26, 1901, Tennessee. Women's Med Coll Penn, 1891; State Bd, 1891: "The case of H.T. Dillon is remarkable as that of the first colored woman examined in the state." (Trans 1892). Dillon "served as resident physician at Tuskegee Institute from 1891 to 1894. During her tenure she was responsible for the medical care of 450 students as well as for 30 officers and teachers and their families. Johnson was expected to make her own medicines, while teaching one or two classes each term. For her efforts she was paid six hundred dollars per year plus room and board; she was allowed one one-month vacation per year." Dillon "was also a member of an outstanding family. She was the daughter of Bishop B.T. Tanner of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia." (Hine, 111, 114) Tuskegee, 1895 (Trans 1895, p199)

Halle Dillon was born on October 17, 1864, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Benjamin Tucker Tanner, an AME minister and editor of church publications. [The following biography is based on Smith, Carney Jessie. Johnson, Halle Tanner. In: Darlene Clark Hine, ed. Facts on File Encyclopedia o Black Women in America: Science, Health and Medicine. New York: Facts on File, 1997] Halle was the eldest daughter among nine children; two died in infancy. Older brother Henry Ossawa (1859-1937) became a well-known painter of landscape and religious subjects. Halle married Charles E. Dillon of Trenton, New Jersey, in June 1886. Daughter Sadie was born the following year. Charles died soon after the birth of Sadie, and Halle and her child returned home. At age 24 Halle entered the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; she was the only African-American in her class and graduated with honors on May 7, 1891.

Booker T. Washington had written the college dean, Dr. Clara Marshall, about his need for a resident physician at Tuskegee Institute. Dr. Marshall must have brought the letter to Halle's attention, since she wrote Washington. The educator responded with a description of the position at Tuskegee. She was to begin on September 1, 1891, but she had to pass the Alabama certification exam first.

Washington knew how difficult passing the exam would be for Dr. Dillon; she would have to spend several days answering hundreds of questions from the white members of the board of examiners. So Washington arranged for her to study with Montgomery physician Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette. Born in North Carolina in the early 1850s, Dorsette had been a classmate of Washington's at Hampton Institute and graduated from the University of Buffalo Medical School in 1882. Washington then persuaded Dr. Dorsette to come south and set up practice as the first licensed African-American physician in Montgomery and one of the first in the state. As far as I have been able to determine, only Dr. Burgess E. Scruggs of Huntsville preceded him. [Trans MASA 1880, p. 101] In 1890, Dr. Dorsette founded Hale Infirmary, the first hospital for African-Americans in Alabama which operated until 1958. Dr. Dorsette also served on the Board of Trustees of Tuskegee Institute from 1883 until his death in 1897.. [Cobb, W. Montague. Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, M.D., 1852-1897. Journal of the National Medical Association 52: 456-459, November 1960; Savitt, T. Dorsette, Cornelius Nathaniel. In: Martin Kaufman, Stuart Galishoff, Todd L. Savitt, eds. Dictionary of American Medical Biography. 2 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984, p211]

After her period of study with Dorsette, Dillon sat for the medical licensure examination. Among the three references Dillon had listed was Dr. Clara Marshall, her medical school dean. The test began in Montgomery on August 17, 1891, and concluded on August 25. During those days she was examined on ten subjects by ten different examiners. [Alabama State Board of Medical Examiners. Examination Papers in the Case of Halle Tanner Dillon, MD. August 1891. Alabama Department of Archives and History.] Among those examiners were some of the most prominent physicians in Alabama.

Dr. Peter Bryce, superintendent of Alabama Hospital for the Insane since 1860, tested her on medical jurisprudence. Dr. Jerome Cochran, state health officer and the primary force behind the Medical Licensure Act of 1877, examined Dr. Dillon in chemistry. Her examiner in natural history and diagnosis of diseases was Dr. George A. Ketchum, Dean of the Medical College of Alabama from 1885 until his death in 1906; he was also involved in creating the Medical Association of the State of Alabama in 1847. Dr. James T. Searcy, her examiner in hygiene, became superintendent of the state's hospital for the insane the following year after Dr. Bryce's death. Dillon was examined in obstetrical operations by Dr. J.B. Gaston, who had served as president of the state medical association in 1882.

Dillon passed the examinations. As the Transactions of the state medical association noted in its annual report of examination results, "The case of H.T. Dillon is remarkable as that of the first colored woman examined in the state." [Trans MASA 1892, p. 128] Dr. Dillon served at Tuskegee from September 1, 1891, until sometime in 1894. "During her tenure she was responsible for the medical care of 450 students as well as for 30 officers and teachers and their families. Johnson was expected to make her own medicines, while teaching one or two classes each term. For her efforts she was paid six hundred dollars per year plus room and board; she was allowed one one-month vacation per year." [Hine DC. Co-laborers in the work of the Lord: nineteenth-century black women physicians. In: Abram RJ, ed. Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985, 114]

In 1894 Dillon married Rev. John Quincy Johnson, a mathematics teacher at Tuskegee. The following year Rev. Johnson was named President of Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina. In 1900 he became pastor of an AME church in Nashville. The Johnsons had three sons. Dr. Johnson died on April 26, 1901, of dysentery and childbirth complications; she was 37. She is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Nashville. Apparently Dr. Halle Tanner Dillon Johnson ceased the practice of medicine after her second marriage. [Smith, Carney Jessie. Johnson, Halle Tanner. In: Darlene Clark Hine, ed. Facts on File Encyclopedia of Black Women in America: Science, Health and Medicine. New York: Facts on File, 1997]

*Dinkins, Pauline Elizabeth. Woman's MC Phila, 1919. Selma, Dallas Co. Cert state bd, July, 1919. [Trans MASA 1920, p85, 303] Selma “(col.) (b’91). Licensed 1919. 807 Minter Avenue .” (American Medical Directory 1921, p. 150) Appears in Valley Creek Precinct, Dallas County , Alabama , Roll T623-13, page 19A, Enumeration District 15. Born December 1891. One of 6 daughters and one son of Charles and Pauline Elizabeth Dinkins; also listed in the household are a grandmother and a servant.[12th U.S. Census 1900] In 1929 she made a trip to Europe. According to New York Passenger Lists 1820-1957, she returned to the U.S. on June 10, 1929, from Hamburg, Germany, aboard the SS Albert Ballin. That ship, launched in 1923, added a tourist class in 1928. After sailing under various other names, The SS Albert Ballin was scrapped in 1981. The Wikepedia entry on the vessel is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Albert_Ballin




SS Albert Ballin in 1923

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Albert_Ballin 

*Dorsette, Cornelius Nathaniel: b.1851,1852 or 1859, Davidson Co NC, d.Dec 7, 1897 Montgomery; Univ of Buffalo Med Sch, 1882;  Ala's first licensed black physician? (1884?); practice Montgomery 1884-1897. Founded Hale Infirmary, Montgomery, first Alabama hospital (1890-1958) for blacks; Hampton classmate and lifelong friend of Booker T. Washington; served on Tuskegee Institute Bd Trustees 1883-1897. (Savitt 1; Cobb 1)Montgomery Co Bd, 1884: "The papers in this case came up in very bad order. The scope of the examination is defective by the omission of public and private hygiene, medical jurisprudence, and medical ethics. The written examination may be allowed to pass, especially as the oral examination is reported to have been very good." (Trans 1884, pp159-160) (Trans 1888, p289) (Trans 1889, p201)  (Trans 1890, p189) (Trans 1891, p231) (Trans 1892, p248) (Trans 1895, p209) (Hafner 1:419; last name spelled "Dorsat") “Born a slave in 1852, Cornelius Dorsette lived through the Civil War in rural North Carolina . In 1882 he earned his M.D. from the Medical College of the University of Buffalo . With the encouragement of Booker T. Washington, Dr. Dorsette moved to Montgomery to serve as its first black physician. In 1884, he became the first black physician to pass the newly required state medical licensure exam. It is said that the physicians and leading citizens of Montgomery gave Dr. Dorsette a warm welcome. He later became a close medical contemporary of Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill and Dr. Jerome Cochran. Dr. Dorsette was named to the Board of Trustees at Tuskegee and remained very supportive of the college throughout his life. Knowing that a hospital was desperately needed for the black citizens of Montgomery , Dr. Dorsette opened Hale Infirmary in 1890. He also helped found the National Medical Association and later served as its president.”  [Alabama Healthcare Hall of Fame:  http://www.healthcarehof.org/honorees01/dorsette.html ]   That bio gives his birth year as 1852. 
”In 1884 or 1885 he had married Sarah Hale, daughter of James Hale, Montgomery’s wealthiest and most influential black resident. Dorsette emphasized to James Hale the great need for an infirmary to treat black patients…Dorsette helped organize the National Medical Association for black physicians and served as the group’s first president.” Active in state Republican Party. Dorsette and first wife had no children; she died within a year of the marriage. In 1886 he married Lula Harper; they had two daughters and lived near his professional building on Union Street . Went hunting on Thanksgiving Day 1897, developed pneumonia and died. This source also gives information on Dorsette’s career just after medical school, details of B.T. Washington’s recruitment and information about his three-story brick professional building on Dexter Avenue near the state capitol and its other tenants. [American National Biography] See also W. Montague Cobb, “Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, M.D., 1852-1897” Journal of the National Medical Association 52(6): 456-459, November 1960 which includes photographs of Hale Infirmary and the Alabama State Medical Congress held on April 14, 1904, which includes Drs. C.E. Thomas, J.C. Johnson, John A. Kenney, D.H.C. Scott, L.L. Burrell, J.E. Sterr, A.C. Dungee, A.M. Brown, Ulysses G. Mason and H. Council and Tuskegee Hospital Head Nurse Sarah Smith.     


Cornelius Nathanial Dorsette, M.D.
1852-1897

*Dungee, Alfred Coleman Jr. [March 16,1864?-November 10?, 1965]: Howard, 1889; State Bd, 1891;  Montgomery, 1894, 1895, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904. 1905 and 1910 [Trans 1910 p. 666] (Trans 1892, Home on Jeff Davis Avenue. First of three children born to Alfred Sr. and Lillian Brewster Dungee of Montgomery. Member of Mt. Zion AME Church and veteran of World War I. Affiliated with Hale Infirmary. Mother was a co-founder of Alabama Reform School for Negro Boys at Mt. Meigs and the first black to be appointed to the Court  of Domestic Relations. ["Heart Attack Fatal to Dr. Dungee." Montgomery Advertiser  11 November 1965] [A Century of Negro Progress in Montgomery City and County: Centennial Edition, 1863-1963. Montgomery, Ala: n.d.] [Bailey, Richard. They Too Call Alabama Home: African-American Profiles, 1800-1999. Montgomery: Pyramid Publishing, 1999, p123]  “(col.) 226 J. Davis Ave. ; office, 27 ½ S. Court St.” (American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97)(same entry, (American Medical Directory, 1921, p. 147)  DUNGEE, ALFRED COLEMAN, Jr., 1862-1965 Howard University, School of Medicine, 1890 Montgomery, AL. [Howard University Medical Department, p. 163]

*Fearn, LeRoy: Meharry, 1882; Jeff Co Bd cert refused, unsuccessful exam (Trans 1885, pp 181,286)

*Fields, Jackson Park: Meharry, 1900; Morgan Co Bd, 1901 (Trans 1901, p112)

*Flagg, Charles S.W. Leonard Medical College, 1905. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 13-16 July 1909.  [Trans 1910,  p. 103]

*Ford, Justina Lorena . Herring Medical College, Chicago, 1899. Cert. Madison Co Bd 1900. [Trans MASA 1901, p120] 

*Ford, Justina Laurena Carter . [1871-1952]. Born in Knoxville, small town east of Galesburg, Illinois. Herring Medical College, Chicago, 1899. Practiced briefly at Normal, Alabama, before moving to Denver, Colorado. Claimed to have delivered over 7,000 babies in her career. [Harris, Mark. The forty years of Justina Ford. Negro Digest 8:43-45, March 1950; Smith, Jessie Carney. Justina L. Ford. In: Smith, Jessie Carney, ed. Notable Black American Women, volume 2. New York: Gale, 1996, pp 229-231] Her home in Denver is now the Black American West Museum and Heritage Center. See longer entry in female physicians section.

"Settling in Denver in 1902 with a degree from Hering Medical College in Chicago, she was truly a medical pioneer. Courage and determination sheilded her from the discrimination that she would face even as she applied for her Colorado medical license. The licensing examiner told her, "I feel dishonest taking a fee from you. You've got two strikes against you to begin with. First of all, you're a lady, and second, you're colored."

Regardless of those obstacles, she established what was to become a long and notable practice in Denver, specializing in gynecology, obstetrics, and pediatrics. The "Lady Doctor", as she became familiarly and lovingly known, delivered more than 7,000 babies of varied ethnic backgrounds and from all walks of life. Dr. Ford was denied hospital privileges for a good number of years, thus her home delivery practice was essential. Against these odds, and faced with other barriers of race and gender, she persisted in her commitment to bring medical service to the disadvantaged and underprivileged of Denver. Dr. Ford was a true humanitarian.

Four months before her death, she is quoted as saying, "...When all the fears, hate, and even some death is over, we will really be brothers as God intended us to be in this land. This I believe. For this I have worked all my life.""

SOURCE [for quote and photo]:

 http://www.blackamericanwestmuseum.com/founders.html 

 



*Freeman, M.H. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 642] FREEMAN, M. H. Meharry Medical College, 1905 Birmingham, AL. [Meharry Bulletin (1929), p. 54]

*Goin, John Burt: Meharry, 1900?; Jeff Co Bd, 1900?; Birmingham, 1892, 1894, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1892, p230) (Trans 1894, p234) (Trans 1895, p190) (Trans 1899, p182) (Trans 1901, p192) (Trans 1902, p444) (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1904, p536) (Trans 1905, p542) (Trans 1910, p. 642) [NOTE: 1910 Transactions give Meharry 1890, cb Jefferson 1890]

*Goin, Logwood Ulysses: Meharry, 1899; State Bd, 1899; Birmingham, 1901-02, 1903, 1904-05, 1910 (Trans 1902, p444) (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1904, p536) (Trans 1905, p542) (Trans 1910, p. 642) [NOTE: 1910 Transactions give Meharry, 1890, cb Jefferson 1890]


L.U. Goin, M.D.
Source: Hamilton, Beacon Lights of the Race [1911] 

*Gregg, Eugene J. Meharry, 1905. cb Walker 1905. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910.  [Trans 1910,  p. 642]

*Grimes, R.L. Leonard, 1905. cb Barbour 1906. Dothan. Houston Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 631]

*Hamilton, C.A. Knoxville, 1905. cb Morgan 1905. Decatur. Morgan Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 668]

*Harris, H.F. Meharry 1905. cb Elmore. Anniston. Calhoun Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 600]

*Harris, Thomas Nathaniel: Meharry, 1899; State Bd, 1899; Mobile, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1904, p553) (Trans 1905, p559) (Trans 1910, p. 660 which says "state board 1895") "Thomas Nathaniel Harris graduated from Tuskegee in 1889 and went to Montgomery, Ala., where he taught printing at the Alabama State Normal School and ran a printing business from 1890 to 1894. He then went to Meharry Medical College to study medicine and dentistry, graduating in 1897. He was a dentist in Henderson, Ky., and later a physician in Montgomery before moving to Mobile in 1899." [Harlan, Louis R., ed. The Booker T. Washington Papers volume 4, 1895-1898; p. 108, footnote 2] "Dr. Thomas N. Harris is a physician and surgeon in Mobile, and one of the partners in a drug store there. Dr. Harris went to Tuskegee and remained four years, learning the printer's trade. After he graduated he returned to Montgomery and taught printing for four years in the State Normal School for Negroes in that city. From there he went to Meharry Medical College, from which he graduated, and began the practice of his profession." [Thrasher, Max Bennett. Tuskegee: Its Story and Work. 1901. Rep. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969, p. 141] David L. Johnston, in "A Druggist's Story" mentions that he entered Meharry Medical College on October 15, 1894, and graduated on February 4, 1896. "I had pleasant associations while there with many of my former Tuskegee class-and schoolmates, among them...Dr. T.N. Harris, of Mobile, Ala....each of these is succeeding at the places named most satisfactorily as physicians." [Chapter 14 in Washington, Booker T., ed. Tuskegee and Its People: Their Ideals and Achievements. Rep. 1905. Rep. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969, pp. 293-294] In "Alabama Deaths, 1908-1959" database at Ancestry.Com, a "Thomas N. Harris" is listed as deceased on 27 October 1943 in Mobile County; other possbilities in this database in Mobile County are Thomas Harris [deceased Aug. 1928], Thomas Harris [deceased Dec. 1928] and Thomas Harris [deceased Aug. 26, 1916]. Whether any of these men are the same Harris has yet to be determined.

*Hawkins, Charles C. Meharry Medical College, 1908. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 11-14 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 104]

*Hill, Robert Leon: Howard, 1897; State cert exam refused, year ending March 1899 (Trans 1899, p113) State cert second exam refused, year ending March 1900 (Trans 1901, p112)

*Howard, Wayne Cox. State Board, 1905. Demopolis. Marengo Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 655] HOWARD, WAYNE COX - Meharry Medical School, 1905 Bessemer, AL. [Meharry Bulletin (1929), p. 54 (1905); Mather, Who’s Who of the Colored Race, p.144 (1906)]

*Huckabee, Benjamin Edward: Meharry 1902; Hale Co Bd 1902; Greensboro 1902-03; Blossburg, Jeff Co, 1904-05;  (Trans 1902, p435) (Trans 1903, p501) (Trans 1905, p543)

*Hudson, Norman Hyde: Long Island, 1890; Jeff Co Bd, 1891; Birmingham 1891, 1894   (Trans 1892, p230) (Trans 1894, p234) Moved from Birmingham to "parts unknown" (Trans 1895, p192) According to one source Dr. Arthur M.Brown took over his practice in 1894 when Hudson "became incapacitated for service in his profession" and returned to his home in Jamaica. (Hamilton, 1911, p. 22)

*Hundley, J.T.: Birmingham, 1900-01, 1902, 1903, 1904-05, and 1910 (Trans 1901, p192) (Trans 1902, p444) (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1904, p537) (Trans 1905, p543) (Trans 1910, p. 642)

*Ingraham, Terrence N.


 

Optometry student Terrence N. Ingraham examines a patient, May 1978.  Ingraham received his O.D. degree from the UAB School of Optometry in June 1978, becoming the first African American graduate of the school.

Image ID: P7.4.1, #0675 UAB Archives

 

*Jones, Amanda. On October 29, 1870, she made a deposit into the Huntsville branch of  the Freedman's Saving and Trust Company. In the questions asked of depositors, she identified her occupation as "Doctors." Other information given: she was 53 and  had a brown complextion. Her father's name was George; her mother's Delia. She was a widow. Children were John, Delia, Hannah. "I have one brother I don't know  where he is, one sister gone Washington." She was born in Woodstock, Virginia, Shando County, and resided in Huntsville. [National Archives Microfilm Publication M816, "Registers of Signatures of Depositors in Branches of the Freeman's Saving  and Trust Company 1865-1874. Roll 1, Huntsville, Alabama, accounts 1-1698, November 28, 1865-August 21, 1874]  

*Jones, Archie: Meharry, 1897; Madison Co Bd, 1897; Florence, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1903, p515)  (Trans 1905, p547) (Trans 1910, p. 647)

*Jones, E. state board 1909. Talladega. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 679]

*Jones, Sr., Elisha Henry [1883-1963] “(col.), b’83; Tenn. 14, ‘09, l’09.” (American Medical Directory 1931). “Tenn. 14” is the University of West Tennessee Medical Department, which opened in Jackson, Tennessee, in 1900 and moved to Memphis in 1907. The school closed in 1923. Dr. Jones practiced in Talladega from 1909 until his death in 1963. Some of his medical instruments are located in Heritage Hall Museum, 200 South Street East in Talladega. Dr. Jones appeared on the May 22, 1957, episode of the NBC-TV program This Is Your Life as a childhood friend of American inventor Lee De Forest. De Forest’s father, a Congregational minister, served as President of Talladega College during much of De Forest’s youth. // JONES, ELISHA HENRY, February 20, 1883 University of West Tennessee Medical School, 1909 Talladega, AL. [Bates, It’s Been A Long Time, p. 121; Mather, Who’s Who of the Colored Race, 160]

*Kennebrew, Alonzo Homer: Meharry, 1897; Macon Co Bd, 1897; Tuskegee, 1899 (Trans 1899, p191),  1901 (Trans 1901, p201), 1902 (Trans 1902, p454) Moved from Tuskegee to Illinois before April 1903 (Trans 1903, p521)

*Kenniebrew, Alonzo Homer: Listed in “Academic Department” Faculty listing as “Physiology” and “Nurse Training Department” as “Physician in Charge” [Max Bennett Thrasher, Tuskegee: Its Story and Its Work. 1901. Rep. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1967, pp 209-210] Two letters from him appear in Booker T. Washington Papers Vol. 4: 265 and 290, March 25 and June 1, 1897. Footnote on page 265 notes that he graduated from Tuskegee in 1891 and Meharry in 1897 and that in 1899 he married Leonora Love Chapman, Lady Principal at Tuskegee. Other mentions of him in the Papers appear between 1894 and 1903 [University of Illinois Press, online at http://stills.nap.edu/btw/ ] He left Tuskegee in 1902 for Jacksonville, Illinois.



Alonzo Homer Kenniebrew, M.D.

 

*Kenney, John Andrew (June 11, 1874-January 29, 1950): Leonard Med Coll [Shaw; Raleigh NC ], 1901; Macon Co. Board, 1902; Tuskegee , 1902-1924. Moved into county from ? ca. 1902-03 (Trans 1903, p. 520) (Trans 1904, p546) (Trans 1905, p552) (Trans 1910, p652) Edited the Journal of the National Medical Association for 32 years. See T. Savitt, “John Andrew Kenney” in Kaufman M, Galishoff S, Savitt TL, eds. Dictionary of American Medical Biography. 2 vols. Westport CT : Greenwood Press, 1984, 1: 411. See also Cobb WM. John Andrew Kenney, M.D., 1874-1950. Journal of the National Medical Association 42(3): 175-177, May, 1950, which includes a portrait. A pamphlet, Celebrating the Legacy of Kenney Hospital Newark, New Jersey  has been made available to me by Dr. Kenney granddaughter, Linda Kenney Miller, and contains biographical information about him. Dr. Kenney was the author of The Negro in Medicine [Tuskegee Institute Press, 1912, 60pp.], the first work published on the topic in the United States.

*Lawrence, William Collins: Leonard Medical College[Shaw; Raleigh NC, 1901; State bd certification refused (2nd exam) (Trans 1904, p94)

*Maclin, Robert B.: Meharry, 1905; Tuscaloosa Co Bd, 1905; Brookwood, 1905 (Trans 1905, p578)

*Mason, Ulysses Grant: Meharry, 1895; Jeff Co Bd, 1895; Birmingham, 1895, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 and ca. 1913 (Trans 1895, p101) (Trans 1899, p183) (Trans 1901, p192) (Trans 1902, p444) (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1904, p537) (Trans 1905, p543) (Trans 1910, p. 643)


Dr. U.G. Mason, Physician and Surgeon, Birmingham, Ala.


*McBroom, F.G. Meharry 1905. cb Jefferson 1908. Gadsden. Etowah Co. 1910. [Trans 1910,  p. 623]

*McCoo, Thomas Vivian [January 3, 1883-February 1967]:  Leonard, 1906. cb Barbour 1907. Selma. Dallas Co. 1910. [Trans 1910,  p. 618] [January 3, 1883-February 1967, Eufaula [Social Security Death Index]. Practiced in Eufaula for almost 50 years. Graduated from Selma University and Leonard Medical School at Shaw University in Raleigh, N.C. Married Gertrude Coffee, daughter of Methodist minister, in 1908 and returned to Eufaula. Before integration, a high school for blacks, T.V. McCoo High School, was named after him. Son William, also a physician, set up practice in Los Angeles. One grandchild is singer Marilyn McCoo. [Johnston, Patrick. "'Eufaulians of both races' loved Dr. McCoo." Eufaula Tribune, February 7, 2002. This article cites a book, Robert Flewellen, _Along Broad Street_.] Attended Selma University . Died in 1967 at St. Andrew Hospital in Tuskegee just a few days after being admitted. “Not only was Dr. McCoo a competent physician who rendered invaluable service to the suffering, but equally as important he was a dedicated civic and religious leader for many years…Eufaulians of both races have lost a friend,” wrote editor Joel Smith in the Eufaula Tribune after McCoo’s death. [Patrick Johnston, “’Eufaulians of both races’ loved Dr. McCoo. Throughout his life, Dr. T.V. McCoo was a friend to both white and black Eufaulians—often at times when that was difficult to do.” Eufaula Tribune 7 February 2002] Portrait hangs in the McCoo Branch of the Carnegie Library in Chattahoochee Courts, Eufaula. Son Dr. Waymon McCoo also became a physician and settled in Los Angeles ; an article about him appeared shortly after his death at 94: “Dr. McCoo, 94, dies in L.A. ; Eufaula native and father of superstar Marilyn McCoo, Dr. Waymon McCoo, died Friday in Los Angeles . He was 94.” Eufaula Tribune 20 October 2003.

 

T.V. McCoo [1883-1967]
(SOURCE: Eufaula Tribune 7 Feb 2002)


*McDonald, F.V. mc ?, 1908. sb 1908. Brewton. Escambia Co. 1910. [Trans, 1910,  p. 621] McDONALD, FLOYD VIRGEL, 1888-1917 University of Michigan, 1907 Brewton, AL. [Johnson, Black Medical Graduates of the University of Michigan (1872-1960 Inclusive), p. 60]

*McDonald, Floyd Virgel: [b. Leslie MI, April 27, 1888; d. Dec 10, 1917, Fernandina, Florida, buried in Jackson MI] ; Michigan, 1907; practiced in Brewton (Johnson, 60)

*McLaurin, Archie Farley: Meharry, 1902; State Bd cert refused, 1902 (Trans 1903, p82)

*Mitchell, B: Meharry, ?; ? Co Bd, ?; Demopolis, 1905 (Trans 1905, p555)

*Mitchell, Bruce Blance. Meharry, 1903. cb Lamar 1903. Demopolis. Marengo Co. 1910. [Trans 1910,  p. 655]

*Moorer, John Wesley [Moore, John Welsey in Trans 1901]: Meharry, 1899; Clarke Co Bd, 1899; Selma, Dallas Co, 1900-01, 1901-02, 1903-04, 1904-05, 1910 (Trans 1901, p174) (Trans 1902, p426) (Trans 1903, p492) (Trans 1904, p517) (Trans 1905, p522) (Trans 1910, p618) Listed in American Medical Directory 1912, p.100 and 1921, p. 150. “DEATH CLAIMS NEGRO DOCTOR/Moorer Funeral Rites Will Be Held Here on Thursday/ Dr. J.W. Moorer practicing negro physician here for more than 40 years, died at his home at 3 o’clock Monday afternoon, funeral services will be held at 2:30 o’clock Thursday afternoon at the First Baptist Church for colored. His life and his career as an outstanding negro physician of the Black Belt exemplified many qualities which serves as an inspiration to others of his race and he was held in high respect by many white friends who were familiar with his years of service to his own people. A graduate of Selma University, he also was long connected with the development of the negro educational institution. He had been a trustee for many years and was treasurer of the board at the time of his death, also having served at one time as secretary. He also was University Physician. Dr. Moorer was active in State and National Negro Baptist work. He held a diploma from Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tenn., and did post-graduate work at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. Born at Braggs, Ala., practically all his life was spent in this section and at one time he taught school at Thomasville.” [Selma Times-Journal Tuesday, January 13, 1942]

 

*Nichols, Taylor Henderson: Howard, 1904. State certificate refused, 1904-05. Not designated "col." in Trans (Trans 1905, p70)

 

*Norcross, ?. Montgomery. [Trans 1910,  p. 666]

*Northcross, David Caneen. “(col.) (b.’76) 6 Sheppard Ave.; office, 222 Dexter Ave.”(American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97)  NORTHCROSS, DAVID CANEEN, February 23, 1876-1933 College of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago, 1906 Montgomery, AL; Detroit, MI. [Dictionary of American Medical Biography, p. 556; Northcross family papers (Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library)

Mather, Who’s Who of the Colored Race, p. 206]

*NORTHCROSS, DAISY HILL, December 9, 1881-1956 Bennett Medical College, 1913 Montgomery, AL; Detroit, MI

Northcross family papers (Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library) [Mather, Who’s Who of the Colored Race, p. 206]

*Nuttall, Harry Montgomery: b. Nov 3, 1891 (???) Madison IN, d. Dec 2, 1962, Detroit MI; Michigan, 1904; Perry Co. Certificate refused, 1905 (Trans 1905, p78, 567) Practiced almost 50 years in Detroit (Johnson, 61)

*Plaine, Charles Amos: Meharry, 1900; State cert, 1900; Gadsden, 1900-01, 1901-02, 1910  (Trans 1901, pp. 112, 178) (Trans 1902, p. 430) (Trans 1910, p. 623)

*Porter, D.W. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 643]

*Pratt, John Paul: Meharry, ?; ? Co Bd ?; Anniston; 1888 (Trans 1888, p247)

*Reynolds, Oliver M. Meharry Medical College, 1909. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 13-16 July 1909 [Trans 1910 p. 102]

*Richardson, Perry Nash: Meharry student but non-graduate. State Bd cert refused (Trans 1892, p129)

*Robertson, A.G. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910 p. 643]

*Rodgers, G.A. Meharry 1908. sb 1907. Anniston. Calhoun Co. 1910 [Trans 1910 p. 600]

*Scott, David H.C. [1871 Nov 21-1919 Dec 25]: Univ Nashville, 1895; Jeff Co Bd, 1895; Selma, 1895; (Trans 1895, p101, 177) Montgomery 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1899, p201) (Trans 1901, p212) (Trans 1902, p465) (Trans 1903, p531) (Trans 1904, p557) (Trans 1905, p564) (Trans 1910, p666) “(col.) 111 Monroe St.” .”(American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97)  Born 21 November 1871 in Hollywood, Alabama. Attended Huntsville Normal School (later Alabama A&M) and Meharry Medical School. Initially settled in Selma to begin practice but three months later moved to Montgomery. Purchased a lot at the corner of Monroe and Mcdonough Streets. Built three-story structure on the site that housed drug store with a soda fountain on the first floor and business offices on the other floors. Lot later owned by Eddie L. Posey, active in the Montgomery bus boycott. Married Viola Watkins pm 28 December 1897. She was daughter of contractor William Watkins, a founding member of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. Scott did many of his operations at Hale Infirmary on Lake Street only blocks from both his office and church. No children. [Bailey, Richard. They Too Call Alabama Home: African-American Profiles, 1800-1999. Montgomery: Pyramid Publishing, 1999, pp 339-340. He cites Richardson, Clement. National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race. (Montgomery, Alabama, 1919) and Evans, Zelia S. and J. T. Alexander, eds. Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, 1877-1977 (1978)]  “David H. Clay Scott, Montgomery, Ala.; Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., 1895; aged 49; died, Dec. 25, 1919, from carcinoma of the liver.” [JAMA 74(13): 903,  1919] “He was a progressive man, public spirited and thrifty, owning a modern three-story brick store and office building, which he had erected on North Lawrence and Monroe Streets, one block from the Post Office; and it was largely through Dr. Scott’s efforts, that Hale Infirmary became a well equipped institution for colored people in the South…for many years, Dr. Scott was apparently highly esteemed by the whites. But when the test came, and the lynching mob broke loose last year, one of their first deeds was to drive Dr. Scott out of town and loot his property. His only crime was that of bailing his brother-in-law out of jail, where he had been incarcerated on a ridiculous and false charge. The two men left the city temporarily, but returned, and Dr. Scott died. The blood of the Negro martyrs is mounting high.” [The Crisis 19: 273-274, March 1920; includes portrait of Dr. Scott] SCOTT, DAVID HENRY CLAY, 1871-1919 Meharry Medical College, 1895 Montgomery, AL. [Dictionary of Black Culture, p. 395; Meharry Bulletin (1929), p. 26]

 

*Scruggs, Burgess E.: Univ Nashville, 1870; Central Union Coll, Nashville (Meharry), 1879; Madison Co Bd, 1879; Huntsville, 1880,  1886, 1894, 1899,  1901, 1902, 1903,  1904, 1905 and 1910 (Trans 1880, p101) (Trans 1886, p230) (Trans 1894, p245)  (Trans 1899, p193) (Trans 1901, p203) (Trans 1902, p456) (Trans 1903, p522) (Trans 1904, p547) (Trans 1905, p554) (Trans 1910, p.654)


Burgess E. Scruggs, M.D.


*Shaw, E.C. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 643]

*Shaw, Joseph G. Meharry Medical College, 1909. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 13-16 July 1909 [Trans 1910, p. 103]

*Simington, Alfred Dennis: Meharry, 1900; Perry Co Bd, 1901; Mobile, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1901, p121) (Trans 1905, p560) (Trans 1910, p661)

*Simpson, Frank S.: Leonard Med Coll[Shaw; Raleigh NC, 1902; Russell Co Bd, 1902; Ensley, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1904, p538) (Trans 1905, p544) (Trans 1910, p643)

*Smith, E.M. Birmingham. Jefferson Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 643]

*Steers, Oliver William Henry: Meharry, 1902. Colbert Co certificate refused 1901-02 (Trans 1902, p 86, 418)

*Steers, Willis Wood: Michigan, 1888; Montgomery Co Bd, 1888; Montgomery, 1890; Decatur, 1891, 1894, 1895, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904. 1905 and 1910 (Trans 1889, p201) (Trans 1890, p189) (Trans 1891, p233) (Trans 1894, p254) (Trans 1895, p211) (Trans 1899, p202) (Trans 1901, p213) (Trans 1902, p467) (Trans 1903, p531) (Trans 1904, p559) (Trans 1905 p565) (Trans 1910, p668)

*Sterrs, Willis Edward: b. Oct 18, 1868, Montgomery AL, d. April 30, 1921; Michigan, 1888; Montgomery 1888-1890, Decatur 1890-1921. Pres. Alabama Medical Assoc for 9 years; owned drug store, dry goods store, and Cottage Home Industry and Nurse Training School in Decatur; founded in 1908, the school had graduated 10 nurses by 1919. Published at least 3 articles in J Natl Med Assoc, 1912 and 1918 (Johnson, 68) Died April 29, 1921. He and a friend were fishing on "a lake near his home" when the boat capsized and Dr. Sterrs drowned. "..was father of the State Medical Association. He had just been re-elected as its president at the meeting at Tuskegee during the same month that the accident happened to him." ["Obituary." Journal of the National Medical Association 13(2):108-109, April-June 1921] During the 1901 Alabama constitution convention, Sterrs submitted a petition declaring that if blacks lost the vote they would lose an incentive to become better citizens. "Say to us, 'You are black, your hair is kinky, you features Hamatic,' Sterrs wrote. "Or say, 'Some Negro blood is in your veins, you cannot enjoy the franchise of Alabama and you (relegate) us at once to the ranks of a brute.'" [Tom Gordon, "The Alabama Constitution: The 1901 convention. Setting the stage: The history behind the document. Framers faced 'the Negro problem.'" (Birmingham News 22 April 2001, p11A) “He attended the public schools in Montgomery and finished in Lincoln University, Marion, Alabama, in 1885.” Began practice in Montgomery in 1888, moved to Decatur in 1890. Owner of Magnolia Drug Store. Sole owner and proprietor of the Cottage Home Infirmary and Nurse Training School. “Was one of the original organizers of the Alabama Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Association, and one of the prime movers in the organization of the National Medical Association of which he has been Secretary of the Executive Board for the past three or four years.” (John A. Kenney, The Negro in Medicine Tuskegee Institute, 1912, p. 25) Also included in F.L. Mather, ed. Who's Who of the Colored Race...Men and Women of African Descent. Volume 1. (Chicago, 1915) STERRS, WILLIS EDWARD, October 18, 1868-1921 University of Michigan, 1888 (sometimes STEERS) Decatur, AL. [Johnson, Black Medical Graduates of the University of Michigan, p. 68; Mather Who’s Who of the Colored Race, p. 252-253]

*Strong, Allen Lafayette: Howard, 1885; Dallas Co Bd, 1885 or 1886; Selma, 1888, 1889, Mobile, 1895, 1899 (Trans 1886, p211-212) (Trans 1887, p259) (Trans 1888, p260) (Trans 1889, p173) (Trans 1895, p206) (Trans 1899, p197) “Allen Lafayette Strong, M.D.-Born October 17, 1861, Forest, Mississippi. Attended Meharry Medical College Nashville, Tennessee; afterward, Howard University Medical College sessions 16, 17, 1883-5, and graduated M.D. in 1885. Practiced medicine at Selma, Alabama, 1885-90; Atlanta, Georgia, 1890-5, and finally at Mobile, Alabama, where he died, August 29, 1899.” [Lamb, Daniel Smith, ed. Howard University Medical Department, Washington, D.C.; A Historical Biographical and Statistical Souvenir. 1900. Rep. Freeport NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1971, p. 220]

*Suggs, James Thomas: Howard, 1903. State certificate refused, 1904-05. Not designated "col." in Trans (Trans 1905, p70)

*Suggs, James Thomas: Howard, 1903. cb Montgomery 1906. Florence. Lauderdale Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 647]

*Terry, Ernest B: Meharry, ?; Russell Co Bd cert granted 1902 or 1903 (Trans 1903, p89)

*Thomas, A.E. Birmingham. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 644]

*Thomas, Charles Edward: Long Island Hospital, 1890; Calhoun Co Bd, 1890; Anniston, 1895, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1910 (Trans 1895, p159) (Trans 1899, p152) (Trans 1901, p158) (Trans 1902, p409) (Trans 1903, p477) (Trans 1904, p501) (Trans 1905, p507) (Trans 1910, p. 600)

*Thomas, J.T. Birmingham. 1910 (Trans 1910, p. 644)

*Thompson, Blanche Beatrice: Meharry, 1901. Cert. Tallapoosa Co., 1903 [Trans 1904, p101] As Thompson, B.B.: moved from Alexander City to Opelika (Trans 1904, p570)

*Thompson, C.E. Ensley, Birmingham. 1910 (Trans 1910, p. 644)

*Thompson, J.M.: Birmngham, 1891 (Trans 1891, p216)

*Turner, Noah Franklin. Meharry, 1905. cb 1905. Athens. Limestone Co. 1910 (Trans 1910, p. 650)

*Tutwily, Elisha L.: Meharry, 1905; Tuscaloosa Co Bd, 1905; Tuscaloosa, 1904-05 (Trans 1905, p578)

*Washington, Samuel Henry [1858?-1913]: Howard, 1885; Dallas Co Board, 1886; Selma, 1888 (Trans 1888, p261). Howard, 1885; Jeff Co Board 1887; Selma, 1889 (Trans 1889, p173). As Washington, S.S. H.: Howard, 1886; Jeff Co Board, 1887; Birmingham, 1901, 1902 (Trans 1901, p193) (Trans 1902, p445) Before April 1903 moved from Birmingham to parts unknown (Trans 1903, p513)  Listed as Washington, S.S. H. Montgomery (Trans 1910, p666) “Samuel S. H. Washington, M.D. Howard University, Washington, D.C.; a colored practitioner of Alabama since 1887; died at his home in Montgomery, February 24, aged 54.” (JAMA 60: 921, 1913) “ Washington , S.S.H. (b’58). 113 Douglass St. ; office, 27 ½ Court St.” (American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97) WASHINGTON, SAMUEL S. H., December 3, 1858 - 1913 Howard University, School of Medicine, 1886 Birmingham, AL; Selma, AL; Mobile, AL; Montgomery, AL. [Howard University Medical Department, p. 226-227]

*Washington, William M. “(col.) (b’83) (l’06) 277 S. Jackson St. ; office 121 ½ Monroe St .” (American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97)  “(col.) (b’83) (l’06) 227 S. Jackson St. ; office 35 N. Lawrence St .” (American Medical Directory, 1921, p. 147)

*Weaver, George Augustus; Howard, 1897; Tuscaloosa Co Bd, 1898; Tuscaloosa, 1900-01, 1902, 1903, 1910  (Trans 1901, p226) (Trans 1902, p481)  (Trans 1903, p546)   (Trans 1904, p572) (Trans 1910, p. 683)

*WELBORN, MITCHELL DOCK Meharry Medical College, 1901 Pratt City, AL. [Meharry Bulletin (1929), p. 50]

*Wellborn, M.D. Pratt City. 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 644]

*Welburn, Mitchell Dock [Wellborn?]: Meharry, 1901; Jeff Co Bd, 1901; Pratt City, 1904, 1905 (Trans 1902, p446)(Trans 1904, p538) (Trans 1905, p544)

*Wheeler, William Coleman: Birmingham MC 1901. Jeff Co Bd cert refused 1901-02. Co Bd approved six examinations from white Bham MC graduates at same time (Trans 1902, p446) (Holley pp 96-104 for Bham MC info)

*Whipper, Ionia R. [September 8, 1872-1953]: Howard, 1903. Became resident physician at Tuskegee Institute but was allowed to care only for female students. (Hine, 114) "In 1903, Ionia R. Whipper, a member of the 1903 graduating class of Howard Medical School, succeeded Johnson and became the second black woman resident physician at Tuskegee Institute. Reflecting social change, however, Whipper was restricted to the care of female students at the institute. After leaving Tuskegee, Whipper returned to Washington, D.C., where she established a home to care for unwed, pregnant, school-age black girls." [Hine DC. Co-laborers in the work of the Lord: nineteenth-century black women physicians. In: Abram RJ, ed. Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985, 114] So far, I have been unable to confirm Whipper's presence at Tuskegee. She is not listed among Macon County physicians for either 1903 or 1904 in the Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama.  . “Ionia Rollin Whipper was born in Beaufort, S.C., Sepotember 8, 1872. Her father, William J. Whipper..Her mother, Frances Anne (Rollin) Whipper…” [Ionia R. Whipper Home Established 1931 Washington, DC.  Compiled by Paul E. Sluby, Sr., Edited by Stanton L. Wormley. Washington, D.C.: Columbian Harmony Society, 1984, pp. 3-4)  Entry by Rosalyn Terborg-Penn is included in Logan and Winston, Dictionary of Negro Biography. New York: Norton, 1981, pp. 642-643. Material on Dr. Whipper in Lelia Frances Whipper, Pretty Way Home (iUniverse.com, 2003) and Carole Ione, Pride of Family: Four Generations of American Women of Color (New York: Summit Books, 1991). Dr. Whipper was Ione’s great-aunt; book includes photographs of Dr. Whipper.

*White, Lucy [Hopkins]. On March 16, 1870, she made a deposit into the Huntsville branch of the Freedman's Saving and Trust Company. In the questions asked of depositors, she identified her occupation as "Doctor." Other information given: she was 79 and had a light brown complextion. Her father's name was Jerry; her mother's Judy. Her husband Richard was dead. Living children were James H. Clay, Sam G., Jerry and Judy. She had four brothers: Perry, Thomas, Steven, Nicklis. She was born in Georgetown, Kentucky, and resided in Huntsville. [National Archives Microfilm Publication M816, "Registers of Signatures of Depositors in Branches of the Freeman's Saving and Trust Company 1865-1874. Roll 1, Huntsville, Alabama, accounts 1-1698, November 28, 1865-August 21, 1874]

*White, Philip Henry: Illinois Med Coll, 1904. State Bd 1904-05 (Trans 1905, p70)

*Wiley, James W.(Wylie in Trans 1905, p532): Illinois Med Coll, 1905. State Bd 1905; Greensboro, 1905 (Trans 1905, p71, 532)

*Wilkerson, George Hiram: Meharry, 1897; Jeff Co Bd, 1897; Birmingham, 1899, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904; Mobile 1905, 1910 (Trans 1899, p183) (Trans 1901, p193) (Trans 1902, p446) (Trans 1903, p511) (Trans 1904, p538, 553) (Trans 1905, p560) (Trans 1910, p. 661; gives certification as "cb Mobile 1897") Listed in Demopolis: “(col.) (b.’71). Licensed 1897.”(American Medical Directory 1912, p.91)

*Wilkin, T.H. Meharry, ?. Madison County Board, ? (Trans 1904, p548)

*Wilkins, ?: Meharry, ?; Etowah Co Bd, ?; Gadsden, 1904-05 [listed as Etowah Co Med Soc member!!!] (Trans 1905, p527)

*Williams, Anderson Milton: Leonard Med Coll, 1900; Bullock Co Bd, 1900-01; Union Springs, 1900-01, 1901-02, 1903-04. 1904-05 and 1910 (Trans 1901, p116, 156) (Trans 1902, p407) (Trans 1904, p499) (Trans 1905, p504) (Trans 1910, p. 598)

*Williams, Henry Roger (listed as Rodger in some years?): Meharry, 1900; Morgan Co Bd, 1900; Mobile, 1900-01, 1902, 1903-04, 1904-05 and 1910 (Trans 1901, p121,208) (Trans 1902, p461) (Trans 1903, p528) (Trans 1904, p553) (Trans 1905, p560) (Trans 1910, p. 661)

Plaque in Mobile, Alabama.
Photo by Lucy Rouse Wright [Dec. 2008]


*Williams, John H. Meharry Medical College, 1902. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 11-14 1910 [Trans 1910, p. 104]

*Wilson, Cato Hadras: Meharry, 1899; Barbour Co Bd, 1899; Eufaula, 1900-01, 1901-02, 1903-04 and 1904-05 (Trans 1901, p152) (Trans 1902, p404) (Trans 1903, p472) (Trans 1904, p496) (Trans 1905, p501) cb Montgomery 1899. Montgomery 1910 (Trans 1910, p. 666, lists him as "Wilson, Cato H.") “(col.) 301 Church St. ; office, 4 Court Sq.” .”(American Medical Directory, 1912, p. 97) “ 104 Hutchings St. ; office, 36 N. Lawrence St .” (American Medical Directory, 1921, p. 147)

*Wilson, Henry Jones: Meharry, 1902; State bd certification refused (Trans 1904, p94)

*Wilson, Jones: Nashville, ?; Choctaw Co Bd cert refused 1902 or 1903 (Trans 1903, p481)

*Woods, Paul W. Meharry Medical College, 1909. Unsuccessful applicant/exam 13-16 July 1909 [Trans 1910, p. 101]

*Wylie, James W. Illinois, 1905. sb 1905. Greensboro. Hale Co. 1910 [Trans 1910,  p. 629] [Listed in Greensboro as “Wiley, James W. (col.) (b’79) Licensed 1905” in American Medical Directory 1912 p. 93 and 1921, p. 143]

 

References for Alphabetical Entries

Cobb 1= Cobb WM. Cornelius Nathaniel Dorsette, M.D., 1852-1897. J Natl Med Assoc 52:456-459, 1960

Hafner= Hafner AW, ed. Directory of Deceased American Physicians, 1804-1929. Chicago: AMA, 1993. 2 vols.

Hamilton= Hamilton, G.P. Beacon Lights of the Race. Memphis: E.H. Clarke, 1911

Hine= Hine DC. Co-laborers in the work of the Lord: nineteenth-century black women physicians. In: Abram RJ, ed. Send Us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835-1920. New York: Norton, 1985

Holley=Holley HL. The History of Medicine in Alabama. University: University of Alabama Press, 1982

JAMA=Journal of the American Medical Association

Johnson= Johnson GAL. Black Medical Graduates of the University of Michigan (1872-1960 inclusive) and Selected Black Michigan Physicians. East Lansing MI: Georgia A. Johnson Publishing Company, 1994

Kenney= Kenney JA. The Negro in Medicine. Tuskegee: Tuskegee Institute Press, 1912.

Richardson= Richardson, Clement. National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race. volume 1. Montgomery, Alabama: National Publishing Company, 1919

Savitt 1= Savitt T. Dorsette, Cornelius Nathaniel. In: Kaufman M, Galishoff S, Savitt TL, eds. Dictionary of American Medical Biography. 2 vols. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1984,  1:211

Trans= Transactions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama

Washington= Washington BT. Training colored nurses at Tuskegee. American Journal of Nursing 11(1): 167-171, 1910

 

[ADD TO REFERENCES ABOVE—entries]

Bates, Charles James. It’s Been a Long Time. Tulsa, OK: Acorn Printing Company, 1986

Directory of Graduates Howard University, 1870-1963. Edited by Frederick D. Wilkinson. Washington, DC: Howard University, 1965.

Howard University Medical Department. Washington, DC: Howard University, 1900.

Johnson, Georgia A. Lewis. Black Medical Graduates of the University of Michigan (1872-1960) and Selected Black Michigan Physicians. East Lansing, MI: Georgia A. Johnson Publishing Company, 1994.

Meharry Bulletin (1929) Meharry Library Archives.

Who’s Who of the Colored Race. Edited by Frank Lincoln Mather, 1915. Reprint, Detroit, MI: Gale Research Company, 1976

 

 

 

 

 

Comments