- Discrimination as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Evidence from French Grocery Stores. (2017). The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 132(3), 1219-1260. Joint with Amanda Pallais and William Parienté
- Job Search and Intermediation under Discrimination: Evidence from Terrorist Attacks in France. Chaire SPP Working Paper n°2019-02
Using detailed, high frequency data on potential job matches made through the French Public Employment Service (PES), I present evidence showing that search intensity both by and for minority jobseekers is highly sensitive to a shock that increases bias against their type. In the 10 weeks following the January 2015 "Charlie Hebdo" attacks, employers significantly reduce their search for minorities -- jobseekers defined as having a first name of Arabic origin -- to fill their vacancies as compared to majority jobseekers -- those with classically French sounding first names. Minorities also drastically reduce their job search intensity after the shock. These drops are offset by a substantial increase in matching effort made by job counselors for their minority jobseekers after the shock. This counselor "compensatory effect" is driven by counselors who are themselves minorities and for majority counselors who specialize in getting the most marginalized jobseekers back to work. In addition, these effects are strongest in areas of low latent discrimination, proxied for by the local extreme-right vote share. Overall, I find no significant employment effects, but this belies strong heterogeneity: Significant negative employment effects on minorities are observed in micromarkets outside of the job counselors' purview. This suggests that labor market intermediaries can play an important role in mitigating adverse shocks that reduce the efficiency of the labor market matching technology.
- The Value of a Vacancy: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation with Local Employment Agencies in France. Joint with Yann Algan and Bruno Crépon
This paper analyzes the impact of a large scale randomized experiment that targets firm labor demand by supporting its recruitment practices. We evaluate the effect of a Public Employment Service’s (PES) intensive firm prospection campaign in which free recruitment services were proposed to a large number of small and medium sized firms in France. We find large impacts of this new active labor market policy: a 30% increase in vacancy postings with the PES and a 9% increase in permanent contract hires, translating into 48 more workdays created by treated firms on average over a sixmonth period. We find that these results are not driven by intertemporal substitution and that job creation impacts are centered in slack labor markets, suggesting that firmlevel displacement effects are likely minimal. We confront a simple model of firm search for candidates against data on vacancy characteristics and services delivered to these vacancies by the PES. We find non-experimental evidence that candidate prescreening may be a key component of the intervention because it reduces matching frictions associated with slack labor markets. Finally, the intervention might be significantly more cost-effective in low-demand labor markets than traditional job-placement policies that focus on jobseekers. These results suggest that active labor market policies that focus on firm labor demand may be a valuable addition to the labor policy toolkit.
Press: Les Cahiers Louis Bachelier
Work in progress
- Increasing the Geographic Mobility of Job Seekers: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in France. Joint with Alexandra Roulet
We explore the barriers to geographic mobility faced by job seekers and on ways to lift them. We provide evidence that female job seekers are much less geographically mobile (16% less), even when controlling for a rich set of demographic and job search characteristics. Through a randomized experiment on 100,000 French job seekers, we show that an information treatment about existing financial incentives offered by the French Public Employment Service for geographic mobility significantly increases both the take-up of these incentives and actual mobility, as measured by the distance between the job found and the initial residence. These effects are driven by people who already knew about these incentives prior to our intervention, suggesting that the treatment acted as a reminder. Additionally, the treatment effect on actual mobility is centered on women who are predicted to have less family constraints and who put more importance on their profession. These results suggest that women may face different job opportunity sets due to their search behavior and that simple information treatments may improve female mobility and potentially lead them to achieve better labor market outcomes.
- Preferences for Inequality and Redistribution among the Top 1%. Joint with Clément Bellet and Mark Stabile
Through two online survey experiments we measure preferences for inequality and redistribution among the rich and among a demographically representative sample of US residents. We compare and contrast the effect of reference group saliency among the two groups using experimental evidence.