Bibliography on Skepticism
The present bibliography is divided into five parts. The first lists collections that contain papers dealing with different periods of the skeptical tradition. The other four parts list books, papers, discussions, critical notices, and reviews bearing upon ancient, medieval, modern, and contemporary skepticism. Note that the bibliography is an ongoing project and that I add new items when I have some free time. Inclusion of a work in this bibliography does not mean that I consider the work in question worth reading.

An annotated bibliography on Pyrrhonism in ancient, modern, and contemporary philosophy is provided in my article  “Pyrrhonism,” Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy (OUP, 2013), DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195396577-0240.
I – General Collections of Essays
Burnyeat, M. (ed.). 1983. The Skeptical Tradition. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.
Campbell, J. K., O’Rourke, M. & Silverstein, H. S. (eds.). 2010Knowledge and Skepticism. Cambridge, MA: MIT
De Caro, M. & Spinelli, E. (eds.). 2007. Scetticismo: Una vicenda filosofica. Roma: Carocci.
Greco, J. (ed.). 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Junqueira Smith, P. & Silva Filho, W. (eds). 2007. Ensaios sobre o ceticismo. São Paulo: Alameda.
Machuca, D. E. (ed.). 2011. Pyrrhonism in Ancient, Modern, and Contemporary Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer.
––––––. (ed.). 2013. Disagreement and Skepticism. New York: Routledge.
Machuca, D. & Reed, B. (eds.). 2018. Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present. London: Bloomsbury.
Porchat, O. 2006. Rumo ao ceticismo. São Paulo: Unesp.
Sihvola, J. (ed.). 2000. Ancient Scepticism and the Sceptical Tradition (Acta Philosophica Fennica 66). Societas 
       Philosophica Fennica: Helsinki.
Silva Filho, W. (ed.). 2005. O ceticismo e a possbilidade da filosofía. Ijuí: Unijuí.
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (ed.). 2004a. Pyrrhonian Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press.


II Ancient Skepticism (Pyrrhonism, Academic Skepticism, medical Empiricism, medical Methodism, Cyrenaicism)
a. Translations
Annas, J. & Barnes, J. (2000). Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Scepticism. English translation with an introduction. 2nd
       edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (First edition 1994).
Barigazzi, A. 1991. Galeno: Sull’ottima maniera di insegnare. Esortazione alla medicina. Greek text, Italian 
       translation, and commentary. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Bergua Cavero, J. 1997. Sexto Empírico: Contra los profesores libros I–VI. Spanish translation with an introduction.
       Madrid: Gredos.
Bett, R. 1997. Sextus Empiricus: Against the Ethicists. English translation with an introduction and commentary.
       Oxford: OUP.
––––––. 2005. Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians. English translation with an introduction. Cambridge: CUP.
––––––. 2012. Sextus Empiricus: Against the Physicits. English translation with an introduction. Cambridge: CUP.

Blank, D. (1998). Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians. English translation with an introduction and commentary.
       Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brittain, C. (2006). Cicero: on Academic Scepticism. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Bury, R. G. (1933–1949). Sextus Empiricus. 4 vols. Greek text and English translation. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
        Harvard University Press.
Di Marco, M. (1989). Timone di Fliunte: Silli. Introduction, Italian translation, and commentary. Roma: Edizione
Diogène Laërce, (1999). Vies et doctrines des philosophes illustres. French translation by J.-F. Balaudé, L. Brisson, J.
       Brunschwig, T. Dorandi, M.-O. Goulet-Gazé, R. Goulet & M. Narcy. Paris: Le livre de poche.
Einerson, B. & De Lacy, P. (1967). Against Colotes, in Plutarch: Moralia, vol. 14. Greek text and English translation.
       Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Flückiger, H. (1998). Sextus Empiricus: Gegen die Dogmatiker (M VII–XI). German translation. Sankt Augustin:
Galien, (1998). Traités philosophiques & logiques. Paris: GF Flammarion. Introduction P. Pellegrin; French translation P.
       Pellegrin, C. Dalimier, & J.-P. Levet.


Gallego Cao, A. & Muñoz Diego, T. (1993). Sexto Empírico: Esbozos pirrónicos. Spanish translation with an
       introduction. Madrid: Gredos.
   Grgić, F. (2008). Sekst Empirik: Obrisi pironizma. Greek text and Croatian translation. Zagreb: Kruzak.
   Henry, R. (1962). Photius: Bibliothèque, Tome III. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
   Hicks, R. (1925). Diogenes Laertius: Lives of Eminent Philosophers. 2 vols. Greek text and English translation.Cambridge,
         Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
    King, P. (1995). Augustine: Against the Academicians. The Teacher. English translation. Indianapolis: Hackett.
    Sartorio Maulini, R. (1996). Sexto Empírico: Hipotiposis pirrónicas. Spanish translation with an introduction. Madrid:
    Schäublin, C. (1995). Marcus Tullius Cicero: Akademische Abhandlungen, Lucullus. Latin text and German translation.
       München: Meiner.
    Sextus Empiricus, (2002). Contre les professeurs. Introduction by P. Pellegrin, Greek text and French translation by C.
       Dalimier, D. Delattre, J. Delattre & B. Pérez. Paris: Seuil.
    Spinelli, E. 1995. Sesto Empirico: Contro gli etici. Greek text, Italian translation, and commentary. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

    ––––––. 2000. Sesto Empirico: Contro gli astrologi. Greek text, Italian translation, and commentary. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

    b. Studies
    Algra, K., Barnes, J., Mansfeld, J. & Schofield, M. (eds.). (1999). The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy.
       Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Allen, J. (1990). “The Skepticism of Sextus Empiricus” 2582–607 in W. Haase (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der
       römischen Welt II 36.4. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
––––. 1994. “Academic Probabilism and Stoic Epistemology”, Classical Quarterly 44: 85–113.

––––. 1997. “Carneadean Argument in Cicero’s Academic Books”, 217–56 in Inwood & Mansfeld 1997.

––––. 2001. “Rationalism, Empiricism, and Scepticism: Sextus Empiricus’ Treatment of Sign-inference”, 87–146 in his
       Inference from Signs: Ancient Debates about the Nature of Evidence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

––––. 2004. “Carneades”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

––––. 2005. “Antiochus”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
Anagnostopoulos, G. 1993. “Aristotle and Skepticism”, Skepsis 4: 113–42.
Annas, J. 1988. “The Heirs of Socrates”, Phronesis 33: 100–12. (Critical notice of Ioppolo 1986.)
––––. 1992. “Sextus Empiricus and the Peripatetics”, Elenchos 13: 203–31.
––––. 1993. The Morality of Happiness. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
––––. 1994. “Plato the Skeptic”, 309–40 in Vander Waerdt 1994.
––––. 1996a. “Scepticism about Value”, 205–18 in Popkin 1996.
––––. 1996b. “Scepticism, Old and New”, 23–254 in M. Frede & G. Striker (eds.), Rationality in Greek Thought. Oxford:
       Clarendon Press.
––––. 1998. “Doing Without Objective Values: Ancient and Modern Strategies”, 193–220 in S. Everson (ed.), Companions
       to Ancient Thought IV: Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

––––. 1999. Review of Bett 1997, The Philosophical Review 108: 137–9.

Annas, J. & Barnes, J. 1985. The Modes of Scepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aubenque, P. 1985. “Scepticisme et vérité: sur les limites d’une réfutation philosophique du scepticisme”, Diogène 132:
Ausland, H. W. 1989. “On the Moral Origin of the Pyrrhonian Philosophy”, Elenchos 10: 359–434.
Babut, D. 1994. “Du scepticisme au dépassement de la raison: philosophie et foi religieuse chez Plutarque”, 549–81 in
       Parerga. Choix d'articles de Daniel Babut (1974-1994), Collection Maison de l’Orient 24. Lyon.
Bailey, A. 1990. “Pyrrhonean Scepticism and the Self-Refutation Argument”, Philosophical Quarterly 40: 27–44.

––––. 2002. Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Barnes, J. [aka M. R. Stopper]. 1983. “Schizzi Pirroniani”, Phronesis 28: 265–97. (Critical notice of Giannantoni
––––. 1987. “An Aristotelian Way with Scepticism”, in M. Matthen (ed.), Aristotle Today: Essays on Aristotle’s Ideal of
       Science. Edmonton: Academic Printing & Publishing.
––––. 1988a. “Scepticism and the Arts”, 53–77 in Hankinson 1988.
––––. [aka H. Maconi]. 1988b. “Nova Non Philosophandi Philosophia”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 6:
       231–53. (Critical notice of Ioppolo 1986.)
––––. 1989. “Antiochus of Ascalon”, 51–96 in J. Barnes & M. Griffin (eds.) Philosophia Togata I: Essays on Philosophy
       and Roman Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
––––. 1990a. “Pyrrhonism, Belief and Causation: Observations on the Scepticism of Sextus Empiricus”, 2608–95 in W.
       Haase (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 36.4. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.
––––. 1990b. The Toils of Scepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
––––. 1990c. “La diaphonia pyrrhonienne”, 97–106 in Voelke 1990a.
––––. 1992. “Diogenes Laertius IX 61–116: The Philosophy of Pyrrhonism”, 4241–301 in W. Haase (ed.), Aufstieg und
       Niedergang der römischen Welt II 36.6. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.
––––. 1994. “Scepticism and Relativity”, 51–83 in A. Alberti (ed.), Realtà e Ragione: Studi di Filosofia Antica. Firenze:
       Leo S. Olschki Editore.
––––. 2000. “Introduction”, xi–xxxi in Annas & Barnes 1994/2000.
––––. 2007. “Sextan Pyrrhonism”, 322–34 in D. Scott (ed.), Maieusis: Essays on Ancient Philosophy in Honour of Myles
       Burnyeat. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barney, R. 1992. “Appearances and Impressions”, Phronesis 37: 283–313.
Bénatouïl, T. 1997. Le scepticisme. Paris: Flammarion.
––––. 2004. Compte rendu de Brittain 2001, Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 43: 438–41.
Bett, R. 1987. “Scepticism as a Way of Life and Scepticism as ‘Pure Theory’”, 49–57 in M. Whitby, P. Hardie and M.
       Whitby (eds.), Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press.
––––. 1989. “Carneades’ Pithanon: A Reappraisal of its Role and Status”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 7: 59–
––––. 1990. “Carneades’ Distinction between Assent and Approval”, Monist 73: 3–20.
––––. 1993. “Scepticism and Everyday Attitudes in Ancient and Modern Philosophy”, Metaphilosophy 24: 363–81.

––––. 1994. “Sextus’s Against the Ethicists: Scepticism, Relativism or Both?”, Apeiron 27: 123–61.

––––. 1996. “Hellenistic Essays Translated”, Apeiron 29: 75–97. (Critical notice of Brunschwig 1994a.)

––––. 1999. “Reactions to Aristotle in the Greek Sceptical Traditions”, Méthexis 12: 17–34.
––––. 2000. Pyrrho, his Antecedents, and his Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

––––. 2002. “Timon”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

––––. 2006a. “Pyrrho”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

––––. 2006b. “La double ‘schizophrénie’ de M. I–VI et ses origines historiques”, 17–34 in Delattre 2006.

––––. 2006c. “Socrates and Skepticism”, 298–311 in S. Ahbel-Rappe & R. Kamtekar (eds.), A Companion to Socrates.
       Oxford: Blackwell.

––––. (ed.). 2010. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blackson, T. 2005. In Defense of an Unpopular Interpretation of Ancient Skepticism, Logical Analysis and the History             of Philosophy: History of Epistemology 8: 6881.

Blomqvist, J. 1974. “Die Skeptika des Sextus Empiricus,” Grazer Beiträge 2: 7–14.
Bonazzi, M. 2003a. Academici e Platonici. Il dibattito antico sullo scetticismo di Platone. Milano: Led.
––––. 2003b. “I pirroniani, l’Academia e l’interpretazione scettica di Platone”, 181–217 in M. Bonazzi & F. Trabattoni
       (eds.), Platone e la tradizione platonica. Studi di filosofia antica. Milano: Cisalpino La Goliardica.
––––. 2003c. “Un dibattito tra academici e platonici sull’eredità di Platone. La testimonianza del commentario anonimo al
       Teeteto”, 41–74 in Papiri filosofici. Miscellanea di studi IV. Firenze Olschki.

––––. 2004. “Contro la rappresentazione sensibile: Plutarco tra l’Academia e il platonismo”, Elenchos 25: 41–71.

––––. 2007. “Enesidemo ed Eraclito”, Rhizai 4: 329–38. (Critical notice of Polito 2004 & Pérez-Jean 2005.)

––––––. 2012. “Plutarch on the Differences between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics”, Oxford Studies in Ancient 

      Philosophy 43: 271-298.

Bonazzi, M. & Celluprica, V. (eds.). 2005. L’eredità platonica. Studi sul platonismo da Arcesilao a Proclo. Napoli:
Boys-Stones, G. 2005. “Alcinous, Didaskalikos 4: in Defence of Platonism”, 201–34 in Bonazzi & Celluprica 2005.
Brancacci, A. (ed.). 2001. Antichi e moderni nella filosofia di età imperiale. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
Brennan, T. 1998. “Pyrrho on the Criterion”, Ancient Philosophy 18: 417–34.

––––. 1999. Ethics and Epistemology in Sextus Empiricus. New York/London: Garland Publishing.

––––. 2000. Review of Algra et alii 1999, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2000.09.11.

Brittain, C. 2001. Philo of Larissa: The Last of the Academic Sceptics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

––––. 2005. “Arcesilaus”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

––––. 2006. “Philo of Larissa”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

––––. 2007. “Middle Platonists on Academic Scepticism”, 297–315 in R. Sharples & R. Sorabji (eds.), Greek & Roman
       Philosophy 100 BC–200 AD, vol. II. London: Institute of Classical Studies.
Brittain, C. & Palmer, J. 2001. “The New Academy’s Appeals to the Presocratics”, Phronesis 46: 38–72.
Brochard, V. 1887/2002. Les Sceptiques grecs. 4th edition. Paris: Le livre de poche.
Brunschwig, J. 1994. “Once again on Eusebius on Aristocles on Timon on Pyrrho”, 190–211 in his Papers in Hellenistic
       Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
––––. 1995. Études sur les philosophies hellénistiques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
––––. 1988/95. “Le problème de l’héritage conceptuel dans le scepticisme: Sextus Empiricus et la notion de kritērion”,

       289–319 in Brunschwig 1995.

––––. 1990/95a. “Le titre des Indalmoi de Timon: d’Ulysse à Pyrrhon”, 271–87 in Brunschwig 1995.

––––. 1990/95b. “La formule hoson epi tō logō chez Sextus Empiricus”, 321–41 in Brunschwig 1995.

––––. 1999. “The Beginnings of Hellenistic Epistemology”, 229–59 in Algra et alii 1999.
Burkhard, U. 1973. Die angebliche Heraklit-Nachfolge des Skeptikers Aenesidem. Bonn: R. Habelt.
Burnyeat, M. 1980/97. “Can the Sceptic Live his Scepticism?”, 25–57 in Burnyeat & Frede 1997.
––––. 1982. “Idealism and Greek Philosophy: What Descartes Saw and Berkeley Missed?”, The Philosophical Review 91:
––––. 1987/97. “The Sceptic in his Place and Time”, 92–126 in Burnyeat & Frede 1997.
Burnyeat, M. & Frede, M. (eds.). 1997. The Original Sceptics: A Controversy. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Calogero, G. 1981. “Socratismo e scetticismo nel pensiero antico”, 35–46 in Giannantoni 1981, vol. I.
Castagnoli, L. 2000. “Self-bracketing Pyrrhonism”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 18: 263–328.
––––. 2010. Ancient Self-Refutation: The Logic and History of the Self-Refutation Argument from Democritus to
       Augustine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chiesara, M. L. 1988. “Luigi Credaro e Lo scetticismo degli Accademici”, Rivista di Storia della Filosofia 3: 479–500.
––––. 2001a. Aristocles of Messene: Testimonia and Fragments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
––––. 2001b. Review of Bett 2000, Elenchos 22: 422–8.
––––. 2002. “Enesidemo e i tropi in Aristocle in Eus. PE XIV 18”, ACME 55: 33–56.
––––. 2003. Storia dello scetticismo greco. Torino: Einaudi.
––––. 2008. Review of Spinelli 2005aRivista di Storia della Filosofia 23: 197–200.
Clayman, D. 2009. Timon of Phlius: Pyrrhonism into Poetry. Berlin & NY: Walter de Gruyter.
Conche, M. 1973/94. Pyrrhon ou l’apparence. 2nd edition. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Cooper, J. 2004. “Arcesilaus: Socratic and Sceptic,” 81–103 in his Knowledge, Nature, and the Good: Essays on
       Ancient Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cortassa, G. 1981. “Sesto Empirico e gli ‘egkuklia mathēmata’: un’introduzione a Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. I–VI”, 713–24
       in Giannantoni 1981, vol. II.
Corti, L. 2002. “Scale pirroniane: ouden mallon in Sesto Empirico,” Dianoia 7 (2002).
––––. 2009. Scepticisme et langage. Paris: Vrin.
Cossutta, F. 1994. Le Scepticisme. Collection Que sais-je?. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
Couissin, P. 1929. “L’origine et l’évolution de l’epochē,” Revue des études grecques 42: 373–97.
––––. 1929/83. “The Stoicism of the New Academy,” 31–63 in Burnyeat 1983. (Originally published as “Le Stoïcisme de
       la Nouvelle Académie”, Revue d’histoire de la philosophie 3: 241–76.)
Dal Pra, M. 1950/75. Lo scetticismo greco. 2nd edition. Roma/Bari: Laterza.
De Lacy, P. 1953. “Plutarch and the Academic Sceptics”, The Classical Journal 49: 79–85.
––––. 1958. “Ou mallon and the Antecedents of Ancient Scepticism”, Phronesis 3: 59–71.
––––. 1991. “Galen’s Response to Skepticism”, Illinois Classical Studies 16: 283–306.
de Olaso, E. 1983. “La investigación y la verdad”, Manuscrito 6/2: 45–62.
––––. 1988. “Zétesis”, Manuscrito 11/2: 7–32.
––––. 1991. Review of Annas & Barnes 1985, Noûs 25: 145–52.
––––. 1996. “Scepticism and the Limits of Charity”, 253–66 in Popkin 1996.


Decleva Caizzi, F. 1981. Pirrone: Testimonianze. Collection of texts referring to Pyrrho, with Italian translation and
       commentary. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
––––. 1986. “Pirroniani ed Accademici nel III secolo a.C.”, 147–83 in H. Flashar & O. Gigon (eds.), Aspects de la
       philosophie hellénistique. Vandœuvres/Genève: Fondation Hardt.

––––. 1992a. “Sesto e gli scettici”, Elenchos 13: 279–327.

––––. 1992b. “Aenesidemus and the Academy,” The Classical Quarterly 42: 176–89.
––––. 1993. “L’elogio del cane. Sesto Empirico, Schizzi pirroniani I 62–78,” Elenchos 14: 305–330.
––––. 1998. “Pirrone, pirroniani, pirronismo,” 336–353 in W. Burkert, L. Gemelli Marciano, E. Matelli, L. Orelli (eds.),
       Fragmentsammlungen philosophischer Texte der Antike – Le raccolte dei frammenti di filosofi antichi. Göttingen:
       Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Delattre, J. (ed.). 2006. Sur le Contre les professeurs de Sextus Empiricus. Lille: Presses de l’Université de Charles-de-
       Gaulle–Lille 3.
Desbordes, F. 1990. “Le scepticisme et les ‘arts libéraux’: une étude de Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematicos I–
       VI,” 167–79 in Voelke 1990a.
Dumont, J.-P. 1972/85. Le scepticisme et le phénomène. 2nd edition. Paris: Vrin.
Dye, G. & Vitrac, B. 2009. “Le Contre les géomètres de Sextus Empiricus: sources, cible, structure,” Phronesis 54: 155–
Edelstein, L. 1967. “Empiricism and Scepticism in the Teaching of the Greek Empiricist School,” 195–203 in his Ancient
       Medicine (ed. O & C. Temkin). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Everson, S. 1991. “The Objective Appearance of Pyrrhonism”, 121–47 in id. (ed.), Companion to Ancient Thought II:
       Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fine, G. 1996. “Scepticism, Existence, and Belief,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14: 273–90. (Critical iscussion
     of Hankinson 1995.)
––––. 2000. “Sceptical Dogmata: Outlines of Pyrrhonism I 13,” Méthexis 13: 81–105.
––––. 2003a. “Sextus and External World Scepticism,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 24: 341–85.
––––. 2003b. “Subjectivity, Ancient and Modern: The Cyrenaics, Sextus, and Descartes,” 192–231 in J. Miller & B.
       Inwood (eds.), Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
––––. 2010. “Sceptical Enquiry,” 493–525 in D. Chares, Definition Greek Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Floridi, L. 2002. Sextus Empiricus: The Transmission and Recovery of Pyrrhonism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Frede, M. 1973. Review of Stough 1969, The Journal of Philosophy 70: 805–10.

––––. 1979/97. “The Sceptic’s Beliefs”, 1–24 in Burnyeat & Frede 1997.

––––. 1982. “The Method of the So-called Methodical School of Medicine”, 1–23 in J. Barnes, J. Brunschwig, M.
       Burnyeat, and M. Schofield (eds.), Science and Speculation: Studies in Hellenistic Theory and Practice. Cambridge
       and Paris: Cambridge University Press and Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.
––––. 1984/97. “The Sceptic’s Two Kinds of Assent and the Question of the Possibility of Knowledge”, 127–51 in
       Burnyeat & Frede 1997.

––––. 1987a. Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

––––. 1987b. “Stoics and Skeptics on Clear and Distinct Impressions”, 151–76 in Frede 1987a.

––––. 1987c. “The Ancient Empiricists”, 234–60 in Frede 1987a.

––––. 1988. “The Empiricist Attitude towards Reason and Theory”, 79–97 in Hankinson 1988.

––––. 1990. “An Empiricist View of Knowledge: Memorism”, 225–50 in S. Everson (ed.), Companions to Ancient Thought
       I: Epistemology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gaukroger, S. 1995. “The Ten Modes of Aenesidemus and the Myth of Ancient Scepticism,” British Journal for the
       History of Philosophy 3: 371–87.
Giannantoni, G. (ed.). 1981. Lo scetticismo antico. 2 vols. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
Gifford, E. H. 1903. Eusebius: Preparation for the Gospel. 4 vols. English translation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Giovacchini, J. 2008. “Le ‘dogmatisme négatif’ des médecins empiriques: Sextus et Galien à la recherche d’une médecine
       sceptique,” Cahiers Philosophiques 115: 63–80.
Glidden, D. 1983. “Skeptic Semiotics,” Phronesis 28: 213–55.
Glucker, J. 1978. Antiochus and the Late Academy. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

––––. 1997. “Socrates in the Academic books and other Ciceronian works”, 58–88 in Inwood & Mansfeld 1997.

––––. 2004. “The Philonian/Metrodorians: Problems of Method in Ancient Philosophy”, Elenchos 25: 99–152. (Critical
       notice of Brittain 2001.)
Grgić, F. 2006. “Sextus Empiricus on the Goal of Skepticism”, Ancient Philosophy 26: 141–60.
––––. 2008. “Sextus Empiricus on the Possibility of Inquiry”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 89: 436–459.
Hankinson, R. J. 1987. “Causes and Empiricism: A Problem in the Interpretation of Later Greek Medical Method”,
       Phronesis 32: 329–48.
––––. 1988. “Galien: la médecine et la philosophie antisceptique”, Revue de philosophie ancienne 6: 229–69.
––––. 1994. “Values, Objectivity and Dialectic; The Sceptical Attack on Ethics: its Methods, Aims, and Success”,
       Phronesis 39: 45–68.
––––. (ed.). 1988. Method, Metaphysics and Medicine: Studies in the Philosophy of Ancient Medicine, special volume of
       Apeiron 21. Edmonton: Academic Printing and Publishing.

––––. 1995/8. The Sceptics. 2nd edition. London/New York: Routledge.

Hiley, D. R. 1987. “The Deep Challenge of Pyrrhonian Scepticism,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 25: 185–213.
Holford-Strevens, L. 1997. “Favorinus: The Man of Paradoxes,” 188–217 in J. Barnes & M. Griffin (eds.), Philosophia
       Togata II: Plato and Aristotle at Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
House, D. 1980. “The Life of Sextus Empiricus,” Classical Quarterly 30: 227–38.
Inwood, B & Mansfeld, J. (eds.). 1997. Assent and Argument: Studies in Cicero’s Academic Books. Leiden/New
       York/Köln: Brill.
Ioppolo, A. M. 1981. “Il concetto di ‘eulogon’ nella filosofia di Arcesilao”, 143–61 in Giannantoni 1981.

––––. 1986. Opinione e scienza. Il dibattito tra Stoici e Accademici nel terzo e secondo secolo a. C. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

––––. 1992. “Sesto Empirico e l’Accademia scettica”, Elenchos 13: 169–99.

––––. 1993. “The Academic Position of Favorinus of Arelate”, Phronesis 38: 183–213.

––––. 1994. “Accademici e pirroniani nel II secolo D.C.”, 85–103 in A. Alberti (ed.), Realtà e ragione: Studi di filosofia
       antica. Firenze: Olschki.
––––. 1995. “Socrate nelle tradizioni accademico-scettica e pirroniana”, 89–123 in G. Giannantoni (ed.), La tradizione
       socratica. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
––––. 2000. “Su alcune recenti interpretazioni dello scetticismo dell’Academia. Plutarch. Adv. Col. 26, 1121F–1122F: una
       testimonianza su Arcesilao”, Elenchos 21: 333–60.

––––. 2002. “Gli accademici ‘veōteroi nel secondo secolo d.C.”, Méthexis 15: 45–70.

––––. 2004. “Il dibattito antico sullo scetticismo di Platone”, Elenchos 25: 413–46. (Critical notice of Bonazzi 2003a.)

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Laursen, J.-C. 2004. “Yes, Skeptics Can Live Their Skepticism and Cope with Tyranny as Well as Anyone”, 201–34 in J.
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Magrin, S. 2003. Scetticismo e fenomeno in Sesto Empiricola critica ai grammatici e ai retori. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

Marchand, S. 2007. “Y a-t-il une écriture sceptique?” in C. Denat (ed.) Au-delà des textes: la question de l'écriture
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Mates, B. 1996. The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus’s Outlines of Pyrrhonism. English translation with an introduction
       and commentary. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Matthen, M. 1988. “Empiricism and Ontology in Ancient Medicine”, 98–121 in Hankinson 1988.
McPherran, M. 1987. “Skeptical Homeopathy and Self-refutation”, Phronesis 32: 290–328.
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––––. 1990. “Pyrrhonism’s Arguments against Value,” Philosophical Studies 60: 127–42.
Moller, D. 2004. “The Pyrrhonian Skeptic’s Telos,” Ancient Philosophy 24: 425–41.
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       in Voelke 1990a.
Nussbaum, M. 1994. “Skeptic Purgatives: Disturbance and the Life without Belief”, 280–315 in her The Therapy of
       Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Obdrzalek, S. 2006. “Living in Doubt: Carneades’ Pithanon Reconsidered”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 31:
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O’Meara, D. J. 2000. “Scepticism and Ineffability in Plotinus”, Phronesis 45: 240–51.
Opsomer, J. 1996. “Divination and Academic ‘Scepticism’ according to Plutarch”, 164–194 in L. Van der Stockt (ed.),
       Plutarchea Lovaniensia (Studia Hellenistica, 32). Lovanii: Peeters.
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       Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van Belgie.

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Palmer, J. A. 2000. “Skeptical Investigation”, Ancient Philosophy 20: 351–75.
Patrick, M. M. 1899. Sextus Empiricus and Greek Scepticism. Cambridge: Deighton Bell and Co.

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Pellegrin, P. 1997. Sextus Empiricus: Esquisses Pyrrhoniennes. Greek text and French translation. Paris: Éditions du

––––. 2002. “Introduction”, 9–47 in Sextus Empiricus 2002.

––––. 2006. “De l’unité du scepticisme sextien”, 35–45 in Delattre 2006.

Pentzopoulou-Valalas, T. 1994. “Le rationalisme des sceptiques grecs”, 239–251 in J. Lagrée & D. Delattre (eds.), Ainsi
       parlaient les anciens. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Lille.
Pérez-Jean, B. 2005. Dogmatisme et scepticisme: L’héraclitisme d’Énésidème. Lille: Septentrion.
Perilli, L. 2001. “Menodoto di Nicomedia e i principi della medicina empirica”, 267–97 in Brancacci 2001.
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Perin, C. 2005. “Academic Arguments for the Indiscernibility Thesis,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86: 493–517.
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Polito, R. 2004. The Sceptical Road: Aenesidemus’ Appropriation of Heraclitus. Leiden–Boston: Brill.
––––. 2007. “Was Skepticism a Philosophy? Reception, Self-Definition, Internal Conflicts”, Classical Philology 102: 333–
Power, N. 2010. “The System of Sceptical Modes in Sextus Empiricus,” Apeiron 43: 157–71.
Prost, F. 2011. “Pyrrhon chez Cicéron,” Vita Latina 183–4: 33–53.
Rackham, H. 1933. Cicero: De Natura Deorum, Academica. Latin text and English translation. Cambridge,
       Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Ribeiro, B. (2002). “Is Pyrrhonism Psychologically Possible?” Ancient Philosophy 22: 319–31.
Ricken, F. (1984). Antike Skeptiker. Munich: Beck Verlag.
Robin, L. (1944). Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Román Alcalá, R. (1992). “Un intento antiescéptico de fundamentación del conocimiento,” Almirez 2: 11–22.
––––. (1993a). Pirrón como culminación de la tradición escéptica griega. Granada: Servicio de Publicaciones de la 
        Universidad de Granada.
––––. (1993b). “Meliso de Samos: la corrección de la ontología Parmenídea y sus inevitables consecuencias escépticas,” Endoxa 3: 179–95.
––––. (1994). El escepticismo antiguo: posibilidad del conocimiento y búsqueda de la felicidad. Córdoba: Servicio de 
        Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba.
––––. (1995). “La nueva Academia: dogmatismo o skepsis,” Pensamiento 51: 455–65.
––––. (1996). “Enesidemo: la recuperación de la tradición escéptica griega,” Pensamiento 52: 383–402.
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––––. (1997b). “La genealogía: una mirada escéptica aplicada a la historia,” Almirez 6: 219–29.
––––. (1998). “Logos y antilogos en Protágoras: la inagotabilidad del campo veritativo,” Pensamiento 54: 145–61.
––––. (2003). “The Skepticism of the New Academy: A Weak Form of Platonism?” Philosophical Inquiry 25: 199–216.
––––. (2005). “El escepticismo antiguo: Pirrón de Elis y la indiferencia como terapia de la filosofía,” Daimon, Revista de   
        Filosofía 36: 35–51.
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Sakezles, P. (1993). “Pyrrhonian Indeterminacy: A Pragmatic Interpretation,” Apeiron 26: 77–95.
Schofield, M. (1999). “Academic Epistemology,” 323–51 in Algra et alii 1999.

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Sedley, D. 1981. “The End of the Academy”, Phronesis 26: 67–75. (Critical notice of Glucker 1978.)

––––. 1983. “The Motivation of Greek Skepticism”, 9–29 in Burnyeat 1983.

Shields, C. 1994. “Socrates among the Skeptics”, 341–66 in Vander Waerdt 1994.
Sluiter, I. 2000. “The Rhetoric of Scepticism: Sextus against the Language Specialists”, 93–123 in Sihvola 2000.
Spinelli, E. 2000. “Sextus Empiricus, the Neighbouring Philosophies and the Sceptical Tradition (again on Pyr. I 220-
       225)”, 35–61 in Sihvola 2000.

––––. 2005a. Questioni scettiche: Letture introduttive al pirronismo antico. Roma: Lithos.

––––. 2005b. “Dieci tropi scettici”, 27–60 in Spinelli 2005a.

––––. 2005c. “Non scire per causas”, 82–113 in Spinelli 2005a.

––––. 2005d. “Comprensione filosofica e prassi comunicativa”, 114–30 in Spinelli 2005a.

––––. 2005e. “Fatti voi foste a viver comme scettici…”, 131–57 in Spinelli 2005a.

––––. 2008a. “Sextus Empiricus, l’expérience sceptique et l’horizon de l’éthique”, Cahiers Philosophiques 115: 29–45.

––––. 2008b. “L’attacco di Sesto Empirico alle technai: polemica antipaideutica e genuino pirronismo”, 482–96 in F.
       Alesse, F. Aronadio, M. C. Dalfino, L. Simeoni, & E. Spinelli (eds.), Anthropine sophia. Studi di filologia e
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Stok, F. 1993. “La scuola medica Empirica a Roma. Problemi storici e prospettive di ricerca”, 600–45 in W. Haase (ed.),
       Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 37.1 Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Stough, C. 1969. Greek Skepticism: A Study in Epistemology. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.
––––. 1984. “Sextus Empiricus on Non-Assertion”, Phronesis 29: 137–64.
––––. 1987. “Knowledge and Belief”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 5: 217–34. (Critical notice of Annas & Barnes
       1985 and Tarrant 1985.)
Striker, G. 1980/96. “Sceptical Strategies”, 92–115 in Striker 1996.

––––. 1981/96. “On the Differences between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics”, 135–49 in Striker 1996.

––––. 1983/96. “The Ten Modes of Aenesidemus”, 116–34 in Striker 1996.

––––. 1990/96. “Ataraxia: Happiness as Tranquillity”, 183–95 in Striker 1996.

––––. 1996. Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

––––. 1997. “Academics fighting Academics”, 257–76 in Inwood & Mansfeld 1997.

––––. 2001. “Scepticism as a Kind of Philosophy”, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 83: 113–29.
––––. 2004. “Historical Reflections on Classical Pyrrhonism and Neo-Pyrrhonism”, 13–24 in Sinnott-Armstrong 2004a.
Svavarsson, S. H. 2001a. Review of Annas & Barnes 2000, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2001.02.30.
––––. 2001b. Review of Bett 2000, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2001.11.16.
––––. 2002. “Pyrrho’s Dogmatic Nature”, Classical Quarterly 52: 248–56.
––––. 2004. “Pyrrho’s Undecidable Nature”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 27: 249–95.
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Tarrant, H. 1983. “The Date of the Anon. In Theaetetum”, Classical Quarterly 33: 161–87.

––––. 1985. Scepticism or Platonism? The Philosophy of the Fourth Academy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

––––. 2002. Review of Boys-Stones 2001, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2002.02.03.

Thorsrud, H. 2002. “Cicero on his Academic Predecessors: the Fallibilism of Arcesilaus and Carneades”, Journal of the
       History of Philosophy 40: 1–18.

––––. 2003. “Is the Examined Life Worth Living? A Pyrrhonian Alternative”, Apeiron 36: 229–49.

––––. 2009. Ancient Scepticism. Stocksfield: Acumen.
Tor, S. 2010. “Argument and Signification in Sextus Empiricus: Against the Mathematicians VIII 289–290,” Rhizai 7: 
––––. 2014. “Sextus and Wittgenstein on the End of Justification,” International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 4:
Trabattoni, F. 2005. “Arcesilao platonico?” 13–50 in Bonazzi & Celluprica 2005.
Tsouna, V. 1998. The Epistemology of the Cyrenaic School. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vander Waerdt, P. (ed.). 1994. The Socratic Movement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Voelke, A.-J. (ed.). 1990a. Le scepticisme antique. (Cahiers de la Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 15).
––––. 1990b. “Soigner par le logos: La thérapeutique de Sextus Empiricus” 181–192 in Voelke 1990a.
Vogt, K. 1998. Skepsis und Lebenspraxis: Das pyrrhonische Leben ohne Meinungen. München: Alber Verlag.
––––. 2006, “Skeptische Suche und das Verstehen von Begriffen”, 325–39 in C. Rapp & T. Wagner (eds.), Wissen und
       Bildung in der antiken Philosophie. Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag.
––––. 2010. “Ancient Skepticism”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
Warren, J. 2002. “Socratic Scepticism in Plutarch’s Adversus Colotem”, Elenchos 23: 333–56.
Woodruff, P. 1986. “The Sceptical Side of Plato’s Method”, Revue Internationale de Philosophie 40: 22–37.
––––. 1988. “Aporetic Pyrrhonism”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 6: 139–68.
III Medieval Skepticism
Grellard, C. 2004. “Comment peut-on se fier à l’expérience? Esquisse d’une typologie des réponses médiévales au
       problème sceptique,” Quaestio 4: 113–35.
––––. 2007a. “Scepticism, Demonstration and the Infinite Regress Argument (Nicholas of Autrecourt and John Buridan),
       Vivarium 45: 328–42.
––––. 2007b. “Jean de Salisbury. Un cas médiéval de scepticisme,” Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie
       54: 16–40.
––––. 2010. “Nicholas of Autrecourt's Skepticism: The Ambivalence of Medieval Skepticism,” 119–43 in Lagerlund 2010a.
Lagerlund, H. (ed.). 2010a. Rethinking the History of Skepticism. The Missing Medieval Background. Leiden: Brill.
––––. 2010b. “A History of Skepticism in the Middle Ages,” 1–28 in Lagerlund 2010a.
––––. 2010c. “Skeptical Issues in Commentaries on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics: John Buridan and Albert of Saxony,”
       193–213 in Lagerlund 2010a.
Perler, D. 2006. Zweifel und Gewissheit: Skeptische Debatten im Mittelalter. Frankfurt: Klostermann.
––––. 2009. “Skepticism,” in R. Pasnau (ed.), The Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge
       University Press.
––––. 2010. “Could God Deceive Us? Skeptical Hypotheses in Late Medieval Epistemology,” 171–92 in Lagerlund 2010a.
Porro, P. 1994. “Il Sextus latinus e l’immagine dello scetticismo antico nel medioevo,” Elenchos 15: 229–53.
IV Modern Skepticism
Annas, J. 2000. “Hume and Ancient Scepticism,” 271–85 in Sihvola 2000. 
Ayers, M. 2004. “Popkin’s Revised Scepticism,” British Journal for the History of Philosophy 12: 319–32. (Critical
       discussion of Popkin 2003.)
Bermúdez Vázquez, M. 2006. La recuperación del escepticismo en el Renacimiento como propedéutica de la filosofía
       de Francisco Sánchez. Fundación Universitaria Española.
––––. 2007. Michel de Montaigne: la culminación del escepticismo en el Renacimiento. Córdoba: Servicio de
       Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba.
Broughton, J. 1983. “Hume’s Skepticism about Causal Inferences,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 64: 3–18.
––––. 1984. “Skepticism and the Cartesian Circle,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14: 593–615.
––––. 2002. Descartes’s Method of Doubt. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
––––. 2008. “Hume’s Naturalism and his Skepticism,” 425–40 in E. Radcliffe (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Hume.
       Oxford: Blackwell.
Caranti, L. 2007. Kant and the Scandal of Philosophy: The Kantian Critique of Cartesian Scepticism. Toronto:
       University of Toronto Press.
Curley, E. M. 1978. Descartes Against the Skeptics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
de Olaso, E. 1977. “La crisis pirrónica de Hume”, Revista latinoamericana de filosofía 3: 131–43.
––––. 1978. “Otra vez sobre el escepticismo de Hume”, Manuscrito 1/2: 45–63.
––––. 1984. “Leibniz y el escepticismo”, Revista latinoamericana de filosofía 10: 197–229.
Eva, L. 2007. A figura do filósofo: ceticismo e subjetividade em Montaigne. São Paulo: Loyola.
Fine, G. 2000. “Descartes and Ancient Skepticism: Reheated Cabbage?”, The Philosophical Review 109: 195–234.
Fogelin, R. 2009. Hume’s Skeptical Crisis: A Textual Study. New York: OUP.
Forster, M. 2008. Kant and Skepticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Fosl, P. S. 1998. “The Bibliographic Bases of Hume’s Understanding of Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonism”, Journal of the

       History of Philosophy 16.2: 93–109.

    ––––. 1999. “Hume, Skepticism, and Early American Deism”, Hume Studies 25.1&2: 171–92.

    ––––. 2004. “Cracks in the Cement of the Universe”, 257–90 in R. C. Leitz & K. L. Cope (eds.), Imagining 

       the SciencesNew York: AMS Press.

    ––––. 2010. “Skepticism and Naturalism in Hume,” Knowledge and Skepticism, volume 5 of Topics in Contemporary

       Philosophy, edited by J. Keim Campbell & M. O’Rourke (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, forthcoming).
     Frankfurt, H. 1970. Demons, Dreamers, and Madmen. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Laursen, J. C. 1992. The Politics of Skepticism: in the Ancients, Montaigne, Hume, and Kant. Leiden: Brill.
    ––––. 2009. “Pedro de Valencia and Academic Scepticism in Late Renaissance Spain”, 111–23 in Maia Neto &
           Paganini 2009.
    Lennon, T. 2008. The Plain Truth: Descartes, Huet, and Skepticism. Leiden: Brill.
    Macarthur, D. 2003. “The Seriousness of Doubt and our Natural Trust in the Senses in the First Meditation”, Canadian
           Journal of Philosophy 33: 159–82. 
    Maia Neto, J. R. & Popkin, R. (eds.). 2004. Skepticism in Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Thought: New 
           Interpretations. Amherst, New York: Humanity Books.
    Maia Neto, J. R. & Paganini, G. (eds.). 2009. Renaissance Scepticisms. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Maia Neto, J. R., Laursen, J. C. & Paganini, G. (eds.). 2009. Skepticism in the Modern Age: Building on the Work of
           Richard Popkin. Leiden: Brill.
    Paganini, G. (ed.). 2003. The Return of Scepticism from Hobbes and Descartes to Bayle. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    ––––. 2004. “Hobbes and the Continental Tradition of Skepticism”, 65–105 in Maia Neto & Popkin 2004.
       ––––. 2008. Skepsis. Le débat des modernes sur le scepticisme. Paris: Vrin.
    Perin, C. 2008. “Descartes and the Legacy of Ancient Scepticism”, 52–65 in J. Broughton & J. Carriero (eds.), A
           Companion to Descartes. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Perler, D. 2004. “Was There a ‘Pyrrhonian Crisis’ in Early Modern Philosophy? A Critical Notice of Richard H.
          Popkin”, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 86: 209–20.

Popkin, R. H. 1960. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes. Assen: van Gorcum.

––––. 1979. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza: Berkeley University of California Press.

––––. 2003. The History of Scepticism from Savonarola to Bayle. New York: Oxford University Press.

––––. (ed.). 1996. Scepticism in the History of Philosophy: A Panamerican Dialogue. Archives internationales d’histoire

       des idées 145. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Popkin, R., Watson, R., Force, J. (eds.). 1993. The High Road to Pyrrhonism. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Popkin, R. H., Vanderjagt, A. (eds.). 1993. Scepticism and Irreligion in the Seventeeth and Eighteenth Centuries.

       Leiden: Brill.


Russell, P. 2008. The Riddle of Hume’s Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion. Oxford: OUP.


Schmitt, C. 1972. Cicero Scepticus: A Study of the Influence of the “Academica” in the Renaissance. The Hague:

       Martinus Nijhoff.

––––. 1983. “The Rediscovery of Ancient Skepticism in Modern Times”, 225–51 in Burnyeat 1983.


Williams, M. 1986. “Descartes and the Metaphysics of Doubt”, 117–39 in R. Rorty (ed.), Essays on Descartes’

       Meditations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
V Contemporary Skepticism
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                                                                       Updated 6th June 2017