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This website has been created to support Peter T. Gayford's research on Chief Billy Caldwell.  For 13 years he has been working to establish a record of truth on the history of Billy Caldwell and his heirs.  Through continual research a great deal of transparency has been brought to this once clouded subject. His research is a first on many levels and is recognized by several federal and local agencies.  As more information is uncovered it will be posted to this site.  Please check back for updates as new information is updated often.   Should you require copyright permissions please contact the author at peymocaldwell@gmail.com.   Below is Mr. Gayford's comprehensive work on Billy Caldwell, his Chicago River reserve, and surviving heirs.  It is free to all interested persons. 

Site Update: November 1, 2015


Click on the provided link...

A printable PDF is available at the bottom of this site also.

1. As written in his own words, March 17, 1782 was his date of birth. 

2. Through the 1829 Prairie du Chien treaty, Billy Caldwell received a 1600 acre reserve on
     the Chicago River.
3.  Billy Caldwell's land patent for his 1600 acre reserve was issued in June of 1839 by
     President Martin Van Buren.
4. As written within Billy Caldwell's land patent, no parcels of land from his reserve could 
     be conveyed or leased without the written approval of a President of the United States.
5. Lands within Billy Caldwell's reserve not given written approval by a President of
     the United States were to be reserved for his heirs forever (or until legally sold off by
6. As legally documented, the northwest 80 acres of Billy Caldwell's reserve was never
     conveyed with an endorsed approval of a President of the United States.
7. Contrary to what history has written, Billy Caldwell did have a son (Peymo) who survived into
     adulthood.  Peymo had a wife and several children.  They were members of the Kansas Pottawatomie and 
8. As documented by the Forest Preserve District's condemnation records (Freedom of Information Request, August            2015) the NW 80 acres of the Caldwell Reserve was purchased by the FPD between 1917 and 1922.  The
    land was bought directly from landowners (Edwin and Charlotte Cole <1922>, Fred and Mary Rose Brummel              <1917>) .  It did not pass into Escheat.  Nor, was it approved for sale through an hier by the President/Indian             Department.

9.  *Speculatively, Common Law would allow for the NW 80 acres to transfer back (or a monetary payout to occur)           to Billy/Peymo Caldwell's heirs or tribe.
      *For certain, adverse possession would force a transfer back or monetary payout as supported through past court         cases.  
The following citation is for a current article outlining the facts and previous court cases regarding                    adverse possession of Native American lands.  

Adverse Possession in Context of Native Americans
Clifford Fisher
American research Journal of History and Culture
Volume 1, Issue 1, 2015

10. In the spring of 2015 a Memorandum was sent (by attorneys) to specific groups and agencies outlining the legal
       situation of the land.

Illustrations For Your Educational Viewing 

This drawing is of Billy Caldwell's framed house. It once stood on John Kinzie's property (Hardscrabble), north of his home.  Caldwell's house was built in 1828.  It has historically been written the house was built for him by the U.S. Government for services rendered during the Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1829.  This is false as no documentation from the federal government records exist to support this claim. Added, the house was built one year prior to the treaty negotiations and Caldwell did not know he would be involved with them until the time of.  He more than likely built it himself with his own money.
Miles V. Hartongction Collection, Plainfield Historical Society, idaillinois.org


Contrary to what many local residents believe, Billy Caldwell never lived on his reserve off the Chicago River. The rumored site was to have been on the east side of the river just north of Devon Ave, at the top of a hill.  This tale was first told by the Cook County Forest Preserve in their 1918 publication. It was later embellished by Laura Adams of Edgebrook in a 1953 publication.  Interestingly, as documented in the FPD's 1921 publication, the site was actually a camping ground that contained wells and toilets.  Thus, this is the reason why several earthen pits exist there today.  Formal investigations conducted years ago also supported this truth. The above FPD map from 1921 details the camping ground and structures.  As a side note, Billy Caldwell turned over the reserve to Arthur Bronson in the early 1830's in order to sell it off.  The previously described piece of land was sold to Philo Carpenter in 1833.  That being stated, Caldwell would not have moved back onto it in 1834. 

Forest Preserves of Cook County, 1918.


Archives, Edgebrook Historical Society, Edgebrook, Illinois.

The "Old Treaty Elm" stood at the intersection of Rogers and Kilbourn Avenues until 1933.  In 1937 a bronze plaque was erected in its absence.  On the bronze plaque was engraved "site of the Indian Treaty of Chicago in 1835".  Unfortunately, the information was wrong, as the Treaty of Chicago took place (and was signed) at Fort Dearborn in 1833.  More, it is not where Billy Caldwell and his band of followers received annuities before moving west in 1835.  The transaction as clearly documented took place near the Des Plaines River under the guidance of U. S. Army Captain J B F Russell in May of 1835.  

In reality, the Elm was simply a point of reference used during the surveying of Caldwell's 1600 acre reserve in 1836 (north 66 degrees of the intersection of section 3 & 10).  The Elm sat on the southern boundary of the reserve.  It divided the reserve into two equal halves (Caldwell and Rogers Avenues).  The fact being proven through Billy Caldwell's land patent of 1839.  Peter T. Gayford discovered this lost truth in May of 2012. 

"Old Treaty Elm" specutively gained its nickname because Caldwell's Reserve was  born out of the 1829 Prairie du Chien Treaty. 

Fact, trees used in the surveying of early American lands were called witness trees.  Hence, the "Old Treaty Elm" was a witness tree.

Billy Caldwell Land Patent, Department of the Interior, Virginia.  


In 1836, the Caldwell Reserve was officially surveyed.  It is currently thought this White Elm was used as a reference point in the surveying of the reserve (if not earlier when other surveys took place).  Trees used in the surveying of wilderness lands during the early history of America were called "Wittness Trees". The tree sits next to a boundary line of the reserve pointing toward the it.  Another theory is that it may be a Native American Marker tree.  Investigations are still occurring to determine what it is.  Photos do not accurately depict its size (larger than seen here).

Photographs, Peter T. Gayford, 2014.

(LEFT) Native American Marker Tree located within the boundaries of the Caldwell Reserve. 
This is a Black Walnut which could be
well over 
two hundred years of age.
The end was sawed off at some point.

Photograph, Peter T. Gayford, 2014.
(RIGHT) The famous Deer Tree.  The magnificent Native American Marker Tree
stood in the Old Edgebrook neighborhood until the early 1970's. 

Archives, Edgebrook Historical Society, Edgebrook, Illinois.

First paragraph of Billy Caldwell's 1839 land patent for his Chicago River reserve.  The original land patent is held by the 
Department of the Interior, in Virginia. The entire patent is 5 pages in length.  A copy is held in the archives of the Edgebrook Historical Society.

Billy Caldwell Land Patent, Department of the Interior, Virginia. 

Left: Survey map of the Caldwell Reserve from 1836 (when it was first surveyed).  Right: Later survey map showing
 its conveyances.  The map has an acknowledged mistake upon it by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Department. 
The northwest 80 acres was never granted written approval for sale by a president.

Billy Caldwell Reserve 422A Papers, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.


1839 plat of Billy Caldwell Reserve.  The plat is from the second survey of the reserve.  It was accepted as the official survey of the reserve.

Billy Caldwell Reserve 422A Papers, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.


Aerial photograph of the northwest 80 acres (Billy Caldwell Reserve). 

Archives, Edgebrook Historical Society, Edgebrook, Illinois.

First page of Arthur Bronson's deed (1833 land purchase in the Caldwell Reserve).  The total amount of land he bought from 
Billy Caldwell was 720 acre at a price of $900.  The deed was endorsed by President Martin Van Buren and is located at the National Archives.  
A copy of it and all other deeds have been donated to the  Edgebrook Historical Society in Old Edgebrook, Chicago.

Miscellaneous Deeds, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.



The case made its way to the Supreme Court and supported U S Presidents' power to retroactively approve land conveyances made for Indian Reserves (a requirement written into Indian land patents).  Within Cook County alone six Reserves were created.  They included the Claud Laframboise, Alexander Robinson, Billy Caldwell, Jane Mirandau, Victoire Pothier, and Archange Ouilmette Reserves.  The northwest 80 acres of Billy Caldwell's Reserve was never affected by this case.  It was never  successfully conveyed by Billy Caldwell or his surviving heir Peymo.

Pickering v. Lomax, https://supreme.justia.com/, accessed 2011.


A typed copy of an 1816 letter by Billy Caldwell. In it, he expressed  his life long desire for a boundary line between the 
Indians and Americans.  The original four page  letter is housed at the Ontario Archives in Canada.

Caldwell to Claus, 1816, William C. Caldwell fonds, Library and Archives Canada, Ontario, Canada.



Discovered in 2012 was Billy Caldwell's land petition to the British Government.  This petition was submitted and accepted in 1818, and allowed Billy to secure 500 acres of land in Upper CanadaThis land was granted to him as a result of his services to the Crown during the War of 1812.

Billy Caldwell Land Petition, 1818, Upper Canada Land Petitions, “C” Bundle 11, Pt. 3, 1818-1819, Library and Archives Canada, Ontario, Canada.


Title to land in the Harwich District.  The land was granted to William Caldwell Sr. in August of 1803.  It consisted of roughly 200 acres.   
Billy Caldwell inherited it through his father's Last Will and Testament.  As communicated by a descendant of William Caldwell Sr.'s 
son William (March 2012), this land was sold off as one parcel by Billy Caldwell. 

William Caldwell, Last Will and Testament, March 9, 1822, William Caldwell Essex County, Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada.


Carl A. Dilg, “Blue Island and Chicago History” (1903), Charles Dilg Collection, Chicago History Museum, Chicago, IL.

Historically debated has been Billy Caldwell's role in the Fort Dearborn Battle.  Around 1900 local historian Charles Dilg conducted several interviews with Chief Alexander Robinson's daughter Mary (a highly intelligent individual) which revealed an alternate version.  Unfortunately, historian and author Milo Milton Quaife's rejection of Dilg's work (Chicago and the Old Northwest, 1913) led to the dismissal of Mary's portrayal.  Until recent years, Juliette Kinzie's Massacre at Fort Dearborn (1836) tale reigned supreme in popularity.  The question is why?  Was this the result of politics, bias, or pure ignorance?  A question for a future researcher to uncover. 

Fact, a descendant of Juliette Kinzie several years ago admitted the tale was embellished.

Where Juliette Kinzie's Massacre at Fort Dearborn (1836) portrayal was fictitious in nature (most likely geared toward the emerging American Gothic Fiction market), Dilg's interviews were not.  Julliette's tale was written from the molded memories of her relatives some 20 years later (second hand!).   Further, unless someone recorded the event word for word her use of exact quotes and details would not have been possible to write.  Thus, her work is a finely spun tale which many authors and researchers have also concluded. 

To date, the author has uncovered hundreds of letters never before known to exist. 
 None of these or other known letters provide information related to Juliette's version.   Simply put, her work is an embellished tale geared toward the American Gothic Fiction movement of the time.

Fact, the Gothic Fiction market was huge during the 1820-1850's in Europe and America (i.e. Cooper, Hawthorne, Melville, Irving, Dickens, Poe, etc.). 

It is Peter T. Gayford researched based view that Mary Robinson's version is correct.
Ma-Sa-Qua's attempt to secure Billy Caldwell's final annuity payment.  Ma-Sa-Qua (Saqua Legrand) was Billy Caldwell's final wife.  Peymo Caldwell was their birth son. The letter is from June 5, 1843.  Ma-Sa-Qua passed during the winter of 1843-1844, after being plunged into a life of poverty.  

Richard S. Elliott to D.D. Mitchell, June 5, 1843, Kansas Historical Society.
Naturalization and Power of Attorney Documents for Billy Caldwell's only surviving son Pe-y-mo.  Pe-y-mo who was illiterate and
 lived his days with different tribes,  did have a family of his own.  Thus, it is very likely that descendants of  Billy Caldwell live today.

Samuel V. Niles to Francis A. Walker, November 8, 1872, Billy Caldwell Reserve 422A Papers, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.
Samuel V. Niles, April 7, 1872, Power of Attorney for Pawymo Colwell, Billy Caldwell Reserve 422A Papers, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD.

More Historic Information Available At...
1. The Newberry Library in Chicago, Illinois houses the Peter T. Gayford Collection (2010). 
    This collection consists of historical NARA files, maps, letters, land patents, and other
    information related to Billy Caldwell and his reserve.  Also apart of this collection, are
    historical NARA files and documents related to the reserves of Alexander Robinson,
    Claud LaFramboise, Victoire Pothier, Jane Mirandau, and Archange Wilmette. 
    This complete collection is the only one of its kind anywhere, and thus a true treasure 
    chest of local historical information for all interested researchers.  Also included are
    Peter T. Gayford's written works on Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson, and 
    Archange Ouilmette.

2.  The Old Edgebrook Historical Society in Chicago, Illinois houses the
      Billy Caldwell Collection. 
      This 2000 plus document collection consists of NARA files, maps, letters, land patent, and more.   
      This information was donated to the society by Peter T. Gayford in 2011.

3.    Several community specific historical collections have been made at other organizations.  
       These organizations include the Franklin Park Public Library (Laframboise Collection), Niles Historical Society 
       (Pothier Collection), Norwood Park Historical Society (Mirandau Collection), Wilmette Historical Society 
       (Ouilmette Collection), and Winnetka Historical Society (Albert Scharf Collection). 
       These collections were donated to these institutions by Peter T. Gayford in the Fall of 2011.



1. Cited by Geoffrey Baer on Chicago Tonight (11/19/2012)
2. This Website is linked to WTTW's  Ask Geoffrey Baer's Chicago History Webpage.


1. Chief Billy Caldwell, His Chicago Reserve, and Bloodline: A 21st Century Biography
    Ebook Publication - Iron Gates Production
    November 2012 
2. The Chicago History Journal
     July 2011

3. Wikipedia

     Chief Billy Caldwell


Archange Ouilmette Reserve:                                                  https://sites.google.com/site/archangeouilmettehistory/

Chief Alexander Robinson History and Reserve:            https://sites.google.com/site/chiefalexanderrobinsonhistory/

Jane Mirandau and Victoire Porthier Reserves:          /site/pothierandmirandareservesccfpd/

Claud Laframboise Reserve:                                          /site/claudlaframboisereservehistory/

Have a history question for the author?  Use the following email address. 
Responses to your questions will occur within a day or two.

Legal Copyright Notification
Nothing on or attached to this webpage may be used for personal or corporate gain without the expressed
handwritten consent of Peter T. Gayford (author).  Information and images may only be used for
educational purposes if cited back to the author correctly. 

Peter Gayford,
Dec 27, 2014, 7:56 PM