Lupinus luteus L. (Yellow lupin)


L. luteus L. 1753, Sp. Pl. :722; Willd. 1803, l. c.:1024; DC. 1825, l.c.:407; Willk. et Lange, 1880, l. c.:468; Franco et Silva, 1968, l. c.:105; Zohary, 1972, l. c.:44; Gladstones, 1974, l. c.:17; Vass. 1987, l. c.:214. – yellow lupin.

Typus: Herb. Linn. No 898-8 (LINN).

Protologus: « In Siciliae arenosis ».

Lupinus luteus L. (holotype).

Plants are 20–80 cm high, rosetted in the beginning and subsequently becoming erect, with vigorous basal branching. Stems are short and hirsute, with intensive branching in the lower part. The leaf consists of 7–9 (11) ovate-oblong or lanceolate leaflets, prolate at the basis, densely villous on both sides, sized 30–60 x 8–15 mm. Stipules of the rosetted leaves are crescent and chuffy on stalks, linear-obovate in shape. The inflorescence is an elongated truss, 5–25 cm long, set on a peduncle of 5–12 cm. Flowers are verticillate, odorous. Floral bracts are small-sized, obovate, silky-pubescent, easily falling. The upper lip of the calyx is bipartite, the lower one has 3 small denticles. The corolla is 14‒16 mm long, bright goldish-yellow in colour. Pods are elongated, 40‒60 x 10‒14 mm, densely villous, 4- to 6-seeded, with oblique partitions between seeds. Seeds are 5.5‒6.5 mm in diameter, spherical-reniform, oblate, of variable colouring – from pinkish, brown and yellowish to dark-violet or mottled. 2n=52 .

Occurs on mild sandy and volcanic soils in mining belts. As a wild plant, it is widespread over the coastal area in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria, on the islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily and in Southern Italy. It is most likely that in Israel and Lebanon it has turned wild. Cultivated in Northern Europe and the CIS (Belarus and Ukraine) as well as, on a smaller scale, in Western Australia and South Africa. Having previously been cultivated in southern France and on Madeira, it has turned wild there.

Usually this species is considered as an annual one, but in wild nature it is sometimes possible to find biennial and quadrennial plants. Variability of characters in this species is less expressed than in L. angustifolius; however, a homologous series can be modelled on the colour of seeds, which is more or less similar to L. angustifolius. Dominating colouring of flowers is yellow or, less frequently, lemon-yellow, orange or whitish.

Using combinations of such characters as the colour of the corolla, the carina’s edge, vegetative organs and seeds, 18 varieties, 4 subvarieties and 6 forms have been identified.


Classification scheme for Lupinus luteus L.


I. Var. luteus

I. f. volovnenkoae Kurl. et Stankev.

2. f. compactus Kazim. et Kaz.

2. Var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev.

3. Var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev.

4. Var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev.

5. Var. sempolovskii (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.

6. Var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev.

7. Var. niger Kurl. et Stankev.

8. Var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev.

9. Var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev.

I. Subvar. leucospermus

3. f. ucrainicus Kurl. et Stankev.

2. Subvar. taranuchoi Kurl. et Stankev.

10. Var. citrinus Kurl. et Stankev.

4. f. lukasheviczii Kurl. et Stankev.

11. Var. sulphureus (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.

12. Var. stepanovae Kurl. et Stankev.

13. Var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev.

3. Subvar. ochroleucus

4. Subvar. chloroticus Kurl. et Stankev.

5. f. bernatzkayae Kurl. et Stankev.

14. Var. aurantiacus Kurl. et Stankev.

15. Var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev.

16. Var aureus Kurl. et Stankev.

6. f. golovczenkoi Kurl. et Stankev.

17. Var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev.

18. Var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev.


1. Var. luteus, 1990. Bull. Appl. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad, 135:28. - L. luteus var. maculatus Zhuk. ex Atab. 1962, Lupinus: 151, nom. illeg. - Flowers yellow. Seed white with black dots without arcs (doted).

Typical representative accession of this varietas is cv. Academichesky 1 (k-1947).

1. f. volovnenkoae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.

Typus: ´Iskorosc´, Ukraine, k-2437, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 6. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

2. f. compactus Kazim. et Kaz. ex Kurl. 2002, Lupinus, St. Petersburg, Pub.house Intan:78. - Flowers and pods clustered at the top of the stem.

Typus: ´Compactus´, Poland, reproduction of Institute of Plant Genetic, Polish Academy of Science, 10.08.1995, T. Kazimierski (WIR).

2. Var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.

Typus: ‘ Afus’, Poland, k-2106, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

3. Var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with brown spots without arcs.

Typus: ‘I - 511562’, Israel, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

4. Var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – Flowers yellow. Seed white with brown spots and two dark arcs.

Typus: ‘I - 511504’, (Popularion B 469/79), Spain, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 7. 8. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

5. Var. sempolovskii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:28. – L. luteus var. sempolovski Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom. illeg. - Flovers yellow. Seed white with black spots and wide clear space round the scar.

Typus: ‘Polucki’, Poland, k-2399, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 27. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

6. Var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. melanospermus Körn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom.illeg. - Flower yellow. Seed brown-and-black with light arcs.

Typus: ‘Schwako’, Hungary, k-1835, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 18. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

7. Var. niger Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers yellow. Seed black, without arcs.

Typus: ‘Kopylovsky’, Ukraine, k-2601, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 8. 9. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

8. Var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers yellow. Seed cream with white arcs.

Typus: ‘ Müncheberger Süsslupine ’, Germany, k-1653, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 10. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

9. Var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucospermus Körn. ex Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom.illeg. - Flowers yellow. Seed white.

1. Subvar. leucospermus. - Carina`s edge without anthocyan.

Typus: ‘Weiko’, Germany, k-1310, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

3. f.ucrainicus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucospermus Köern. subvar. deramosum Taran. 1980, Breeding of Lupin:34, nom. illeg. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.

Typus: ‘Jubilejny’, Ukraine, k-1935, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 28. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

2. Subvar. taranuchoi Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - L. luteus var. leucimelanus Taran. 1980, Selekcja i semenovodstvo lupina:34, nom. illeg. - Carina`s edge with anthocyan.

Typus: ‘Gorecky’, Belarus, k-2169, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).

10. Var. citrinus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed white with black dots without arcs (doted).

Typus: ‘ BSKhA-287 ’, Belatus, k-2738, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 16. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

4. f. lukasheviczii Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:29. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary. 

Typus: ‘Cyt x Plammenny287 ’, Belatus, k-2829, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

11. Var. sulphureus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - L. luteus var. sulphureus Atab. 1962, l. c.:151, nom. illeg. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.

Typus: ‘ N-12099 ’, Germany, k-2556, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).

12. Var. stepanivae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers lemon-yellow. Seed creme-coloured with two white arcs.

Typus: ‘WTD-6049’, Poland, to - 2585, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21. 7. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

13. Var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - FFlowers lemon-yellow. Seed white. 

3. Subvar. ochroleucus. - Carina`s edge with anthocyan.

Typus: ‘Pripiat’, Belarus, k-2652, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).

4. Subvar. chloroticus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Carina`s edge without anthocyan.

Typus: ‘Salatny’, Ukraine, k-2156, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1986, A.K. Stankevich (WIR).

5. f. bernatzkayae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.

Typus: ‘Limonny’, Ukraine, k- 2153, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 9. 8. 1989, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

14. Var. auranticus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white with black dots without arcs.

Typus: Belarus, Minsk province, k-2476, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 19. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

15. Var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l .c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white with black dots and light arcs.

Typus: Belarus, Minsk province, k-2823, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 24. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

16. Var. aureus Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30. - Flowers orange. Seed white.

Typus: Poland, k-3135, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 8. 1990, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

6. f. golovczenkoi Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:30-31. - Side shoots absent or shortened, flowers axillary.

Typus: ‘Plamenny’, Ukraine, k-2155, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 8. 1990, B.S. Kurlovich (WIR).

17. Var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l. c.:31. - Flowers whitish. Seed white with black spots and two light arcs.

Typus: ‘ Bielocvetkovy T’, Belarus, k-2973, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 21. 7. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).

18. Var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev. 1990, l .c.:31. - Flowers whitish. Seed white.

Typus: ‘ Bielocvetkovy C’, Belarus, k-2974, reproduction of Pushkin`s laboratories of VIR, 20. 9. 1989, L.T. Kartuzova (WIR).


The quantity of new intraspecific taxa of Lupinus luteus L., and specially its subvarietas and forms, can be greater in the process of additional investigation.

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