Edition 3

Intro

`According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, there are two definitions for evolution. The first is the Darwinian concept that species on earth have changed over time to adapt to changing conditions. The second is the gradual development of something over time, especially from the simple to the complex. These two definitions have inspired The Profile Press to investigate a variety of topics around this concept of change. Some of the questions that inspired our scientific research: What species are endangered and why? What will happen to the delicate balance of the earth’s ecosystems if these species become extinct? What should, or is, being done to stop the extinction of species? And finally, will humans eventually become extinct as well?

Also on the theme of evolution, we will explore the evolution of Profile School’s schedule. When scientists seek to understand the evolution of species, they look at external factors that influence this change. For us to understand why we need a new schedule and how many different factors influenced this new schedule, we interviewed Mr. Jacobs and Mr. Jellison. We also interviewed a variety of teachers on the way they will make the most of this new schedule to help Profile students adapt to the demands of the future.

Finally, we explored the genre of animation and considered the revolutionary technology that has allowed for the development of this form of art and entertainment.

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Understanding Asthma


Asthma is a disease that can cause shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and much more which can make a person’s life very uncomfortable. Even walking for a short time can be very uncomfortable with someone who has asthma. Asthma can be triggered by tobacco smoke, mold, outdoor air pollution, cold air, and much more. When a person has asthma, their airways constrict and swell which makes it very hard to breathe. For temporary relief they would use their inhalers such as ventolin. Many children are affected by asthma, but doctors don’t like to diagnose a child with asthma because their asthma may go away when they’re older and their lungs get bigger, about 2% of children grow out of their asthma. 1 in 12 people are affected by asthma, which is about 25 million people, but the numbers are rising each year. Scientist and doctors are not sure why the numbers are increasing. Asthma has been very tough on me personally. It gets very hard to breathe and, I feel like something is weighing down on my chest. It takes about twenty minutes for my inhaler to take effect, so in the meantime I just have to sit down and wait for it. It isn’t really that simple to help a person with asthma, they just need to be able to breathe, so just be patient and kind.



Topic: Evolution and Construction

Evolution of Animation

By: Yuto Whitney




We all love animation, but do you know the roots of animation, before there were computer generated images (CGI). Well I’m here to tell you about all the different techniques and types of animation, from as far back as the phenakistoscope.


Phenakistoscope

The phenakistoscope was created in 1832 by Joseph Plateau. It is a spinning disc attached to a vertical handle. Around the disc is a series of drawings showing the phases of animation, and cut through the disc is equally cut slits. The person would spin the disc and look through the slits and see the disc’s reflection through a mirror. The scanning slits made it so that the images wouldn’t blur together and look more like one image. Unfortunately it could only be used one person at a time.




Flip Book

The flip book known as a kineograph was made by John Barnes Linnet in 1868. It is quite simple with just a book and drawings on each page, then you flip the pages creating the illusion of animation. In 1894 Herman Casler created a mechanical flip book called a mutoscope using a rotating cylinder with the pages attached to the cylinder instead of being binded to a book.




Zoopraxiscope

The zoopraxiscope, created in 1879 by Eadweard Muybridge and shown to the public in 1882. It is essentially a projecting phenakistoscope. It projected a sequence of images like a phenakistoscope but it was a glass disc instead of a cardboard one.




Kinetoscope

The kinetoscope was made in 1891 by Thomas Edison. The kinetoscope was one of the first motion picture devices to become widely manufactured. While it is inconvenient to use, it is known by all animators as a landmark invention. The box was about 4 feet tall with a peephole that had magnifying lenses at the top. Inside the box was a film approximately fifty feet long. The film would be pulled under the lens at a steady rate. Beneath the film was a lamp, and below the lamp there was a shutter with a narrow slit. So while each frame passed the shutter would permit a flash of light so brief that the image would look frozen, and with the series of rapid images it would make it seem like the pictures were moving.

Cinematograph

The cinematograph was made in 1894 by the first filmmakers in history, the Lumiere Brothers. This was definitely a step up from the kinetoscope because it allowed multiple people to watch. It is practically a kinetoscope but it projects the images onto a wide area.

With all the new technologies it seems hard to believe that animation came from things like a flip book. I hope that you know know the origins of animation.


From top left to top right: Phenakistoscope, Flip Book, Zoopraxiscope, Kinetoscope, Bottom: Cinematograph

Tardigrades: Just Add Water

By Charlie Hibberd


Tardigrades, also known as Water Bears or Moss Piglets, are microscopic organisms that can survive without food or water for decades. They look like a tiny bear or a caterpillar. They feed by sucking the juice of moss, algae or lichens. They can survive anywhere on earth, from the hottest desert to the high peaks of the Himalayas to the bottom of the ocean. In 2007, they were even sent into space and survived. They do this by going into a tun state, drying out and their metabolism slows way down. There’s a kind of sugar that forms in their cells that keeps the cells from collapsing. During this time, their DNA can be damaged. However, when they get wet again, their bodies can repair the damaged DNA.


I think tardigrades are adorable. Their capacity to survive is amazing. Scientists are trying to figure out exactly how they survive these extreme environments. They hope that by understanding how they survive, we might help ourselves to survive. For more information on the possibility of humans surviving an extreme environmental, see Justin’s article, “Human Extinction.”


shedule change article

The Megalodon

By Charlie Hibberd and Justin Shaw


Megalodon: the largest shark that ever swam in Earth’s oceans. It was colossal, and could swallow a great white shark whole. One of the biggest mysteries is: how did it become extinct? Megalodon became extinct about 2.6 million years ago. Megalodon was three times as long as a great white shark, at around fifty nine feet long. They had huge teeth, which could be almost five and a half inches long. You can still find these teeth out there! In fact, just for one tooth, you can earn yourself quite a bit of money! The size of the shark is disputed, as sharks are made mostly of cartilage which does not fossilize easily. It was very roughly about forty to one-hundred feet!

Great whites have only a few attack strategies. What they mainly do is attack creatures from below, and then retreat as it’s prey bleeds out. The megalodon could smash into its prey and then bite down with immense force, crushing it’s bones and the internal organs within. It would sometimes even rip off the fins, immobilizing its prey. Six people could fit in its jaws- it’s pretty good that it’s extinct.

There is still the question; why is it extinct? Scientists speculate that it’s warm, coastal, watery homes lost all their water after the ocean level dropped during the Ice Age. It also could have ran out of food after its prey escaped to colder waters with more plant life, causing the megalodon to starve. It needed about 2,500 pounds of food a day, so it is pretty likely that it starved. It was in quite a pickle. It could move with its prey to cold water and freeze to death, or stay and starve. I, for one am glad it’s extinct, even if it would be awesome. If it wasn’t, we would probably be close to being extinct ourselves.


Topic: Extinction

Human Extinction

By: Justin


DARK MATTER

What would you say if I told you that we will undergo a mass extinction in only a couple million years? You wouldn’t believe me. Would you believe that the solar system bobs up and down while it orbits the sun, periodically passing through a plane of dark matter surrounding our galaxy? Probably not. First, though, you need to know what dark matter is. Dark matter is a theoretical substance unlike any other substance in the universe. It does not emit either light or energy, but in recent studies, seems to have extreme gravity. The reason we think it exists if we can’t see it is because studies directed at other galaxies suggested that there was more matter there than the naked eye can see. If it exists as scientists speculate, it would make up eighty percent of the known universe. The way we detect it is with gravitational lensing (the picture above and to the right,) which is when gravity is so strong that light is warped, so when the light reaches us other galaxies or other extraterrestrial bodies appear stretched and distorted.

We can also tell because the force needed to move a star in a circle is equal to the force of gravity. Using this, stars farther from the center of the galaxy should slow down. Surprisingly, this is wrong. According to scientist’s observations, the stars move independent to the force of gravity that should be decreasing, meaning either something is holding them together or our understanding of physics is incorrect. That would be dark matter.

You must be wondering where this is all going. Well, as I said, dark matter has gravity. Another part that adds to this mystery is that mass extinctions seem to happen around the same time we pass through the disc of dark matter. Right when we’re supposedly going through the field of dark matter. What scientists think it might be doing is disrupting the gravity in the solar system. This could screw up the orbits of comets from the Oort cloud and superheat the Earth’s core. The Oort cloud is a huge cloud of comets in the very outer reaches of the Solar System.

The reason that the core would overheat is that the dark matter could theoretically accumulate there. Dark matter particles constantly annihilate each other, and the same would happen in the core of the Earth. The heating of the core could also cause mountain building, volcanic eruptions, and even the rising of sea levels, which also happen around every thirty-five million years. Even the magnetic field reverses, but that is not very dangerous.

None of this has been actually proven. Even so, it is very plausible, and terrifying. Scientists are still looking into it, so watch out for more news on our possible extinction. For now though, all we can do, is wait five million years. Let’s hope we’re not alive to see for ourselves.


Global Warming

Global Warming is very real, and is devastating our planet. In a cosmic sense of time, it is happening so fast that it might as well have killed us all already. Humans are devastating the planet. Earth is heating up, and our very necessary natural resources are being replaced with trash. Stephen Hawking made many predictions, one being that we will need to evacuate our planet, and soon. I’ll compare it to a scene in Star Wars, A New Hope, in which the main characters become stuck in a trash compactor. If we don’t get off of Earth soon, we’ll be squashed by global warming. (Image in top left: Earth without water)

This will quickly get worse with time. Not only because of our arrogance and inability to stop destroying our ozone layer, but also because the sun is getting larger. The sun is dying slowly. The sun increases in brightness by about ten percent every billion years. It will take the sun more than a couple billion years to completely die, but we will die before one billion years. That is because the sun will have grown by ten percent, enough to boil and evaporate all of the Earth’s oceans. By then, Earth will have been completely rendered uninhabitable. We need to get out of here before then. I hope that we can at least stop polluting to provide enough time for us to get out of here


Yellowstone Park

Yellowstone National Park, a fun tourist attraction for the whole family. A great educational national park, known for its beauty and wildlife. A colossal magma pool waiting to erupt, and annihilate the whole of Montana. You could fit Tokyo, with 845 square miles, in the volcanic crater. The eruption is long overdue. If it erupts, we could see from years to decades of ash covering the sky, causing colder climates in the states of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. The magma would probably not travel past the park’s boundaries, since it never has in the past. It will hurl rocks and stone and create a huge sinkhole where the magma once held up the ground like air in a balloon. The volcano actually could have global effect, and devastate billions of people. Billings, Montana will see seventy inches of ash! Even though this will probably not cause a human extinction, it will be cataclysmic to most of the USA and Canada.


Black Hole

You have most likely heard of black holes, but have you heard of wandering black holes? There are actually hundreds of them rushing around our galaxy, and pretty fast. Fast enough that we won’t really have time to do anything about it. A black hole can swallow anything without letting it escape, even light, and is pretty scary. Now imagine a little tiny one, speeding around the galaxy. First we would see an empty spot in the sky, where no stars can be seen. Then, as it gets closer, our orbits will be disrupted. We might even come into orbit around it. As it looms even closer, if we weren’t already we will start to orbit it, and the sun’s gas and energy will start being sucked towards the empty point. Our atmosphere will begin to be pulled off of the Earth. The Earth, without atmosphere, will succumb to radiation, extreme temperatures, and of course, the vacuum of space. As the sun’s gas has been depleted of gas, it will be a small body of rock floating towards the point of gravity. It would be kind of cool to see Saturn’s rings being pulled off and towards the black hole though.

Now earth will be a barren wasteland; the remaining water that has not been boiled off will be sucked toward the looming black hole. Whoever is still alive (with a spacesuit) on the side of the Earth facing the black hole will start to feel the gravity of the black hole and Earth fighting over you, making it so that you feel almost as if you’re in zero g. On the other side of the Earth, you will feel the pull of the black hole and the Earth’s gravity both pulling on you, pretty much crushing you. By now, pieces of the Earth have begun to be pulled toward the black hole, each piece splitting and splitting and splitting until the Earth has been entirely separated into its individual atoms. For everyone staring at the stuff entering the black hole, time will seem to slow down and virtually stop. You would have to wait billions of years to see something pass through the event horizon; the point of no return. For you, though, as you entered the black hole, everything would speed up: you would see the whole future of the universe as you fell into it. It would be a pretty way to die.


The Polar Fox

By: Charles Morris



The Homo Sapien, also know as a “normal” human, is one of the most interesting creatures on this planet. But it is not alone, there is also the Vulpes Lagopus or polar fox. This amazing creature has so many features that help it survive the arctic circle that it lives in, gained over thousands of years in a process known as adaptation. Evolution shows in everything in the polar fox including large, furry, padded feet for running on the snow, a coat that will turn white for winter and brown for summer for camouflage, and the ability to jump 12 feet in the air to dive for voles.

You know the human, but do you know the polar fox? Well, I will show you. Most of them are omnivores but some have evolved to a mostly meat diet. They are similar to the arctic wolf and the polar bear. In the arctic they have a rodent based diet such as voles and lemming and also scraps from their predators, but in Russia they have a seafood and egg diet (seal cubs and seagull eggs). They live in circumpolar Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and Russia. They can live up to 15 years.

The polar fox adapted to its environment, but humans have not; they have changed their environment. The human race has found a place to call home, but we are treating it so poorly that it is now dying. Humans have accelerated climate change to a point where we are almost at a point of no return. We may kill everything on the planet. However, we can fix that by looking at our history (we teach it for a reason), but we learn and forget, we retain the worst without the good in the world, unlike the following people.

The wilderness society has compiled a list of Wilderness Allstars. The top three are Aldo Leopold, Margaret Murie, and Robert Marshall.

Aldo Leopold, a Yale-educated professor of wildlife management, had a deep appreciation for the natural world, and worked with the Forest Service to protect the nation’s first wilderness area. He wrote, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” He wrote a lot about how everything in a biome is connecting and important to the whole. We as humans sometimes forget this when we change our environment, eliminating habitats and species or introducing invasive species.

Margaret “Mardy” Murie learned to love wilderness on the Alaskan tundra when she was a kid in Fairbanks. After her marriage to renowned biologist Olaus Murie, Mardy plunged into environmental politics. Together, the legendary couple advocated for the protection of America’s wild places, including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and helped lead The Wilderness Society. She wrote, “I hope that the United States of America is not so rich that she can afford to let these wildernesses pass by. Or so poor that she cannot afford to keep them."

Robert Marshall, principal founder of The Wilderness Society, set an “unprecedented course for wilderness preservation in the United States that few have surpassed.” He believed we have to fight for wilderness against humans whose only interest is to destroy it. He wrote, “There is just one hope for repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every inch on the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom and preservation of the wilderness.”

All of these people have protected our wilderness, so what will you do? Will you help their cause because there is always something to do in your community. Aldo Leopold wrote, “Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land”. Harmony is achieved through the coordination of many voices. You can act, but will you? Why are you still reading this essay? Go help your community or even the world. NOW!


Asian Elephant Extinction!

By: Makenzi Rogers



In the wild there are only 30,000 to 53,000 Asian elephants left. Humans have been taming these elephants for thousands of years. What people do to the elephants is they use them for carry heavy objects (like trees) that humans can't carry, or they use them to go into war. Humans are one of elephants main predators. They take down adult Asian elephants habitat and kill them for their tusks. Because there are so few elephants left, they are starting to hold them in captivity to hopefully increase their population. Asian elephants that are held in captivity have very different

lifestyles than elephants that are in the wild. When they grow up by themselves or with one other elephant they develop mental disorders. When they are kept in captivity they are deprived of things like mud which they use to help their skin, and dust and dirt which they use to keep bugs away. If they are held in captivity they will not get all the nutrients they need. One of the main reasons elephants are becoming extinct is because of habitat loss { by humans } . Humans usually cut down the elephants habitat for wood and for more space for more buildings. Another way these elephants are getting killed is because they are vegetarians so they have to go through the towns to find enough food. When they do this they often get shot or taken by humans.


NASA TESS Satellite

By: Charles Morris


TESS an acronym for Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. TESS is programmed with four cameras that will take time lapse photographs that are thirty minutes long then a 1 minute photograph. The purpose of TESS is to go into space and to take pictures using a light spectrometer to see eclipsing planets over distant stars in order to find habitable planets for the Hubble telescope to further study. You can model the satellite by taking your hand, sticking out your fingers and placing your thumb in between your ring finger and your pinky finger. In April, I went to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to watch the launch. The launch was scheduled to happen on 4/16/18, but had a 48 hour scrub. The actual launch did not take place until 2 days later, so most of the 10,000 people, myself included, who were there on the launch date had to watch it at home on TV. However, there were other things to see at the Kennedy Space Center, like the anti-gravity chamber, the garden of rockets and the Atlantis Orbiter. With the many things that you can see at the Kennedy Space Center we hope that this has brought you into the space community or to make you want to stop in Cape Canaveral, Florida. For more info on TESS go to this link:https://youtube/4RarO2wS14Q.