Publications and Resources

Books and Websites



Island Earth - Mālama Honua Conference, UH Hilo


The 'Ulu Fruit - Big Island TV

Breadfruit Nutrient Management - Hawai'i 'Ulu Cooperative

'Ulu and Sustainability - Hawai'i 'Ulu Cooperative

Breadfruit Part 2 - Kahumana Organic Farm

Breadfruit Part 3 - Kahumana Organic Farm

Breadfruit Part 4 - Kahumana Organic Farm

Breadfruit Varieties - Hawaii Tropical Fruit Growers

ʻUlu Diseases in Hawaiʻi

ʻUlu Production Practices

Pruning ʻUlu in Hawaiʻi

ʻUlu Agroforestry Series: Multi-Story Cropping – Then & Now

ʻUlu Nutrient Management

Ulu in Hawaiʻi: Past, Present, and Future

Hawaiian Agriculture

Pau Hana with Dr. Noa Kekuewa Lincoln: "ʻUlu in Hawaiʻi: Past, Present, and Future"

Native Hawaiian Agroecology: Where was our agroforestry? by Dr. Noa Kekuewa Lincoln

Soil Formation and the Soils of Traditional Hawaiian Agriculture Systems by Tommy Haensel and Dr. Noa Kekuewa Lincoln

Cultural perspectives of agroforestry

 2023 Agroforestry Symposium: TEK and Culturally-Informed Improvement (Session III)

Indigenous Hawaiian Agriculture


Survey of Agriculture in Hawaiʻi

Other Topics

Food Hub Heroes - Hawai'i Farmers' Union United

Anthropogenic Soils in Ancient Hawaii

Sugar's Not Dead, Just Different

CTAHR Research

Scientific Articles

Cochrane, E.E., Quintus, S., Prebble, M., Tautunu, T.A.A.M., Autufuga, D., .... Lincoln, N. (2024) Collective action problems led to the cultural transformation of Sāmoa 800 years ago. PLOS ONE 19(6): e0304850.

Lincoln, N., Lee, T.M., Quintus, S. Haensel, T., & Chen, Q. (2024)  Agroforestry Distribution and Contributions in Ancient Hawaiian Agriculture. Human Ecology.

Orura, S., Forwell, S.J., Backman, C., Lincoln, N.K., Bulkan, J., Odakawa, K., Sakawa, T., & Shiiba, M. (2024). Meaning of small grains cultivation as a traditional occupation in Japan. Journal of Occupational Science, DOI: 10.1080/14427591.2023.2284164

Autufuga, D., Quintus, S., Yoo, K., Day, S., Huebert, J., Deenik, J., & Lincoln, N. K. (2023). Distribution of Soil Nutrients and Ancient Agriculture on Young Volcanic Soils of Ta ‘ū, American Samoa. Soil Systems, 7(2), 52.

de Pinho, R. C., Pequeno, P. A. C. L., Alfaia, S. S., Barbosa, R. I., & Lincoln, N. K. (2023). Soil fertility in indigenous swidden fields and fallows in northern Amazonia, Brazil. Soil Use and Management. doi 10.1111/sum.12886

Erland, L. A., Needham, A. M., Kehinde, A. Z., Adebowale, A. P., Lincoln, N. K., Ragone, D., & Murch, S. J. (2023). Impact of microclimate on Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg var Ma’afala fruit and nutritional quality. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 115, 104983.

Lee, T. M., & Lincoln, N. K. (2023). Forgotten forests: expanding potential land use in traditional Hawaiian agroecosystems, and the social-ecological implications. Ecology and Society, 28(4).

Lincoln, N., Santiago, R. P., Tatum, D., Del Valle-Echevarria, A. (2023) Evidence of Downregulation in Atmospheric Nitrogen-Fixation in Native Hawaiian Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Cultivars. Plants, 12(3), 605. 

Lincoln, N. K., Haensel, T. P., & Lee, T. M. (2023). Modeling Hawaiian Agroecology: Depicting traditional adaptation to the world's most diverse environment. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 7.

Livingston, Chad, and Noa Kekuewa Lincoln. 2023. Determining Allometry and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) as a Climate-Smart Staple in Hawai‘i. Sustainability 15, no. 22: 15682.

Marahatta, S. & Lincoln, N.K. (2023). Nematode Communities in the Rhizosphere of ʻMa‘afalaʻ Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) on Hawai‘i Island. Pacific Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13(1), 1-9. 

Soong, K. V., Lincoln, N. K., Lee, T. M., & Ladefoged, T. N. (2023). Assessing spatial models of Hawaiian agroecological extents. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 51, 104121.

Wiseman, B. J., Paull, R. E., Lincoln, N. K., & Wall, M. M. (2023). 1-methylcyclopropene and Harvest Maturity Impact ‘Ma’afala’Breadfruit Postharvest Storage. HortScience, 58(6), 666-670.

Berning, E. H., Andersen, C. V. H., Mertz, O., Dickinson, N., Opgenorth, M., Lincoln, N. K., ... & Rønsted, N. (2022). Resilience of breadfruit agro-ecosystems in Hawaiʻi during the COVID-19 pandemic. CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, 3(1), 1-8.

Lincoln, N. K., Vaughan, M. B., & Kurashima, N. (2022). Hawai‘i. In Islands and Cultures (pp. 35-75). Yale University Press.

Lincoln, N., Anderson, T., Kantar, M., You, Q., & Wang, J. (2022). Diversity and Value of Extant Hawaiian Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum [L.]) Cultivars. Economic Botany, 1-15.

Quintus, S., Mills, P., Konter, J., Day, S., Gilreath, D., Lincoln, N.K., Lundblad, S., Vonderhaar, D., and Yoo, K. (2022) Trace element and Pb isotope analyses highlight decentralized inter-island exchange in American Sāmoa (Polynesia). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 14:103.

Sirabis, W. C., Kantar, M. B., Radovich, T., & Lincoln, N. K. (2022). Nitrogen Dynamics and Sweet Potato Production under Indigenous Soil Moisture Conservation Practices in the Leeward Kohala Field System, Hawai’i Island.  Soil Systems, 6(1), 16.

Wiseman B.J., Lincoln N.K., Wall M.M., Paull R.C. (2022). Influence of Maturity and 1-MCP on Postharvest Ripening of Breadfruit [abstract].  HortScience 57(9S):S111.

Bendes, M. S., & Lincoln, N. K. (2021). Impacts of underground competition and establishment on growth and root ARCHITECTURE of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and māmaki (Pipturus albidus). Rhizosphere, 100337.

Eng, S., Khun, T., Esquivel, M., Ooki, N., Bloese, J., Sand, S., & Lincoln, N. (2021). Farmers’ Perceived Needs of Extension’ Support During Covid-19 in Hawai'i. Journal of Extension, 59(2), 15.

Fardkhales, S. A., & Lincoln, N. (2021). Food hubs play an essential role in the COVID-19 response in Hawai ‘i. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 10(2), 1-18.

Lincoln, N., Zhang, Q., & Chen, Q. (2021). State of the State Tree: Historical and Modern Ecology of Kukui (Candlenut, Aleurites Moluccanus) in Hawai ‘i. Pacific Science, 74(4), 419-434.

Quintus, S., Autufuga, D., Day, S., Huebert, J., Lincoln, N. K., Motu, N., & Yoo, K. (2021). Tracking Emergent Spatial and Social Patterns across Terraced Landscapes in Polynesia. Journal of Field Archaeology, 1-16.

Hill, A. J., Lincoln, N. K., Rachmilevitch, S., & Shelef, O. (2020). Modified Hiltner Dew Balance to Re-Estimate Dewfall Accumulation as a Reliable Water Source in the Negev Desert. Water, 12(10), 2952.

Lincoln, N. K. (2020). Agroforestry form and ecological adaptation in ancient Hawai'i: Extent of the pākukui swidden system of Hāmākua, Hawai'i Island. Agricultural Systems, 181, 102808.

Lincoln, N.K. (2020). State of Our Starches. In Goodyear-Ka‘ōpua, N., Howes, C., Osorio, J. K. K. O., & Yamashiro, A. [eds] The Value of Hawai’i 3: Hulihia, the Turning. University of Hawai’i Press; Honolulu, Hawai’i, USA.

Mausio, K., Miura, T., & Lincoln, N. K. (2020). Cultivation potential projections of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) under climate change scenarios using an empirically validated suitability model calibrated in Hawai’i. Plos one, 15(5), e0228552.

Needham, A., Jha, R., & Lincoln, N. K. (2020). The Response of Breadfruit Nutrition to Local Climate and Soil: A Review. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 103451.

Quintus, S., Huebert, J., Day, S., Lincoln, N., Yoo, K., Lee, T., ... & Autufuga, D. (2020). Tempo and Trajectory of The Built Landscape on Ta ‘Ū Island, Manu‘a Group, American Sāmoa: Integrating Extensive Radiocarbon Dating With Joint Posterior Modeling. Radiocarbon, 1-21.

Wehr, N. H., Litton, C. M., Lincoln, N. K., & Hess, S. C. (2020). Relationships between soil macroinvertebrates and nonnative feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests. Biological Invasions, 22(2), 577-586.

Winter, K., Lincoln, N., Berkes, F., Alegado, R., Kurashima, N., Frank, K., ... & McClatchey, W. (2020). Ecomimicry in Indigenous resource management: optimizing ecosystem services to achieve resource abundance, with examples from Hawaiʻi. Ecology and Society, 25(2).

Winter, K., Rii, Y., Reppun, F., Hintzen, K., Alegado, R., Bowen, B., ...Lincoln, N.,… & Falinski, K. (2020). Collaborative research to inform adaptive comanagement: a framework for the Heʻeia National Estuarine Research Reserve. Ecology and Society, 25(4).

Chang, K., Winter, K.B., and Lincoln, N.K. (2019). Hawai‘i in focus: navigating pathways in global biocultural leadership. Sustainability 11(1), 283.

Lincoln, N.K. (2019). Learning from Indigenous Agriculture. Nature Sustainability 1(1).

Lincoln, N. K., Cho, A., Dow, G., & Radovich, T. (2019). Early Growth of Breadfruit in a Variety× Environment Trial. Agronomy Journal, 111(6), 3020-3027.

Lincoln, N.K., Radovich, T., Acosta, K., Isele, E., Cho, A. (2019). Towards standardization of foliar tissue sampling of breadfruit. Hort. Tech. 29(4):443-449

Needham, A., & Lincoln, N. (2019). Interactions between People and Breadfruit in Hawai’i: Consumption, Preparation, and Sourcing Patterns. Sustainability, 11(18), 4983.

Quintus, S., Huebert, J., Kirch, P. V., Lincoln, N. K., & Maxwell, J. (2019). Qualities and Contributions of Agroforestry Practices and Novel Forests in Pre-European Polynesia and the Polynesian Outliers. Human Ecology, 1-15.

Kagawa-Viviani, A., Levin, P., Johnson, E., Kantar, M., Ooka, J., Baker, J.D., and Lincoln, N.K. (2018). I ke ēwe ‘āina o ke kupuna: Hawaiian ancestral crops in perspective. Sustainability 10(12), 4607.

Kagawa-Viviani, A., Lincoln, N., Quintus, S., Lucas, M., & Giambelluca, T. (2018). Spatial patterns of seasonal crop production suggest coordination within and across dryland agricultural systems of Hawaiʻi Island. Ecology and Society, 23(3).

Ladefoged, T., Preston, A., Vitousek, P., Stein, J., Chadwick, O., and Lincoln, N. (2018) Soil nutrients and pre-European contact agriculture in the leeward Kohala field system, Island of Hawaiʻi. Archaeology in Oceania 53(1), 28-40.

Langston, B., and Lincoln, N. (2018). The role of breadfruit in biocultural restoration and sustainability in Hawai‘i. Sustainability, 10(11), 3965.

Lincoln, N.K., McCoy, M.D., and Ladefoged, T. (2018). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in kukui (Aleurites moluccanus) endocarp along rainfall and elevation gradients: archaeological implications. PLoS ONE, 13(10), e0204654.

Lincoln, N.K., D. Ragone, N. Zerega, L.B. Roberts-Nkrumah, M. Merlin, and A.M Jones. (2018). Grow us our daily bread: A review of breadfruit cultivation in traditional and contemporary systems. Horticultural Reviews. Vol. 46: 299-384.

Lincoln, N.K., Rossen, J., Vitousek, P., Kahoonei, J., Shapiro, D., Kalawe, K., Pai, M., Marshall, K., and Meheula, K. (2018). Restoration of ‘āina malo‘o on Hawai‘i Island: Expanding Biocultural Relationships. Sustainbility, 10(11), 3985.

Quintus, S., & Lincoln, N. K. (2018). Integrating Local and Regional in Pre-Contact Hawaiian Agriculture at Kahuku, Hawai ‘i Island. Environmental Archaeology, 1-16.

Winter, K.B., Lincoln, N.K., and Berkes, F. (2018). The socio-ecological keystone concept: A quantifyable metaphor for understanding the structure, function, and resilience of a biocultural system. Sustainability, 10(9), 3294.

Gould, R., and Lincoln, N. K. (2017) Expanding the suite of Cultural Ecosystem Services to include ingenuity, perspective, and life teaching. Ecosystem Services 25(2017): 117-127.

Lincoln, N. K., and Vitousek, P. M. (2017). Indigenous Polynesian Agriculture in Hawai‘i. Oxford Research Encyclopedias: Environmental Science March (2017). DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.013.376

Lincoln, N. K., Kagawa-Viviani, A., Marshall, K., and Vitousek, P.  (2017) Observations of Sugarcane in Traditional Hawaiian Cropping Systems. In Sugarcane: Production Systems, Uses, and Economic Impact. Rachel Murphy (ed). Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, USA.

Marshall, K., Koseff, C., Roberts, A., Lindsey, A., Kagawa-Viviani, A., Lincoln, N. K., and Vitousek, P. (2017). Restoring People and Productivity to Puanui: Challenges and opportunities in the restoration of an intensive rain-fed Hawaiian field system. Ecology and Society 22(2): 23-32.

Lincoln, N, & Ardoin, N. (2016). Farmer Typologies: Who is Farming How and What. Food, Culture, and Environment 19(3): 563-585.

Lincoln, N., & Ardoin, N. (2016) Cultivating Values: Environmental Values and Sense of Place as Predictors for Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Five Categories. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(2), 389-401.

Lincoln, N., & Vitousek, P. M. (2016) Nitrogen fixation during decomposition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is an important contribution to nutrient supply in traditional dryland agricultural systems of Hawaiʻi. International Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 14(2), 214-230. DOI: 10.1080/14735903.2015.1071547

Giovanni, Z., Irene, P., András, B., Jon, C., Roberta, A., & Lincoln, N. K. (2015). Sustainable landscape development and value rigidity: the Pirsig‘s monkey trap. Landscape Online, 40.

Lincoln, N. & Ladefoged, T. N. (2014) Agroecology of pre-contact Hawaiian dryland farming: the spatial extent, yield and social impact of Hawaiian breadfruit groves in Kona, Hawai‘i. Journal of Archaeological Science 49, 192-202.

Lincoln, N., Chadwick, O. M., & Vitousek, P. M (2014) Soil Fertility Indicators and Opportunities for Pre-Contact Farming in Kona, Hawai‘i. Ecosphere 5(4), 42.

Lincoln, N. (2014) Effect of various monotypic forest canopies on earthwork biomass and feral pig rooting in Hawaiian wet forests. Forest Ecology and Management 331, 79-84.

Lincoln, N. (2013) The Ethnoagroecology of the Kona Field System: Hawaii Island, Hawaii: Co-Evolution of Environment, Agricultural Practice, and Society. Doctoral dissertation, Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources. Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Extension Publications

Wiseman, B. R. Paull,  N. Lincoln & M. Wall. 2023. Ma’afala Breadfruit: When to Harvest? University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Fruit, Nut, and Beverage Crops, FN-66.

Lincoln, N., Autufuga, D., Uchida, J., Redfern, T., Jones, A., & Ragone, D. (2021). Breadfruit and Breadfruit Diseases in Hawai ‘i. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. 

Wiseman, B., Chen, N.J., Lincoln, N., and Paull, R. (2021) 'Ulu — Breadfruit — Postharvest Handling and Quality Maintenance Guidelines. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. 

Lincoln, N., Lucero, A., Ednie, E., Isele, E., and Shapiro, D. (2019). 'Ulu Propagation Techniques for Backyard and Commercial Growers. Hawai'i 'Ulu Producers Cooperative. 

Lincoln, N., Lucero, A., Carter, C., and Shapiro, D., (2019). Pruning Breadfruit. Hawai'i 'Ulu Producers Cooperative.