The Coronavirus Anxiety Project 


We are a research team that is studying how fear and anxiety about the coronavirus are affecting mental health and well-being of people around the globe. As of July 8, 2020, we developed 3 self-report measures of COVID-19 anxiety that have solid reliability, validity, and cross-cultural  support. These instruments are now registered as research tools by the NIH Public Health Emergency and Disaster Research Response (DR2) Program , part of the World Psychiatry Association’s COVID-19 Mental Health Care Toolkit, and featured on the National COVID-19 Day website as free tools for the world community to use. In addition, these instruments and their research have been cited in major reviews and meta-analyzes, in such journals as the European Journal of Psychiatry, Journal of Psychopathology and Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Our research has been featured to over 17,000 scientists on Research Gate’s COVID-19 community research page , is a part of the Cambridge University coronavirus collection and recognized on the Evidence Exchange Network in Canada. Recently, our research has been cited in major policy papers from such organizations as the World Health Organization and the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium.

The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS; Lee, 2020) is a clinical, mental health screener designed to quickly and accurately identify individuals functionally impaired by their fear and anxiety over the coronavirus. The CAS is currently being translated into many different languages and is being used by over 50 teams of health professionals and researchers from around the world. As of August 27, 2022, the original CAS paper is the most read (138,046 views) and most cited (609 citations) article in the Death Studies journal collection.  The Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS; Lee, 2020) assesses persistent and disturbed thinking about COVID-19, while the Coronavirus Reassurance-Seeking Behaviors Scale (CRBS; Lee, Jobe, Mathis, & Gibbons, 2020) measures reassurance-seeking behaviors associated with concerns over coronavirus infection.  Our hope is that health professionals and scholars will use these tools to identify people at risk for or suffering from clinically significant anxiety related to the coronavirus. We also hope that other researchers will join us in studying the ‘coronaphobia’ phenomenon.  

Our Research

Abasi, I., Fard, A. S., Farzin, A., Lee, S. A., Arani, A. M., & Poursharifi, H. (2021). Properties of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Iranian population. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Ahmed, O., Faisal, R. A., Sharker, T., Lee, S. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Adaptation of the Bangla version of the COVID-19 Anxiety Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

Alotaibi, K. A., Balay-odao, E. M., Cruz, J. P., Alotaibi, J. S., Bajet, J. B., Alquwez, N., Mesde, J., et al. (2023). Influence of the psychological effect of COVID-19 on Saudi student nurses’ attitudes toward nursing and their future career plans. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 13(4), 672.

Alshomrani, A. T., El-Ashkar, A.M., Aboregela, A. M., Alshahrani, A. N., & Alhalafi, A. H. (2023). Adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the COVID-19 anxiety scale. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 10(4), 1293-1297.

Andrade, E. F., Pereira, L. J., Orlando, D. R., Peixoto, M. F. D., Lee, S. A., & Castelo, P. M. (2021): Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (BP-OCS) using a large university sample in Brazil. Death Studies.

Ashraf, F., Lee, S. A., & Crunk, A. E. (2020). Factorial validity of the Urdu version of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale: Preliminary investigation using a university sample in Pakistan. Death Studies.

Choi, E., Lee, J., & Lee, S. A. (2020). Validation of the Korean version of the Obsession with COVID-19 scale and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies.

Gibbons, J. A., Lee, S. A., Harris, K. D., Friedmann, E. D., Rocha, G. R., & Traversa, M. J. (2022). Red state, blue state, purple state; Higher and increasing blue COVID-19 anxiety rate. Psychological Reports.

Lee, A., Lee, J., Yoo, S., Suh, S., Chung, S., & Lee, S. A. (2021). The psychometric properties of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 Items: A test in the U.S. general population. Frontiers in Psychiatry.    

Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401.

Lee, S. A. (2020). How much “Thinking” about COVID-19 is clinically dysfunctional? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

Lee, S. A. (2020). How you can measure your coronaphobia: Interview with Dr. Sherman Lee on his new Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. In J. Aten, K. Annan, & J. Meeker (Eds.), Covid-19 mental health handbook: Evidence-informed approaches to mental wellbeing during a pandemic (pp. 33-34). Humanitarian Disaster Institute.

Lee, S. A. (2020). Measuring coronaphobia: The psychological basis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences. 

Lee, S. A. (2020). Replication analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences. 

Lee, S.A., Close, S., Eads, D., & Pappalardo, E.A. (2023). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). In C.U. Krägeloh, M. Alyami, & O.N. Medvedev (Eds.), International handbook of behavioral health assessment (pp. 1-16).

Lee, S. A., & Crunk. A. E. (2020). Fear and psychopathology during the COVID-19 crisis: Neuroticism, hypochondriasis, reassurance-seeking, and coronaphobia as fear factors. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying.

Lee, S. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2022). Does fear mediate the neuroticism-psychopathology link for adults living through the COVID-19 pandemic? Clinical Medicine Insights: Psychiatry.

Lee, S. A., Jobe, M. C., & Mathis, A. A. (2020). Mental health characteristics associated with dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety. Psychological Medicine.

Lee, S. A., Jobe, M. C., Mathis, A. A., & Gibbons, J. A. (2020). Incremental validity of coronaphobia: Coronavirus anxiety explains depression, generalized anxiety, and death anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.

Lee, S. A., Mathis, A. A., Jobe, M. C., & Pappalardo, E. A. (2020). Clinically significant fear and anxiety of COVID-19: A psychometric examination of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Psychiatry Research.

Lobos-Rivera, M. E., Marroquín-Carpio, W. C., Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Lee, S. A., Tejada Rodríguez, J. C., Flores-Monterrosa, A. N., Valencia, P. D., Carbajal-León, C., Vilca, L. W., Torales, J., & Reyes-Bossio, M. (2023). Does the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale measure coronaphobia the same way for mourners with and without dysfunctional frief? Illness, Crisis & Loss.

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2020). Social isolation and the mitigation of coronavirus anxiety:  The mediating role of meaning. Death Studies.

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2020). Social isolation as a means of reducing dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety and increasing psychoneuroimmunity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., Neimeyer, R. A., Mathis, A. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Modelling pandemic depression and anxiety: The mediational role of core beliefs and meaning making. Journal of Affective Disorders Report.

Mora-Magana, I., Lee, S. A., Maldonado-Castellanos, I., Jimenez-Gutierrez, C., Mendez-Venegas, J., Maya-Del-Moral, A., Rosas-Muniveg, M. D., Mathis, A. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Coronaphobia among healthcare professionals in Mexico: A psychometric analysis. Death Studies.

Negri, A., Conte, F., Caldiroli, C. L., Neimeyer, R. A., & Castiglioni, M. (2023). Psychological factors explaining the COVID-19 Pandemic impact on mental health: The role of meaning, beliefs, and perceptions of vulnerability and mortality. Behavioral Sciences,13(2), 162.

Padovan-Neto, F. E., Lee, S. A., Guimaraes, R. P., Godoy, L. D., Costa, H. B., Zerbini, F. L. S., & Fukusima, S. S. (2021). Brazilian Adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A Psychometric Investigation of a Measure of Coronaphobia. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying.

Research around the Globe

(last updated 3/5/23)

A. T., A., El-Ashkar, A. M., Aboregela, A. M., Alshahrani, A. N., & Alhalafi, A. H. (2023). Adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the COVID-19 anxiety scale. International Journal of Community Medicine And Public Health, 10(4), 1293–1297.

Adiguzel, A., Akan, M., & Ciplak, S. (2022). Investigation of the relationship between headache and anxiety during the late COVID-19 pandemic period: A prospective case-control study. Dicle Medical Journal, 49(1), 92-101.

Adiththan, A. B. et al. (2023). COVID-19 anxiety among undergraduate students of a medical college in Chengalpattu district – A cross-sectional study. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 14(3), 1-5.

Agarwal, T. ., Bajpai, P. K. ., Jaiswal, K. ., Kumar, S. ., Verma, S. ., & Shukla, S. K. . (2022). Awareness, practice and level of anxiety using Coronavirus Anxiety Scale among the Indian population regarding COVID -19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Community Health, 34(2), 248–253.

Agnesytia, B. F., Haryani, A., & Rahmawati, D. (2022). Factor related to public anxiety during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Islamic Nursing, 7(1), 9-14.

Ahn, J., Lee, J., Hong, Y., Park, J., & Chung, S. (2021). Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 (SAVE-6) for medical students: Psychometric properties of the anxiety measure for the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Ahn, H. H., Lee, J., Suh, S., Lee, S., Kim, H. J., Shin, Y., & Chung, S. (2020). Application of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 (SAVE-6) and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) to measure anxiety in cancer patient in response to COVID-19.  Frontiers in Psychology.

Akinci, B., Dayican, D. K., Deveci, F., Inan, C., Kaya, S., Sahin, O., Akinci, T., Guney, D., & Onursan, Z. (2022). Feasibility and safety of Qigong training delivered from two different digital platforms in physically inactive adults: A pilot randomized controlled study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Akıncı, B., Dayican, D. K., Günay, E.,  Coşar, N., Ötün, H. Y., Kılınç, R., Kurban, I., Punar, K., Karagülle, E., Açıkalın, S., &  Başçi, S. (2022). Post-COVID-19 menstrual symptom disorders relating to anxiety and long COVID-19 symptoms. International Journal of Women’s Health and Reproduction Sciences, 10(4), 186–193.

Akkuzu, H., Yumuşak, F.N., Karaman, G., Ladikli, N., Türkkan Z., & Bahadır, E. (2020). The reliability and validity of Turkish version of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Cyprus Turkish Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology, 2(2), 63-67. doi:10.35365/ctjpp.20.2.09

Akova, I., & Özdemir, M. E. (2023). Anxiety and fear caused by the COVID-19 pandemic during the intervention of emergency surgical cases in surgical physicians in Turkey. Medical Records, 5(1), 1-8.

Akpinar, C. V., Mandiracioglu, A., Ozvurmaz, S., Kurt, F., & Koc, N. (2023). Cyberchondria and COVID-19 anxiety and internet addiction among nursing students. Current Psychology, 42, 2406–2414.

Akpolat, H., Bayraktar, M. K., & Demirer, B. (2023). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating and food shopping habits. Journal of Food and Feed Science, 30, 22-31.

Aksoy, S. D., Ergin, A., Özdemir, S., & Babadağlı, B. (2023). The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s mental health in Tukey and what these effects suggest. Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(1), 81-89.

Akyıldız, D., & Gucyılmaz, A. (2022). Risk of postpartum depression during COVID-19 outbreak and its associated risk factors. Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences (JDUHS), 16(3), 131–137.

Alotaibi et al. (2023). Influence of the psychological effect of COVID-19 on Saudi student nurses’ attitudes toward nursing and their future career plans. Journal of Personalized Medicine.

Alshomrani, A. (2023). Arabic language version of the Obsession with COVID-19 scale adaptation and validity evaluation in Saudi sample. Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, 59(43), 1-5.

Alshomrani, A. T., El-Ashkar, A.M., Aboregela, A. M., Alshahrani, A. N., & Alhalafi, A. H. (2023). Adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the COVID-19 anxiety scale. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 10(4), 1293-1297.

Altıntaş, A., Aydın, N. E., Bayram, G. Y., Coşkuntürk, A., Sarıoğlu, S., Çelik, E., & Gursoy, T. (2022). Maternal stress and neonatal nutrition during the COVID-19 era. Infectious Diseases & Clinical Diseases.

Al Zubayer, A., Rahman, M. E., Islam, B., Zaman, O.,  & Jobe, M. C. (2023) COVID-19 anxiety and associated factors among university students in Bangladesh. Death Studies.

AM, K. U. et al. (2022). The mental health impact of COVID-19 on pre-registration nursing students in Australia: Findings from a national cross-sectional study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Antunes Fonseca, J. G., de Oliveira Moreira, J., Scalioni Moreira, P., & Morelo Pereira, M. (2022). Additional evidence of validity of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS-BR) in a sample of Brazilian women. Psychology and Health Debate , 8(1), 183–196.

Anzola, D., Limoges, J., McLean, J., & Kolla, N. J. (2022). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare providers: A comparison of a psychiatric hospital and a general hospital. Frontiers Psychiatry.

Arslan , G., Yıldırım, M., & Aytaç, M. (2020). Subjective vitality and loneliness explain how coronavirus anxiety increases rumination among college students Death Studies.

Arul Varman, P., Ananthi, P., & Sugirda, P. (2022). Evaluation of perceived stress and coronavirus-specific anxiety among hospitalized COVID-19 patients – A cross-sectional study. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 13(4), 18–22.

Asanjarani, F., Szczygieł, M., & Arif, A. (2021). The Persian language version of the Obsession with the COVID-19 scale for adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Ashraf, F., Zareen, G., Nusrat, A., Arif, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Correlates of psychological distress among Pakistani adults during the COVID-19 outbreak: Parallel and serial mediation analyses. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.   

Aslam, N., Shafique, K., & Ahmed, A. (2021). Exploring the impact of COVID-19-related fear, obsessions, anxiety and stress on psychological well-being among adults in Pakistan. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 16(4), 313-321.

Atreya, A., Nepal, S., Menezes, R. G., Shurjeel, Q., Qazi, S., Ram, M. D., Usman, M. S., Ghimire, S., Marhatta, A., Islam, M. N., Sapkota, A. D., & Garbuja, C. K. (2022). Assessment of fear, anxiety, obsession and functional impairment due to COVID-19 amongst health-care workers and trainees: A cross-sectional study in Nepal. F1000Research, 11(119), 1-18.

Babinčák, P. & Babjáková, J. (2022). Coronavirus anxiety in Slovakia during the second wave of the pandemic – Associations with depression, Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. Human Affairs, 32(2), 228-240.

Bahadır, C. T., & Erdoğan, S. Ö. (2022). COVID-19 fear and anxiety in patients with diabetes mellitus and their effect on HbA1c. Acta Medica.

Baka, L. (2021). Coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion among Polish front-line healthcare workers: The mediation effect of insomnia. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 34(2). 1-11.

Baktır Altuntaş, S., Özkaya, H., Beşel, A., Namlı, S. B., & Albayrak, K. (2022). The association between COVID-19 anxiety levels and tobacco use among patients within a smoking cessation polyclinic. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 20(55), 1-11.

Bekar, P., & Erkul, M., & Efe, E. (2022). Investigation of coronavirus anxiety and caregiving burden among the parents of children with cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak: A descriptive and cross-sectional study. European Journal of Cancer Care.

Bakke, S. L., Winer, E. S., & Brown, A. D. (2023). Recalling self-efficacious memories reduces COVID-19-related fear. Cognitive Therapy Research.

Baloglu, M., Karatas, K., & Arpaci, I. (2021). Psychological and Socio-Economic Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Turkish Population. In Arpaci, I., Al-Emran, M., A. Al-Sharafi, M., Marques, G. (eds) Emerging Technologies During the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control, 348, Springer.

Batool, H., & Awan, I. B. (2022). The impact of covid anxiety on mental health: Moderating role of social support. Advances in Social and Cultural Studies, 1(1), 17-23.

Batra, K., Pharr, J. R. Terry, E., & Labus, B. (2022). Assessing psychological impact of COVID-19 among parents of children returning to K-12 schools: A U.S. based cross-sectional survey. Healthcare, 10(5), 775.

Beitzell, E., Podduturi, P., Hook, M., Jones, A., McKeen, H., & Liss, M. (2021). COVID on the brain: Anxiety sensitivity and mindful awareness mediate the relationship between COVID-19 obsession and anxiety. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine.

Bhatta, K. R., Shrestha, P., Khati , K., Joshi , P. R., Thagunna , N. S., Shrestha , K., & Pokharel, T. P. (2021). Prevalence and factors influencing COVID-19 Anxiety among Nepalese Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Indian Psychology.

Biçer, I., Çakmak, C., Demir, H., & Kurt, M. E. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Short Form: Turkish validity and reliability study. Anadolu Clinic Journal of Medical Sciences.

Bilgin, A., Kesik, G., & Özdemir, L. (2021). Biopsychosocial factors predicting pain among individuals experiencing the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Pain Management Nursing.

Bostan, C. M., Hriţuleac, A., & Măgurianu, L. (2023). Death anxiety and COVID-19 anxiety. The mediating role of religious relational identification and the impact of emotional regulation strategies. OMEGA—Journal of Death and Dying.

Broche-Pérez, Y., Fernández-Castillo, E., Fernández-Fleites, Z., Jiménez-Puig, E., Vizcaíno-Escobar, A., Ferrer-Lozano, D., Martínez-Rodríguez, L., & Martín-González, R. (2020). Adaptation of the Cuban version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies.

Bulut, M.B. (2022). Relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and fear of death: The mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty among a Turkish sample. Current Psychology.

Çamkerten, S., Ayhan, D. & Tatar, A. (2021). Translation of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale into the Turkish and validity-reliability studies. Journal of Continuing Medical Education, 30(2), 77-83.

Cankurtaran, D., Tezel, N., Ercan, B., Yildiz, S. Y., & Akyuz, E. U. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 fear and anxiety on symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood in patients with fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Advances in Rheumatology.

Carrillo-Valdez, L. (2021). Psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Mexican adult population. Ciencia y Humanismo en la Salud.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Barboza-Palomino, M., Ventura-León, J., Carbajal-León, C., Noé-Grijalva, M., Gallegos, M., & Reyes-Bossio, M., & Vivanco-Vidal, A. (2020). Traducción al español y validación de una medida breve de ansiedad por la COVID-19 en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud. Ansiedad y Estrés, 26(2–3), 174-180.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Valencia, P.D., Vilca, L.W., Carbajal‑León, C., Vivanco‑Vidal, A., Saroli‑Araníbar, D., Reyes‑Bossio, M., White, M., Rojas‑Jara, C., Polanco‑Carrasco, R., Gallegos, M., Cervigni, M., Martino, P., Palacios, D. A., Moreta‑Herrera, R., Samaniego‑Pinho, A., Lobos‑Rivera, M. E., Figares, A. B., Puerta‑Cortés, D. X., Corrales‑Reyes, I. E., Calderón, P., Tapia, B. P., Ferrari, I. F., & Flores‑Mendoza, C. (2022). Cross-cultural validation of the new version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in twelve Latin American countries. Current Psychology.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Carbajal-León, C., White, M., Vivanco-Vidal, A., Saroli-Araníbar, D., Peña-Calero, B. N., & Moreta-Herrera, R. (2021) Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: New psychometric evidence for the Spanish version based on CFA and IRT models in a Peruvian sample. Death Studies.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Carbajal-León, C., Heredia-Mongrut, J., Gallegos, M., Portillo, N., Reyes-Bossio, M., & Barboza-Palomino, M. (2021). Obsession with Covid-19 in Peruvian police and armed forces: Validation of the obsession with Covid-19 Scale in Spanish using SEM and IRT models, Death Studies.

Candrea, E., Pamfil, C., Vargha, J. L., Crisan, M., Baican, A., Neacsu, A., Toader, R. M., & Rednic, S. (2022). Intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune diseases. Romanian Journal of Military Medicine, 125(2), 185-189.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Peña-Calero, B. N., Barboza-Palomino, M., White, M., & Reyes-Bossio, M. (2021). Medición de la coronafobia en adultos mayores: Validación de la versión en español de la Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia.

Celik, F., & Pinar, S. E. (2023). Determination of anxiety, stress levels and coping strategies of midwives and nurses working in the COVID-19 pandemic process. Journal of Health Sciences Institute, 8(1), 1-10.

Chen, J. H., Tong, K. K., Su, X., Yu, E. W., & Wu., A. M. S. (2021). Measuring COVID-19 related anxiety and obsession: Validation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale in a probability Chinese sample. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Cheng, C., & Ying, W. (2023). A meta-analytic review of the associations between dimensions of religious coping and psychological symptoms during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1-12.

Cheng, C., Ying, W., Ebrahimi, O. V., & Wong, K. F. E. (2023). Coping style and mental health amid the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A culture-moderated meta-analysis of 44 nations. Health Psychology Review.

Cho, E., Lee, D., Cho, I., Lee, J., Ahn, J., & Bang, Y. R. (2022). Insomnia mediate the influence of reassurance-seeking behavior and viral anxiety on preoccupation with COVID-19 among the general population. Sleep Medicine Research.

Chorwe-Sungani, G. (2021). Assessing COVID-19-related anxiety and functional impairment amongst nurses in Malawi. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine.

Choudhury, A., Varshney, M., Sahoo, B., Pamecha, V., Sinha, P., Patil, N. S., Mohapatra, N. S., Sharma, V., & Kumar, R. (2022). Impact of covid-19 pandemic on quality of life and psychosocial difficulties among liver transplant recipients. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 11(2), 744-750.

Cook, R.M., & Fye, H. (2022). Trauma-informed supervision and related predictors of burnout and secondary traumatic stress among prelicensed counsellors during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling.

Copping, L. T. (2022). Anxiety and covid-19 compliance behaviors in the UK: The moderating role of conspiratorial thinking. Personality and Individual Differences.

Coulaud, P., Ablona, A., Bolduc, N., Fast, D., Bertrand, K., Ward, J., Greyson, D., Jauffret-Roustide, M., & Knight, R. (in-press). COVID-19 vaccine intention among young adults: Comparative results from a cross-sectional study in Canada and France. Vaccine.

Couto, R. N., de Medieros, E. D., Sousa, I. M., de Medieros, P. C. B., & Carvalho, T. A. (2022). Fear and anxiety in professionals about COVID-19: Brazilian versions of measures. Estudos de Psicologia, 39, 1-10.

Crawford, M. J., Leeson, V. C., McQuaid, A., Samuel, O., King, J. D., Simplicio, M. D., Tyrer, P., Tyrer, H., Watt, R. G., & Barnicot, K. (2022). Severe COVID-19 anxiety among adults in the UK: protocol for a cohort study and nested feasibility trial of modified cognitive–behavioural therapy for health anxiety. BMJ Open, 12(9), 1-9.

Cunha, O., Caridade, S., de Castro Rodrigues, A. Cruz, A. R., & Peixoto, M. M. (2023). Perpetration of intimate partner violence and COVID-19-related anxiety during the second lockdown in Portugal: The mediating role of anxiety, depression, and stress. Journal of Family Violence.

Curtis, A. F., Schmiedeler, A., Musich, M., Connell, M., Miller, M. B., & McCrae, C. S. (2022). COVID-19-related anxiety and cognition in middle-aged and older adults: Examining sex as a moderator. Psychological Reports.

Dahiya et al. (2022). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant and psychological distress among frontline nurses in a major COVID-19 center: Implications for supporting psychological well-being. Journal of Primary Care Specialties.;type=0

Das, D., & Pal, S. (2021). Do socio-demographic and corona reassurance-seeking behaviour predict corona anxiety? - A study among Indian population. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management.

Datu, J. A. D., & Fincham, F. D. (2022). The relational and mental health payoffs of staying gritty during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-cultural study in the Philippines and the United States. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 39(3), 459-480.

Delaney, K., Dietrich, M. S., Corte, C., Akard, T. F., & Piano, M. R. (2023). Hazardous alcohol use, drinking motives and COVID-19-related anxiety in college students. Journal of American College Health.

Demirci, P. Y., Tunuğ, S., Vurgeç, B. A., & Sürücü, S. G. (2023). Relationship between supportive care needs with coronavirus anxiety and death anxiety of women with gynecologic cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.

DeRossett, T., LaVoie, D.J., & Brooks, D. (2021). Religious coping amidst a pandemic: Impact on COVID-19-related anxiety. Journal of Religion and Health.

de Sá, V.R., Gulá, P. V. S., Prizon, T. Falcoski, R. M., Ruggiero, R. N., & Padovan‑Neto, F. E. (2023). Anxiety and functional impairment affects undergraduate psychology students’ learning in remote emergency teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scientific Reports, 13(1503), 1-11.

Dobrakowski, P. P., Skalski, S., Surzykiewicz, J., Muszynska, J., & Konaszewski, K. (2021). Religious coping and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Polish Catholics. The mediating effect of coronavirus anxiety. Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Dogan, G., Ozyildirim, C., & Yabanci Ayhan, N. (2023). Supplementation use and diet changes during Covid-19 pandemic according to anxiety level and mediterranean diet adherence. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.

Duong, C. D. (2021). The impact of fear and anxiety of Covid-19 on life satisfaction: Psychological distress and sleep disturbance as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences.

Durmaz, A., & Kakasci, C. G. (2022). Investigation of the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and perception of risk in pregnancy, fears of death and losing their baby in the pandemic. OMEGA: Journal of Death and Dying.

Ebrahimi, O. V., Johnson, M. S., Ebling, S., Amundsen, O. M., Halsøy, O., Hoffart, A., & Skjerdingstad, N., & Johnson, S. U. (2021). Risk, trust, and flawed assumptions: Vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health.    

Efteli, E. (2022). The relationship between sleep quality and coronovirus-related anxiety in nursing department students receiving distance and face-to-face education. Journal of İnönü University Vocational School of Health Services.

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The  CAP Research Team

Sherman A. Lee, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Christopher Newport University. He studies negative feeling states, such as anxiety and grief, with a specialization in psychological measurement. He has published over 80 journal articles and book chapters and teaches courses in the psychology of personality, psychology of the human-animal bond, and the psychology of death, dying, and bereavement.

Mary C. Jobe, BS, is a doctoral student in the Applied Social Psychology program at the George Washington University. Her interests include developmental, quantitative, and social psychology.

Amanda A. Mathis, BS, is a doctoral student in the Quantitative Psychology program at the University of Notre Dame. Her interests include quantitative and cognitive psychology.

Emily A. Pappalardo is an undergraduate psychology and neuroscience major, with a minor in leadership studies at Christopher Newport University. She currently is an undergraduate research assistant, planning to graduate in Spring 2023. Her interests include developmental and cognitive psychology.

Jeffrey A. Gibbons, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Christopher Newport University.  He studies the interrelation between memory, emotions, and attitudes.  The research primarily examines the relation of rehearsal and mood measures (depression, anxiety, and stress) to the fading affect bias (tendency for unpleasant event affect to fade faster than pleasant event affect) across experimental events (alcohol, religion, death, social media, video games, relationships) and control events (e.g., non-alcohol) in autobiographical memory.  This work has recently been extended to COVID-19 events.  Finally, his research also examines the believability and recognition of news headlines. 

Elizabeth Crunk, PhD, is an instructor and researcher at the George Washington University in Washington, DC, where she also maintains an active psychotherapy practice. Her research focuses on the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the bereavement processes of adult mourners, grief coping, and psychometrics and scale development.

Evgenia (Jane) Milman, PhD, teaches and conducts research at St Edward’s University. She is also a faculty member at the Portland Institute for Loss and Transition and adjunct faculty at the National Crime Victim’s Center. She studies the impact of meaning making on mental health following bereavement, trauma and other stressful events. Jane has published novel grief therapy techniques, assessment tools, and therapeutic protocols.

Robert A. Neimeyer, PhD, directs the Portland Institute for Loss and Transition, and maintains an active consulting and coaching practice.  Neimeyer has published over 500 journal articles and book chapters as well as 30 books, including Techniques of Grief Therapy, and serves as Editor of Death Studies. He is currently working to advance a more adequate theory of grieving as a meaning-making process. 


We would like to thank our family members, friends, and fellow scholars for sharing their ideas and supporting our project. We also would like to thank Dr. Alice Veksler, Dr. Michelle Lange, and the rest of CNU's IRB for reviewing our research.  We thank  Mr. Jim Hanchett, CNU's Chief Communications Officer, for his media and communication support. We also thank Mr. Will White, CNU's Academic Technology Service Manager for his technical support of this webpage. Further thanks goes to Dr. Tim Marshall and Ms. Alinka Pollock for their active support of the members of this project.    And we wish to extend a  special thanks to all of the participants of our research with whom we have been privileged to learn from and taught us much about the psychology of pandemics. 

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