The Coronavirus Anxiety Project


We are a research team that is studying how fear and anxiety about the coronavirus are affecting mental health and well-being of people around the globe. As of July 8, 2020, we developed 3 self-report measures of COVID-19 anxiety that have solid reliability, validity, and cross-cultural support. These instruments are now registered as research tools by the NIH Public Health Emergency and Disaster Research Response (DR2) Program , part of the World Psychiatry Association’s COVID-19 Mental Health Care Toolkit, and featured on the National COVID-19 Day website as free tools for the world community to use. In addition, these instruments and their research have been cited in major reviews and meta-analyzes, in such journals as the European Journal of Psychiatry, Journal of Psychopathology and Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Our research has been featured to over 17,000 scientists on Research Gate’s COVID-19 community research page , is a part of the Cambridge University coronavirus collection and recognized on the Evidence Exchange Network in Canada. Recently, our research has been cited in major policy papers from such organizations as the World Health Organization and the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium.

The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS; Lee, 2020) is a clinical, mental health screener designed to quickly and accurately identify individuals functionally impaired by their fear and anxiety over the coronavirus. The CAS is currently being translated into many different languages and is being used by over 50 teams of health professionals and researchers from around the world. As of December 5, 2021, the original CAS paper is the most read (122,303 views) and most cited (357citations) article in the Death Studies journal collection. The Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS; Lee, 2020) assesses persistent and disturbed thinking about COVID-19, while the Coronavirus Reassurance-Seeking Behaviors Scale (CRBS; Lee, Jobe, Mathis, & Gibbons, 2020) measures reassurance-seeking behaviors associated with concerns over coronavirus infection. Our hope is that health professionals and scholars will use these tools to identify people at risk for or suffering from clinically significant anxiety related to the coronavirus. We also hope that other researchers will join us in studying the ‘coronaphobia’ phenomenon.

Our Research

Abasi, I., Fard, A. S., Farzin, A., Lee, S. A., Arani, A. M., & Poursharifi, H. (2021). Properties of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Iranian population. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Ahmed, O., Faisal, R. A., Sharker, T., Lee, S. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Adaptation of the Bangla version of the COVID-19 Anxiety Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.

Andrade, E. F., Pereira, L. J., Orlando, D. R., Peixoto, M. F. D., Lee, S. A., & Castelo, P. M. (2021): Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (BP-OCS) using a large university sample in Brazil. Death Studies.

Ashraf, F., Lee, S. A., & Crunk, A. E. (2020). Factorial validity of the Urdu version of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale: Preliminary investigation using a university sample in Pakistan. Death Studies.

Choi, E., Lee, J., & Lee, S. A. (2020). Validation of the Korean version of the Obsession with COVID-19 scale and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies.

Lee, A., Lee, J., Yoo, S., Suh, S., Chung, S., & Lee, S. A. (2021). The psychometric properties of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 Items: A test in the U.S. general population. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Lee, S. A. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 393-401.

Lee, S. A. (2020). How much “Thinking” about COVID-19 is clinically dysfunctional? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

Lee, S. A. (2020). How you can measure your coronaphobia: Interview with Dr. Sherman Lee on his new Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. In J. Aten, K. Annan, & J. Meeker (Eds.), Covid-19 mental health handbook: Evidence-informed approaches to mental wellbeing during a pandemic (pp. 33-34). Humanitarian Disaster Institute.

Lee, S. A. (2020). Measuring coronaphobia: The psychological basis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences.

Lee, S. A. (2020). Replication analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences.

Lee, S. A., & Crunk. A. E. (2020). Fear and psychopathology during the COVID-19 crisis: Neuroticism, hypochondriasis, reassurance-seeking, and coronaphobia as fear factors. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying.

Lee, S. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2022). Does fear mediate the neuroticism-psychopathology link for adults living through the COVID-19 pandemic? Clinical Medicine Insights: Psychiatry.

Lee, S. A., Jobe, M. C., & Mathis, A. A. (2020). Mental health characteristics associated with dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety. Psychological Medicine.

Lee, S. A., Jobe, M. C., Mathis, A. A., & Gibbons, J. A. (2020). Incremental validity of coronaphobia: Coronavirus anxiety explains depression, generalized anxiety, and death anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.

Lee, S. A., Mathis, A. A., Jobe, M. C., & Pappalardo, E. A. (2020). Clinically significant fear and anxiety of COVID-19: A psychometric examination of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Psychiatry Research.

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2020). Social isolation and the mitigation of coronavirus anxiety: The mediating role of meaning. Death Studies.

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2020). Social isolation as a means of reducing dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety and increasing psychoneuroimmunity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

Milman, E., Lee, S. A., Neimeyer, R. A., Mathis, A. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Modelling pandemic depression and anxiety: The mediational role of core beliefs and meaning making. Journal of Affective Disorders Report.

Mora-Magana, I., Lee, S. A., Maldonado-Castellanos, I., Jimenez-Gutierrez, C., Mendez-Venegas, J., Maya-Del-Moral, A., Rosas-Muniveg, M. D., Mathis, A. A., & Jobe, M. C. (2020). Coronaphobia among healthcare professionals in Mexico: A psychometric analysis. Death Studies.

Padovan-Neto, F. E., Lee, S. A., Guimaraes, R. P., Godoy, L. D., Costa, H. B., Zerbini, F. L. S., & Fukusima, S. S. (2021). Brazilian Adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A Psychometric Investigation of a Measure of Coronaphobia. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying.

Research around the Globe

Adiguzel, A., Akan, M., & Ciplak, S. (2022). Investigation of the relationship between headache and anxiety during the late COVID-19 pandemic period: A prospective case-control study. Dicle Medical Journal, 49(1), 92-101.

Agarwal, T. ., Bajpai, P. K. ., Jaiswal, K. ., Kumar, S. ., Verma, S. ., & Shukla, S. K. . (2022). Awareness, practice and level of anxiety using Coronavirus Anxiety Scale among the Indian population regarding COVID -19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Community Health, 34(2), 248–253.

Ahn, J., Lee, J., Hong, Y., Park, J., & Chung, S. (2021). Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 (SAVE-6) for medical students: Psychometric properties of the anxiety measure for the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Ahn, H. H., Lee, J., Suh, S., Lee, S., Kim, H. J., Shin, Y., & Chung, S. (2020). Application of the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 (SAVE-6) and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) to measure anxiety in cancer patient in response to COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology.

Akinci, B., Dayican, D. K., Deveci, F., Inan, C., Kaya, S., Sahin, O., Akinci, T., Guney, D., & Onursan, Z. (2022). Feasibility and safety of Qigong training delivered from two different digital platforms in physically inactive adults: A pilot randomized controlled study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Akkuzu, H., Yumuşak, F.N., Karaman, G., Ladikli, N., Türkkan Z., & Bahadır, E. (2020). The reliability and validity of Turkish version of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Cyprus Turkish Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology, 2(2), 63-67. doi:10.35365/ctjpp.20.2.09

Antunes Fonseca, J. G., de Oliveira Moreira, J., Scalioni Moreira, P., & Morelo Pereira, M. (2022). Additional evidence of validity of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS-BR) in a sample of Brazilian women. Psychology and Health Debate , 8(1), 183–196.

Anzola, D., Limoges, J., McLean, J., & Kolla, N. J. (2022). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare providers: A comparison of a psychiatric hospital and a general hospital. Frontiers Psychiatry.

Arslan , G., Yıldırım, M., & Aytaç, M. (2020). Subjective vitality and loneliness explain how coronavirus anxiety increases rumination among college students Death Studies.

Arul Varman, P., Ananthi, P., & Sugirda, P. (2022). Evaluation of perceived stress and coronavirus-specific anxiety among hospitalized COVID-19 patients – A cross-sectional study. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 13(4), 18–22.

Asanjarani, F., Szczygieł, M., & Arif, A. (2021). The Persian language version of the Obsession with the COVID-19 scale for adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Ashraf, F., Zareen, G., Nusrat, A., Arif, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Correlates of psychological distress among Pakistani adults during the COVID-19 outbreak: Parallel and serial mediation analyses. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Aslam, N., Shafique, K., & Ahmed, A. (2021). Exploring the impact of COVID-19-related fear, obsessions, anxiety and stress on psychological well-being among adults in Pakistan. Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 16(4), 313-321.

Atreya, A., Nepal, S., Menezes, R. G., Shurjeel, Q., Qazi, S., Ram, M. D., Usman, M. S., Ghimire, S., Marhatta, A., Islam, M. N., Sapkota, A. D., & Garbuja, C. K. (2022). Assessment of fear, anxiety, obsession and functional impairment due to COVID-19 amongst health-care workers and trainees: A cross-sectional study in Nepal. F1000Research, 11(119), 1-18.

Babinčák, P. & Babjáková, J. (2022). Coronavirus anxiety in Slovakia during the second wave of the pandemic – Associations with depression, Insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. Human Affairs, 32(2), 228-240.

Baka, L. (2021). Coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion among Polish front-line healthcare workers: The mediation effect of insomnia. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 34(2). 1-11.

Baktır Altuntaş, S., Özkaya, H., Beşel, A., Namlı, S. B., & Albayrak, K. (2022). The association between COVID-19 anxiety levels and tobacco use among patients within a smoking cessation polyclinic. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 20(55), 1-11.

Bekar, P., & Erkul, M., & Efe, E. (2022). Investigation of coronavirus anxiety and caregiving burden among the parents of children with cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak: A descriptive and cross-sectional study. European Journal of Cancer Care.

Batra, K., Pharr, J. R. Terry, E., & Labus, B. (2022). Assessing psychological impact of COVID-19 among parents of children returning to K-12 schools: A U.S. based cross-sectional survey. Healthcare, 10(5), 775.

Beitzell, E., Podduturi, P., Hook, M., Jones, A., McKeen, H., & Liss, M. (2021). COVID on the brain: Anxiety sensitivity and mindful awareness mediate the relationship between COVID-19 obsession and anxiety. OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine.

Bhatta, K. R., Shrestha, P., Khati , K., Joshi , P. R., Thagunna , N. S., Shrestha , K., & Pokharel, T. P. (2021). Prevalence and factors influencing COVID-19 Anxiety among Nepalese Population during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Indian Psychology.

Biçer, I., Çakmak, C., Demir, H., & Kurt, M. E. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale Short Form: Turkish validity and reliability study. Anadolu Clinic Journal of Medical Sciences.

Bilgin, A., Kesik, G., & Özdemir, L. (2021). Biopsychosocial factors predicting pain among individuals experiencing the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Pain Management Nursing.

Broche-Pérez, Y., Fernández-Castillo, E., Fernández-Fleites, Z., Jiménez-Puig, E., Vizcaíno-Escobar, A., Ferrer-Lozano, D., Martínez-Rodríguez, L., & Martín-González, R. (2020). Adaptation of the Cuban version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies.

Bulut, M.B. (2022). Relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and fear of death: The mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty among a Turkish sample. Current Psychology.

Çamkerten, S., Ayhan, D. & Tatar, A. (2021). Translation of the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale into the Turkish and validity-reliability studies. Journal of Continuing Medical Education, 30(2), 77-83.

Cankurtaran, D., Tezel, N., Ercan, B., Yildiz, S. Y., & Akyuz, E. U. (2021). The effects of COVID-19 fear and anxiety on symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood in patients with fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Advances in Rheumatology.

Carrillo-Valdez, L. (2021). Psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Mexican adult population. Ciencia y Humanismo en la Salud.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Valencia, P.D., Vilca, L.W., Carbajal‑León, C., Vivanco‑Vidal, A., Saroli‑Araníbar, D., Reyes‑Bossio, M., White, M., Rojas‑Jara, C., Polanco‑Carrasco, R., Gallegos, M., Cervigni, M., Martino, P., Palacios, D. A., Moreta‑Herrera, R., Samaniego‑Pinho, A., Lobos‑Rivera, M. E., Figares, A. B., Puerta‑Cortés, D. X., Corrales‑Reyes, I. E., Calderón, P., Tapia, B. P., Ferrari, I. F., & Flores‑Mendoza, C. (2022). Cross-cultural validation of the new version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in twelve Latin American countries. Current Psychology.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Carbajal-León, C., White, M., Vivanco-Vidal, A., Saroli-Araníbar, D., Peña-Calero, B. N., & Moreta-Herrera, R. (2021) Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: New psychometric evidence for the Spanish version based on CFA and IRT models in a Peruvian sample. Death Studies.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Carbajal-León, C., Heredia-Mongrut, J., Gallegos, M., Portillo, N., Reyes-Bossio, M., & Barboza-Palomino, M. (2021). Obsession with Covid-19 in Peruvian police and armed forces: Validation of the obsession with Covid-19 Scale in Spanish using SEM and IRT models, Death Studies.

Candrea, E., Pamfil, C., Vargha, J. L., Crisan, M., Baican, A., Neacsu, A., Toader, R. M., & Rednic, S. (2022). Intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune diseases. Romanian Journal of Military Medicine, 125(2), 185-189.

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Peña-Calero, B. N., Barboza-Palomino, M., White, M., & Reyes-Bossio, M. (2021). Medición de la coronafobia en adultos mayores: Validación de la versión en español de la Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia.

Chen, J. H., Tong, K. K., Su, X., Yu, E. W., & Wu., A. M. S. (2021). Measuring COVID-19 related anxiety and obsession: Validation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Obsession with COVID-19 Scale in a probability Chinese sample. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Cho, E., Lee, D., Cho, I., Lee, J., Ahn, J., & Bang, Y. R. (2022). Insomnia mediate the influence of reassurance-seeking behavior and viral anxiety on preoccupation with COVID-19 among the general population. Sleep Medicine Research.

Chorwe-Sungani, G. (2021). Assessing COVID-19-related anxiety and functional impairment amongst nurses in Malawi. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine.

Choudhury, A., Varshney, M., Sahoo, B., Pamecha, V., Sinha, P., Patil, N. S., Mohapatra, N. S., Sharma, V., & Kumar, R. (2022). Impact of covid-19 pandemic on quality of life and psychosocial difficulties among liver transplant recipients. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 11(2), 744-750.

Curtis, A. F., Schmiedeler, A., Musich, M., Connell, M., Miller, M. B., & McCrae, C. S. (2022). COVID-19-related anxiety and cognition in middle-aged and older adults: Examining sex as a moderator. Psychological Reports.

Copping, L. T. (2022). Anxiety and covid-19 compliance behaviors in the UK: The moderating role of conspiratorial thinking. Personality and Individual Differences.

Coulaud, P., Ablona, A., Bolduc, N., Fast, D., Bertrand, K., Ward, J., Greyson, D., Jauffret-Roustide, M., & Knight, R. (in-press). COVID-19 vaccine intention among young adults: Comparative results from a cross-sectional study in Canada and France. Vaccine.

Das, D., & Pal, S. (2021). Do socio-demographic and corona reassurance-seeking behaviour predict corona anxiety? - A study among Indian population. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management.

Datu, J. A. D., & Fincham, F. D. (2022). The relational and mental health payoffs of staying gritty during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-cultural study in the Philippines and the United States. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 39(3), 459-480.

DeRossett, T., LaVoie, D.J., & Brooks, D. (2021). Religious coping amidst a pandemic: Impact on COVID-19-related anxiety. Journal of Religion and Health.

Dobrakowski, P. P., Skalski, S., Surzykiewicz, J., Muszynska, J., & Konaszewski, K. (2021). Religious coping and life satisfaction during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Polish Catholics. The mediating effect of coronavirus anxiety. Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Duong, C. D. (2021). The impact of fear and anxiety of Covid-19 on life satisfaction: Psychological distress and sleep disturbance as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences.

Ebrahimi, O. V., Johnson, M. S., Ebling, S., Amundsen, O. M., Halsøy, O., Hoffart, A., & Skjerdingstad, N., & Johnson, S. U. (2021). Risk, trust, and flawed assumptions: Vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health.

Efteli, E. (2022). The relationship between sleep quality and coronovirus-related anxiety in nursing department students receiving distance and face-to-face education. Journal of İnönü University Vocational School of Health Services.

Ekmen, E., Koçak, O., Solmaz, U., Kopuz, K., Younis, M. Z., & Orman, D. (2021). How does the social support affect refugees’ life satisfaction in Turkey? Stress as a mediator, social aids and coronavirus anxiety as moderators. Sustainability.

El Sayed, S., Shokry, D., & Gomaa, S. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: Content validity and reliability of Arabic version. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 81(4). 1775-1779.

Enea, V., Candel, O. S., Zancu, S. A., Scrumeda, A., Bărbuşelu, M., Largu, A. M., & Manciuc, C. (2021). Death anxiety and burnout in intensive care unit specialists facing the COVID-19 outbreak: The mediating role of obsession with COVID-19 and coronaphobia. Death Studies.

Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., & Kutlu, N. (2021). Alcohol- and cigarette-use-related behaviors across gender, dysfunctional COVID-19 anxiety, and the presence of probable ADHD during the pandemic: A cross-sectional study in a sample of Turkish young adults. Dusunen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 34, 383-391.

Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., & Kutlu, N. (2021). The association of probable ADHD with the increase in video gaming and the disordered gaming symptom severity during COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 11(3), 200-208.

Evren, C., Evren, B., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., & Kutlu, N. (2020). Measuring anxiety related to COVID-19: A Turkish validation study of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Death Studies.

Faisal, R. A., Jobe, M. C., Ahmed, O., Sharker, T. (2020). Replication analysis of the COVID-19 Worry Scale. Death Studies.

Faramawy, M. A. E. A., & Kader, A. I. A. E. (2021). COVID-19 anxiety and organizational commitment among front-line nurses: Perceived role of nurse managers’ caring behavior. Nursing Practice Today.

Franco-Jimenez, R. (2020). Translation and psychometric analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) in Peruvian youth and adults. Interactions , 6 (2), e159.

Fronda, D. C., & Labrague, L. J. (2022). Turnover intention and coronaphobia among frontline nurses during the second surge of COVID-19: The mediating role of social support and coping skills. Journal of Nursing Management.

Fjermestad, K. W., Orm, S., Silverman, W. K., & Cogo-Moreira, H. (2022). Short report: COVID-19-related anxiety is associated with mental health problems among adults with rare disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities.

Gaeta, L., & Brydges, C. R. (2020). Coronavirus-related anxiety, social isolation, and loneliness in older adults in northern California during the Stay-at-Home order, Journal of Aging & Social Policy.

García-Reyna, B., Castillo-García, G. D., Barbosa-Camacho, F. J., Cervantes-Cardona, G. A., Cervantes-Pérez, E., Esparza-Estrada, I., Brancaccio-Pérez, I. V., Silva-González, G., Fuentes-Orozco, C., Pintor-Belmontes, K. J., Guzmán-Ramírez, B. G., Navarro, D. R., Ibarrola-Peña, J. C., López, V. A. S., Chejfec-Ciociano, J. M., Sapién-Fernández, J. H., González-Ojeda, A., & Cervantes-Guevara, G. (2021). Anxiety and COVID-19: Coronavirus Anxiety Scale scores in medical and non-medical personnel in urban hospitals in Guadalajara. A cross-sectional survey study. Death Studies.

González-Rivera, J., Rosario-Rodríguez, A., & Cruz-Santos, A. (2020). Escala de Ansiedad por Coronavirus: Un Nuevo Instrumento para Medir Síntomas de Ansiedad Asociados al COVID-19. Interacciones, 6(3), e163.

Güldal, Ş., Kılıçoğlu, N., & Kasapoğlu, F. (2022). Psychological flexibility, coronavirus anxiety, humor and social media addiction during COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling.

Hajek, A. & König, H. (2022). Prevalence and correlates of coronavirus anxiety in Germany: Results of a nationally representative survey. Death Studies.

Heidari, P., Broadbear, J., Cheney, L., Dharwadkar, N. P., & Rao, S. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the well-being of mental healthcare providers working in a specialist clinic for personality disorder. Australian Psychologist.

Heyne, S., Esser, P., Werner, A., Lehmann‑Laue, A., & Mehnert‑Theuerkauf, A. (2022). (2022). Attitudes toward a COVID‑19 vaccine and vaccination status in cancer patients: A cross‑sectional survey. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.

Hosgör, H. Dörttepe, Z. U., & Sagcan, H. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 anxiety on the professional performances of emergency medical health services staff and demographic differences. Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty.

Hussain, A., Sawant, S., Mishra, J., Ram, R., Pandey, M., Bista, S., & Sarraf, P. K. (2020). Psychological distress related to COVID-19 among Nepalese professionals: An online cross-sectional study. Med Phoenix, 5(1), 10-18.

Ishibashi, S., Ide, S., Suzuki, F., Teo, A., Nagata, T., & Kosaka, H. (2022). Development of the Japanese version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and Obsession with COVID-19 Scale. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

Işik, N.A., Çelik, G.K. & Ayran, G. (2022). Turkish validity and reliability of Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Current Psychology.

Jerrin, R. J., Theebika, S., Panneerselvam, P., Venkateswaran, S. T., Manavalan, N., & Maheshkumar, K. (2021). Yoga and naturopathy intervention for reducing anxiety and depression of Covid-19 patients – A pilot study. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.

Jourghaznein, T., Salati, S., Jamali, J., & Khazaei, E. (2022). Relationship between anxiety and self-care behaviors in Iranian medical students during COVID-19 epidemic. Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care.

Karaahmet, E., Angın, U., Yılmaz, O., Deniz, D., & Konuk, N. (2021). Assessment of psychometric characteristics of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders, Death Studies.

Kempthorn, J. C., & Terrizzi , J. A. (2021). Behavioral immune system and conservatism as predictors of disease-avoidant attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personality and Individual Differences.

Keskin, A. Y., Şentürk, S., & Teke, Z. B. (2022). The effect of anxiety levels of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on their treatment adherence in the COVID-19 pandemic period. International Journal of Health Services Research and Policy.

Khaing, N. E. E., Lim, C. S., Soon, S. P., & Oh, H. C. (2022). Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among hospital essential services workers in Singapore. Annals Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 51(5), 283-291.

Kim, C., Ahmed, O., Park, C. H. K., & Chung, S. (2022). Validation of the Korean version of the Coronavirus Reassurance-Seeking Behaviors Scale during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychiatry Investigation.

Kim, S. T., Seo, J. H., Lee, S., Jeon, S., Park, C. I., Kim, S. J., & Kang, J. I. (2022). Dysfunctional coronavirus anxiety in nonpsychotic psychiatric outpatients during the COVID-19 pandemic: A network analysis. Depression & Anxiety.

Kiyak, S., & Türkben Polat, H. (2022). The relationship between death anxiety and COVID-19 fear and anxiety in women with breast cancer. OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying.

Korkut, S. (2022). Evaluation of psychopathological symptoms, death anxiety, coronavirus anxiety, suicide risk, and associated risk factors among hemodialysis patients in the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis.

Kurata, S., Hiraoka, D., Adlan, A. S. A., Jayanath, S., Hamzah, N., Ahmad-Fauzi, A., Fujisawa, T. X., Nishitani, S., & Tomoda, A. (2021). Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on parenting stress across Asian countries: A cross-national study. Frontiers in Psychology.

Kurt, M. E., Çakmak, C., & Biçer, I. (2021). Validation of the Turkish version of the obsession with Covid-19 scale (OCS). Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine.

Kwok, S., Engle, J., & Datta, A. N. (2021). Resilience of adolescents and teenagers with self-limited and genetic-generalized epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Epilepsy & Behavior Reports.

Labrague, L. J. (2022). Specific coping styles and its relationship with psychological distress, anxiety, mental health, and psychological well-being among student nurses during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.

Labrague, L., & De los Santos, J. A. (2020). COVID-19 anxiety among frontline nurses: Predictive role of organizational support, personal resilience and social support. Journal of Nursing Management.

Lee, J., Cho, I., Lee, D., Kim, K., Ahn, M. H., & Chung, S. (2022). Mediating effects of reassurance-seeking behavior or obsession with COVID-19 on the association between intolerance of uncertainty and viral anxiety among healthcare workers in Korea. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 37(21), 1-11.

Li, K., Walczak-Kozłowska, T., Lipowski, M., Li, J., Krokosz, D., Su, Y., Yu, H., & Fan, H. (2022). The effect of the Baduanjin exercise on COVID-19-related anxiety, psychological well-being and lower back pain of college students during the pandemic. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 14(102), 1-12.

Lieven, T. (2021). Global validation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). Current Psychology.

Magano, J., Vidal, D.G., Sousa, H. F. P. E., Dinis, M. A. P., & Leite, Â. (2021). Validation and psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and associations with travel, tourism and hospitality. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2).

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The CAP Research Team

Sherman A. Lee, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Christopher Newport University. He studies negative feeling states, such as anxiety and grief, and the role personality and religion play in those emotional experiences. He teaches courses in the psychology of personality, psychology of the human-animal bond (Anthrozoology), and the psychology of death, dying, and bereavement (Thanatology).

Mary C. Jobe, BS, is a doctoral student in the Applied Social Psychology program at the George Washington University. Her interests include developmental, quantitative, and social psychology.

Amanda A. Mathis, BS, is a doctoral student in the Quantitative Psychology program at the University of Notre Dame. Her interests include quantitative and cognitive psychology.

Emily A. Pappalardo is an undergraduate psychology and neuroscience major, with a minor in leadership studies at Christopher Newport University. She currently is an undergraduate research assistant, planning to graduate in Spring 2023. Her interests include developmental and cognitive psychology.

Jeffrey A. Gibbons, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology at Christopher Newport University. He studies the interrelation between memory, emotions, and attitudes. The research primarily examines the relation of rehearsal and mood measures (depression, anxiety, and stress) to the fading affect bias (tendency for unpleasant event affect to fade faster than pleasant event affect) across experimental events (alcohol, religion, death, social media, video games, relationships) and control events (e.g., non-alcohol) in autobiographical memory. This work has recently been extended to COVID-19 events. Finally, his research also examines the believability and recognition of news headlines.

Elizabeth Crunk, PhD, is an instructor and researcher at the George Washington University in Washington, DC, where she also maintains an active psychotherapy practice. Her research focuses on the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the bereavement processes of adult mourners, grief coping, and psychometrics and scale development.

Evgenia (Jane) Milman, PhD, teaches and conducts research at St Edward’s University. She is also a faculty member at the Portland Institute for Loss and Transition and adjunct faculty at the National Crime Victim’s Center. She studies the impact of meaning making on mental health following bereavement, trauma and other stressful events. Jane has published novel grief therapy techniques, assessment tools, and therapeutic protocols.

Robert A. Neimeyer, PhD, directs the Portland Institute for Loss and Transition, and maintains an active consulting and coaching practice. Neimeyer has published over 500 journal articles and book chapters as well as 30 books, including Techniques of Grief Therapy, and serves as Editor of Death Studies. He is currently working to advance a more adequate theory of grieving as a meaning-making process.


We would like to thank our family members, friends, and fellow scholars for sharing their ideas and supporting our project. We also would like to thank Dr. Alice Veksler, Dr. Michelle Lange, and the rest of CNU's IRB for reviewing our research. We thank Mr. Jim Hanchett, CNU's Chief Communications Officer, for his media and communication support. We also thank Mr. Will White, CNU's Academic Technology Service Manager for his technical support of this webpage. Further thanks goes to Dr. Tim Marshall and Ms. Alinka Pollock for their active support of the members of this project. And we wish to extend a special thanks to all of the participants of our research with whom we have been privileged to learn from and taught us much about the psychology of pandemics.

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