Unipolar brush cells, synapses and cerebellum-like circuits:

Hariani HN, Algstam AB, Candler CT, Witteveen IF, Sidhu JK, Balmer TS (2023) A system of feed-forward cerebellar circuits that extend and diversify sensory signaling. eLife 12:RP88321. 

Balmer TS, Trussell LO (2022) Descending axonal projections from the inferior colliculus target nearly all excitatory and inhibitory cell types of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. J Neurosci 42:338-3391.

Balmer TS, Trussell LO (2021) Trigeminal contributions to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in mouse. Front Neurosci. 15:715954.

Balmer TS, Borges-Merjane C, Trussell LO (2021) Incomplete removal of extracellular glutamate controls synaptic transmission and integration at a cerebellar synapse. eLife 10:e63819.

Balmer TS, Trussell LO (2019) Selective targeting of unipolar brush cell subtypes by cerebellar mossy fibers. eLife 8:e44964.

Also see related peer-reviewed protocol: Balmer TS, Trussell LO (2022) Vestibular Organ Dissection and Whole-Mount Immunolabeling in Mouse. Bio-protocol 12:e4416–e4416.

Also see preview article: Ango F, Dos Reis R (2019) Sensing how to balance. eLife 8:e46973. 

*Lu HW, *Balmer TS, Romero GE & Trussell, LO (2017) Slow AMPAR Synaptic Transmission Is Determined by Stargazin and Glutamate Transporters. Neuron 96:73-80.e74. *Co-first authors

Perineuronal nets:

Balmer TS (2016) Perineuronal nets enhance the excitability of fast-spiking neurons. eNeuro 3.

*Balmer TS, *Carels VM, Frisch JL, Nick TA (2009) Modulation of perineuronal nets and parvalbumin with developmental song learning. J Neurosci 29:12878-12885. *Co-first authors

Sensory critical periods in the visual system:

Mudd DB, Balmer TS, Kim SY, Machhour N, Pallas SL (2019) TrkB Activation During a Critical Period Mimics the Protective Effects of Early Visual Experience on Perception and the Stability of Receptive Fields in Adult Superior Colliculus. J Neurosci 39: 4775-4488.

Balmer TS, Pallas SL (2015) Visual experience prevents dysregulation of GABAB receptor-dependent short-term depression in adult superior colliculus. J Neurophysiol 113:2049-2061.

Balmer TS, Pallas SL (2015) Refinement but not maintenance of visual receptive fields is independent of visual experience. Cereb Cortex 25:904-917.

Carrasco MM, Mao YT, Balmer TS, Pallas SL (2011) Inhibitory plasticity underlies visual deprivation-induced loss of receptive field refinement in the adult superior colliculus. Eur J Neurosci 33:58-68.


Moore AK, Weible AP, Balmer TS, Trussell LO, Wehr M (2018) Rapid rebalancing of excitation and inhibition by cortical circuitry. Neuron 97: 1-15.


Balmer TS, Trussell LO (2016) Quantum Disentanglement: Electrical Analysis of the Complex Roles of Ions in Filling Vesicles with Glutamate. Neuron 90: 667-669.