Online Textbook

Important Note: the "on-line textbook" is a compilation of lessons produced by CK-12 and other web sites providing free resources to students and teachers. The lessons closely correspond to the learning goals for this course. Links will be updated as necessary throughout the duration of the school year.

Physical Earth

A. The composition and properties of Earth’s interior are identified by the behavior of seismic waves.


  1. Earth’s Interior

  2. Earth’s Layers

  3. Earth’s Crust

  4. Earth’s Mantle

  5. Earth’s Core

  6. Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

  7. Seismic Waves

  8. Measuring Earthquake Magnitude

  9. Formation of the Earth

  10. Layers of the Moon (Enrichment)

B. Earth’s crust consists of major and minor tectonic plates that move relative to each other.


  1. Continental Drift
  2. Theory of Plate Tectonics
  3. Seafloor Spreading
  4. Continental Margins
  5. Transform Plate Boundaries
  6. Divergent Plate Boundaries
  7. Divergent Plate Boundaries in the Oceans
  8. Continent-Continent Convergent Plate Boundaries
  9. Ocean-Continent Convergent Plate Boundaries
  10. Ocean-Ocean Convergent Plate Boundaries
  11. Volcanoes at Hotspots
  12. Hot Springs and Geysers
  13. Discovering Hydrothermal Vents
  14. Earthquake Characteristics

  15. Locating Earthquake Epicenter

  16. Wegener and the Continental Drift Hypothesis (Enrichment)

Related Article: How Earthquakes and Volcanoes Reveal the Beating Heart of the Planet


C. A combination of constructive and destructive geologic processes formed Earth’s surface.


  1. Soil Characteristics

  2. Landforms from Erosion and Deposition by Gravity

  3. Landforms from Stream Erosion and Deposition

  4. Landforms from Glacial Erosion and Deposition

  5. Landforms from Wind Erosion and Deposition

  6. Landforms from Wave Erosion and Deposition

  7. Erosion by Groundwater

  8. Deposition by Groundwater

  9. Topographic Maps

  10. Mars (Enrichment)



D. Evidence of the dynamic changes of Earth’s surface through time is found in the geologic record.


  1. Uniformitarianism

  2. Tree Rings, Ice Cores, and Varves

  3. Principles of Relative Dating

  4. Earth History and Clues from Fossils

  5. Geologic Time Scale

  6. Radiometric Dating

  7. History of Paleozoic Life (Enrichment)



Life Science

A. Diversity of species occurs through gradual processes over many generations. Fossil records provide evidence that changes have occurred in number and types of species.


  1. Adaptation and Evolution of Populations

  2. Evidence for Evolution

  3. Mutation Effects

  4. Extinction and Radiation of Life

  5. Mass Extinction

  6. Artificial Selection and Coevolution - Advanced (Enrichment)



B. Reproduction is necessary for the continuation of every species.


  1. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction

  2. Vegetative Reproduction in Plants

  3. Mitosis and Cytokinesis

  4. Meiosis

  5. Fertilization

  6. Cloning (Enrichment)


C. The characteristics of an organism are a result of inherited traits received from parent(s).


  1. Mendel’s Pea Plants

  2. Mendel’s Laws and Genetics

  3. Punnett Squares

  4. Modern Genetics

  5. Non-Mendelian Inheritance

  6. Pedigree Analysis

  7. Genetic Disorders (Enrichment)


Physical Science

A. Forces have magnitude and direction.

  1. Motion

  2. What is Force?

  3. Friction

  4. Newton's First Law of Motion

  5. Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion (Enrichment)


B. Forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.


  1. Gravity
  2. Magnets and Magnetism
  3. Electric Charge
  4. Levitating Trains (Enrichment)

C. There are different types of potential energy.


  1. Potential Energy

  2. Chemical Potential Energy

  3. Chemical Reaction Overview

  4. Recognizing Chemical Reactions

  5. Nuclear Fusion (Enrichment)