Sandeep Mishra

Associate Professor of Management

Lang School of Business & Economics, University of Guelph

I am Associate Professor of Management at the Lang School of Business and Economics, University of Guelph. I am also Adjunct Professor of both Business Administration and Psychology at the University of Regina.

My broad research expertise is in the areas of judgment & decision-making and health & well-being. My research group and I study the psychology of disparity, inequality, and (dis)advantage, with a focus on examining two outcomes: decisions under risk and mental health.

I teach survey courses in organizational behavior and specialized courses in decision-making and compensation.

Email • CVGoogle Scholar


Disparity and its necessary consequences—inequality and (dis)advantage—are a reality of all social organization. Disparity can be motivational, but when mismanaged or misperceived, it can be damaging to health, social relations, and economic and environmental sustainability.

My research group, collaborators, and I seek to understand psychological causes, consequences, and remediations of disparity, inequality, and (dis)advantage. We study these influences in the domains of judgment & decision-making (decisions under risk; risk-sensitivity; socioemotional judgments), and health & well-being (mental health, gambling, antisocial conduct).

We purposely conduct research at the nexus of disciplines, drawing from diverse literatures in social, organizational, and clinical psychology, as well as related behavioral science fields: economics, cognitive science, and evolutionary biology.

Our work is informed by evolutionary theory. We have also found these more field-specific theoretical frameworks useful in generating hypotheses: risk-sensitivity theory, honest signaling theory (from behavioral ecology); relative deprivation theory, social comparison theory (social/organizational psychology); Beck's cognitive model (clinical psychology), and recently, psychological principles drawn from Buddhism (from multiple academic disciplines).


* student/postdoctoral collaborators at time of publication are underlined

Working Papers

[9] Gonzales, J., & Mishra, S. (working paper). Dual pathways to strategic risk-taking: An empirical test of the relative state model.

[8] Mishra, S., & Refaie, N. (working paper). Embodied capital predicts personal relative deprivation.

[7] Mishra, S., Refaie, N., Fogg, C., & Feeney, J. (working paper). Correlates of workplace relative deprivation: An examination of attitudes, performance, and mental health and well-being.

[6] Refaie, N., Wuth, A., & Mishra, S. (working paper). Perceptions of risk benefits mediate the association between dark triad personality traits and behavioral risk-taking.

[5] Wuth, A., Mishra, S., Beshai, S., & Feeney, J. (working paper). Developmental antecedents of maladaptive schemas, positive schemas, and cognitive distortions: An examination of early developmental harshness and unpredictability.

[4] Mishra, S., Beshai, S., & Feeney, J. (working paper). Resilience in the ranks: Psychological risk and protective factors, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction among Royal Canadian Mounted Police trainees.

[3] Son Hing, L. S., Stamarski, C. S., Yip, C. A., van der Werf, D., Mishra, S., Iocacca, R., Garcia, D., Sparks, A., & Neville, L. (working paper). The price we pay: Adverse effects of too much inequality.

[2] Mishra, S.*, Beshai, S.*, Feeney, J., Iskric, A. & Novakowski, D. (working paper). Perceived disadvantage: An index of negative cognitive, emotional, and self-appraisals calibrated to unfavorable social comparisons. *Both authors contributed equally.

[1] Novakowski, D., & Mishra, S. (working paper). Personal relative deprivation, personality, and stress: An exploratory study.

Papers Under Review

[2] Rotella, A., Sparks, A., Mishra, S., & Barclay, P. (under review). Individual differences in social value orientation, cooperation, and the 'watching eyes effect': An attempted replication and extension.

[1] Rotella, A., & Mishra, S. (under review). Personal relative deprivation negatively predicts engagement in group decision-making.

Journal Articles

[38] Mahali, S. C., Beshai, S., Feeney, J., & Mishra, S. (in press). Associations of negative cognitions, emotional regulation, and depression symptoms across four continents: Cross-continental support for the cognitive model of depression. BMC Psychiatry.

[37] Refaie, N., & Mishra, S. (in press). Embodied capital and risk-related traits, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes: An exploratory examination of attractiveness, cognitive ability, and physical dexterity. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

[36] Rotella, A., Fogg, C., Mishra, S., & Barclay, P. (in press). The effect of compensation method on delay discounting in a crowdsourced sample: An exploratory study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.

[35] Mishra, S., Beshai, S., Wuth, A., & Refaie, N. (2019). Risk and protective factors in problem gambling: An examination of psychological resilience. International Gambling Studies, 19, 241–264. [PDF]

[34] Barclay, P., Mishra, S., & Sparks, A. (2018). State-dependent risk-taking. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 285: 20180180. [PDF]

[33] Mishra, S., & Meadows, T. J. S. (2018). Does stress mediate the association between personal relative deprivation and gambling? Stress and Health, 34, 331–337. [PDF]

[32] Beshai, S., Mishra, S., Mishra, S., & Carleton, R. N. (2017). Personal relative deprivation associated with functional disorders via stress: An examination of fibromyalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms. PLOS One, 12(12):e0189666. [PDF]

[31] Beshai, S., Mishra, S., Meadows, T. J. S., Parmar, P., & Huang, V. (2017). Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms. Social Science & Medicine, 173, 18–25. [PDF]

[30] Gonzales, J., Mishra, S., & Camp, R. D. (2017). For the win: Risk-sensitive decision-making in teams. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30, 462–472. [PDF]

[29] Mishra, S., Barclay, P., & Sparks, A. (2017). The relative state model: Integrating need-based and ability-based pathways to risk-taking. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21, 176–198. [PDF]

[28] Mishra, S., & Carleton, R. N. (2017). Use of online crowdsourcing platforms for gambling research. International Gambling Studies, 17, 125–143. [PDF]

[27] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2017). Associations between delay discounting and risk-related behaviors, traits, attitudes, and outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30, 769–781. [PDF]

[26] Mishra, S., Lalumière, M. L., & Williams, R. J. (2017). Gambling, risk-taking, and antisocial behavior: A replication study supporting the generality of deviance. Journal of Gambling Studies, 33, 15–36. [PDF]

[25] Mishra, S., Templeton, A. J., & Meadows, T. J. S. (2017). Living, fast and slow: Is life history orientation associated with risk-related personality traits, risk attitudes, criminal outcomes, and gambling? Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 242–248. [PDF]

[24] Novakowski, D., & Mishra S. (2017). Relative state, social comparison reactions, and the behavioral constellation of deprivation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e335. [PDF]

[23] Carleton, R. N., Duranceau, S., Shulman, E. P., Zerff, M., Gonzales, J., & Mishra, S. (2016). Self-reported intolerance of uncertainty and behavioural decisions. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 51, 58–65. [PDF]

[22] Mishra, S., & Novakowski, D. (2016). Personal relative deprivation and risk: An examination of individual differences in personality, attitudes, and behavioral outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 22–26. [PDF]

[21] Mishra, S., & Carleton, R. N. (2015). Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 144–149. [PDF]

[20] Mishra, S., Son Hing, L. S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2015). Inequality and risk-taking. Evolutionary Psychology, 13. doi:10.1177/1474704915596295. [PDF]

[19] Ferrey, A. E., & Mishra, S. (2014). Compensation method affects risk-taking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 111–114. [PDF]

[18] Mishra, S. (2014). Decision-making under risk: Integrating perspectives from biology, economics, and psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 280–307. [PDF]

[17] Mishra, S., Barclay, P., & Lalumière, M. L. (2014). Competitive disadvantage facilitates risk-taking. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35, 126–132. [PDF]

[16] Mishra, S., & Gonzales, J. (2014). Sources of behavioral variability and the etiology of psychopathology. Psychological Inquiry, 25, 355–359. [PDF]

[15] Sparks, A., Mishra, S., & Barclay, P. (2013). Fundamental freedoms and the psychology of threat, bargaining, and inequality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 500–501. [PDF]

[14] Mishra, S., & Fiddick, L. (2012). Beyond gains and losses: The effect of need on risky choice in framed decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1136–1147. [PDF]

[13] Mishra, S., Gregson, M., & Lalumière, M. L. (2012). Framing effects and risk-sensitive decision-making. British Journal of Psychology, 103, 83–97. [PDF]

[12] Mishra, S., & Sritharan, R. (2012). Personality and behavioral outcomes associated with risk-taking are accurately inferred from faces. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 760–764. [PDF]

[11] Pisanski, K., Mishra, S., & Rendall, D. (2012). The evolved psychology of voice: Evaluating inter-relationships in listeners’ assessments of size, masculinity, and attractiveness of unseen speakers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 509–519. [PDF]

[10] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2011). Individual differences in risk-propensity: Associations between personality and behavioral measures of risk. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 869–873. [PDF]

[9] Mishra, S., Lalumière, M. L., Morgan, M., & Williams, R. J. (2011). An examination of the relationship between gambling and antisocial behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 409–426. [PDF]

[8] Mishra, S., Logue, D. M., Abiola, I. O., & Cade, W. H. (2011). Developmental environment affects risk-acceptance in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125, 40–47. [PDF]

[7] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2010). You can't always get what you want: The motivational effect of need on risk-sensitive decision-making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 605–611. [PDF]

[6] Mishra, S., Lalumière, M. L., & Williams, R. J. (2010). Gambling as a form of risk-taking: Individual differences in personality, risk-accepting attitudes, and behavioral preferences for risk. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 616–621. [PDF]

[5] Mishra, S., Morgan, M., Lalumière, M. L., & Williams, R. J. (2010). Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 373–386. [PDF]

[4] Logue, D. M., Mishra, S., McCaffrey, D., Ball, D., & Cade, W. H. (2009). A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. Behavioral Ecology, 20, 781–788. [PDF]

[3] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2009). Is the crime drop of the 1990s in Canada and the USA associated with a general decline in risky and health-related behaviors? Social Science & Medicine, 68, 39–48. [PDF]

[2] Taves, M. D., Desjardins, J. K., Mishra, S., & Balshine, S. (2009). Androgens and dominance: Sex-specific patterns in a highly social fish (Neolamprologus pulcher). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 161, 202–207. [PDF]

[1] Mishra, S., Clark, A. P., & Daly, M. (2007). One woman’s behavior affects the attractiveness of others. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 145–149. [PDF]

Reports & Book Chapters

[5] Bapuji, H.*, & Mishra, S.* (2015). Inequality and organizations. In Mir, R., Willmott, H., & Greenwood, M. (Eds.), The Routledge companion to philosophy in organization studies (pp. 439–448). New York, NY: Routledge. [PDF]

[4] Mishra, S., Lalumière, M. L., Williams, R. J., & Daly, M. (2012). Determinants of risky decision-making and gambling: The effects of need and relative deprivation. Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre Report 2707. [PDF]

[3] Lalumière, M. L., Mishra, S., & Harris, G. T. (2008). In cold blood: The evolution of psychopathy. In J. Duntley & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary forensic psychology: Darwinian foundations of crime and law (pp. 139–159). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

[2] Mishra, S., Lalumière, M. L., Williams, R. J., & Morgan, M. (2008). Gambling and risk-taking: Individual differences in risk-acceptance and the impact of situational factors. Alberta Gambling Research Institute Report. [PDF]

[1] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2008). Risk taking, antisocial behavior, and life histories. In J. Duntley & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Evolutionary forensic psychology: Darwinian foundations of crime and law (pp. 176–197). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Other Publications

[12] Refaie, N., & Mishra, S. (2018). Economic hardship. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2273-1. [LINK]

[11] Wuth, M., & Mishra, S. (2018). Environmental unpredictability and bet hedging. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_3695-1. [LINK]

[10] Wuth, M., & Mishra, S. (2018). Extrinsic mortality. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2365-1. [LINK]

[9] Mishra, S. (2017). Tinbergen’s four questions and variance explained: Why business (and all behavioral science) needs evolutionary theory. This View of Business: How Evolutionary Thinking Can Transform the Workplace. [LINK]

[8] Gonzales, J., & Mishra, S. (2017). Heuristics. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_626-1. [LINK]

[7] Mishra, S., Novakowski, D., & Gonzales, J. (2017). Judgment and decision-making. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_628-1. [LINK]

[6] Novakowski, D., & Mishra, S. (2017). Biases. In T. K. Shackelford & V. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_627-1. [LINK]

[5] Gonzales, J., & Mishra, S. (2016). Going for it: When risk is worth it, and when it’s not. The Evolution Institute: This View of Life. [LINK]

[4] Mishra, S. (2014). Crime drop of the 1990s. In J. S. Albanese (Ed.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice (Vol. 1, pp. 466–470). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell. [PDF]

[3] Mishra, S. (2010). The benefits of a small university for graduate studies in psychology. Psynopsis: Canada’s Psychology Magazine, 32(4), 36. [LINK]

[2] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2009). The big drop in sex crimes. Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers: The Forum, 21(2). [PDF]

[1] Mishra, S., & Lalumière, M. L. (2008). A review of the book Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior (by G. S. Anderson). Canadian Psychology, 49, 268–270. [PDF]


I teach courses in organizational behavior and human resources management that involve understanding and application of individual-level psychology, as well as courses in research methods and statistics. At the undergraduate level, I have taught Organizational Behavior, Compensation, and Judgment and Decision Making. At the graduate/professional levels (MBA, MHRM, MSc), I have taught Research Methods in Management and Human Behavior in Organizations.

In my classes I emphasize (1) the importance of scientifically-minded management around sustainable goals, (2) experiential, hands-on learning, and (3) critical thinking and problem solving. I particularly enjoy the use of strategy board games for teaching important concepts in managerial decision-making.


[to be populated soon]


I was born and raised in Delhi, Ontario, a rural farming town of about 4,000 people. My undergraduate studies were in Psychology (with a minor in Biology) at McMaster University.

I am incredibly fortunate to have had kind, supportive, and scientifically talented mentors at the undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral levels. My undergraduate honors thesis research was conducted with Martin Daly, an evolutionary psychologist. My graduate studies were in the Evolution and Behavior doctoral program in the Department of Psychology at the University of Lethbridge, where I worked with Martin Lalumière, a clinical psychologist. I received the Governor General’s Academic Gold Medal for my doctoral work.

After my graduate studies, I was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Psychology at the University of Guelph. I worked in the areas of Industrial/Organizational Psychology (with Leanne Son Hing) and Applied Social Psychology (with Pat Barclay).

Since November 2012, I have been Assistant/Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Hill/Levene Schools of Business at the University of Regina. As of January 1, 2020, I am very excited to start as Associate Professor of Management in the Department of Management, Lang School of Business and Economics, University of Guelph.

Outside of the ivory tower, I spend time socializing with my wife and friends with turn-based video games, a large collection of European-style strategy board games, and music. I am also a (marginally accomplished) drummer; I have recorded and performed with numerous bands of various styles (funk/dance, psychadelic rock, alternative/folk) over the years.