Lesson 05 第五课
THE DOCTRINE OF MAN
I. The Origin of Man
A. The Term “Man”
1. The Hebrew word for man is “Adam.” It is not typically used as a proper name. For example, in Genesis 1:26 “Adam” refers to both man and woman, as in the sense of all mankind. However, there have been those who have insisted that the Genesis account throughout did not refer to Adam as one man, the first one created by God, and Eve as one woman. The reason for this theory often is based on an attempt to deny the historical accuracy of the first few chapters of Genesis, as well as an attempt to reconcile the creation account with evolutionary theory.
2. However, there are several indications in the Genesis account that clearly point to Adam being the name of the first man and Eve the first woman. For instance, notice that Genesis 2:7 says that when God breathed into man the breath of life, he became “a living soul.” Also, verse 8 says that God put “the man” into the Garden of Eden, as does verse 15. In addition, the story of the temptation and the fall would be difficult to apply to all of mankind. In Genesis 3: 20 it says that Adam named “his” wife Eve. Then in chapter 4 we have the account of the birth of Cain and Able, which obviously refers to the children of one man and one woman.
3. One more indication that the first man was actually named Adam is found in 1 Corinthians 15:45.
B. The Creation
1. The creation of man was a distinctive, immediate act. It was what is called a “fiat” act; God spoke man into existence. According to Genesis 2:7, man’s body was formed from the dust of the earth. Then God breathed into man the breath of life and man became a living soul. “Breath” is the same Hebrew word (ruach) as “spirit” or “wind.” However, it was only into man that God directly breathed the breath of life. He did not do this with the animals.
2. Creation was not an evolutionary process under God’s direction. The account of the creation as recorded in Genesis gives no room for an interpretation of “theistic evolution.”
3. God saw that man was incomplete and so He created woman as man’s perfect companion (Genesis 2:21-11).
C. The Nature of Man
1. There are two basic views about man’s nature. One view sees man as a twofold being, having a body and a soul. According to this view the soul and spirit are the same. Another view sees man as a threefold being: body, soul, and spirit. In this view the soul consists of the mind, emotion and will, while the spirit is man’s capacity to receive God.
2. Man was created “in the image of God.” Some see this as referring to man as a threefold being, just as God is a Trinity. Others believe that man is created in the image of God in that he possesses certain characteristics apart from the animal kingdom:
A. Personality - Man is an intelligent, self-conscious, self-determining being. He is a free agent with power to choose his own course.
B. Morality - Man is capable of discerning between right and wrong.
C. Immortality - Man’s body dies, but his soul exists forever. Eccl. 12:7; John 11:25-26
II. The Fall of Man
A. The Origin of Sin
1. The Bible reveals that Satan was a direct agent in the fall of mankind. Because of his hatred toward God, he sought to do irreparable damage to the crown of God’s creation.
2. However, sin was a possibility with man because God created man and woman as free agents with the ability to choose. If people were not free, Satan could not have done his evil work. It was the misuse of freedom that led to humanity’s fall. Without freedom, the right to decide to do right or wrong, sin could not have occurred.
B. The Nature of Sin
1. At the foundation of man’s choice to sin was the desire to be like God (Genesis 3:5).
2. Sin is universal (Everyone has sinned.). The universality of sin is a clear teaching of Scripture (Ps. 14:1-3; 51:5; Jer. 17:9; Luke 11:13; Rom. 3:9-18, 23; Rom. 5:12-21; Eph. 2:3).
C. The Results of Sin
1. To the Man and Woman:
a. Sin marred the image of God within them.
b. They lost their fellowship with God.
c. The woman was to be cursed in childbearing (Gen. 3:16).
d. The man was cursed in his labor (Gen. 3:17-19).
e. They were driven out of the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:23).
f. Death became a reality, both the process of physical death as well as spiritual death in separation from God.
2. To the Human Race:
a. All of mankind became heirs of Adam’s fallen nature (Ps. 5:12; Rom. 5:12, 17-19).
b. Man’s whole nature is affected by sin. The presence of sin in the world and in man’s nature makes it inevitable that he will sin (Rom. 3:23). However, sin still is a matter of choice.
3. To the Rest of Creation:
a. The curse of Adam’s sin fell upon the animal kingdom (Gen. 1:30; 3:21)
b. The curse also fell upon the physical creation (Gen. 3:17-18; Rom. 8:20-22).
D. A Description of Sin (Various Greek Terms):
1. Adikia - This stands for unrighteousness, wrongdoing, wickedness or injustice. (Rom. 9:14; 2 Cor. 12:13; 1 John 5:17)
2. Hamartia - This is the term most used for the idea of sin in the New Testament and is probably best translated with the word “sin.” The verb equivalent to the noun hamartia means to transgress, to do wrong, to sin against God. The older idea was that of “missing the mark.” However, this is actually not adequate to translate its New Testament meaning. Hamartia is more than just failure; it is a responsible condition or characteristic involving guilt (Mark 2:5; John 9:41; Heb. 1:3).
3. Anomia - This denotes lawlessness, implying not ignorance of the law but the defiance of it. The word is a combination of nomos, meaning “law,” preceded by the “alpha privative,” which literally means “against the law.”
4. Apistia - This can identify unfaithfulness, lack of belief, or even disbelief with the implication of obstinance, meaning stubborn or having an unyielding attitude. (Rom. 3:3; 1 Tim. 1:13; Heb. 3:12)
5. Asebia - This refers to impiety or lack of reverence, and may be translated “ungodliness.” (2 Tim. 2:16)
6. Aselegia - This carries the idea of liscentiousness (lacking moral restraints, especially disregarding sexual restraints), debauchery (bad or immoral behavior that involves sex, drugs, alcohol. Etc.), or sensuality. (Jude 4)
7. Epithumia - This means desire; and the context determines whether it is of a good or a bad moral character. (1 Peter 4:3; 1 Tim. 6:9; 2 Tim. 2:22)
8. Kakia - This is one of the stronger terms in the New Testament for indicating wickedness or depravity as opposed to virtue. (1 Peter 2:16)
9. Parabasis - Among other things, this is a transgression, an overstepping of the boundaries, a willful violation of the law. (Rom. 4:15; Heb. 2:2)
10. Poneria - This has the meaning of wickedness, baseness, or even maliciousness. (1 Cor. 5:8)
THE DOCTRINE OF MAN
1. What is the Hebrew word for man?
2. What was the name of Adam’s wife?
3. Why did God create woman?
4. What is something God did to man that He did not do to the animals?
5. One view sees man as a threefold being. What are those three parts?
6. Being created in God’s image, what are three characteristics man has that animals do not?
7. What being was a direct agent in the fall of mankind?
8. What made it possible for mankind to sin?
9. What was at the foundation of man’s choice to sin?
10. What are some of the results of sin to the man and woman?
11. What are some of the results of sin to the human race?
12. What are some of the results of sin to the rest of creation?