John 10: 1~42 约翰福音 第十章 第一至四十二节



John 10:1-42

I. Jesus Is the Gate for His Sheep (10:1-10)

A. “I Am” Saying: The Gate for the Sheep

  1. In chapter 10, John introduces the picture of the relationship between the sheep and their Shepherd. The Old Testament often refers to rulers and leaders as “shepherds”: Ezekiel 34; Isaiah 56:9-12; Psalm 23.

  2. The significance in this “I Am” saying of Jesus is that He is saying that He is the only entrance into the family of God.

B. The Role of Gate

  1. Jesus used this parable to explain His role as the gate to the kingdom of God. Shepherds regulated the coming and going of sheep between the sheep pen and the pasture

  2. As the gate, Jesus decides who enters the family of God. It is He who gives salvation, security, and satisfaction to all who come into the family of God through Him.

II. Jesus Is the “Good Shepherd” (10:11-21)

A. The Role of the Shepherd

  1. As the Good Shepherd, Jesus has personal concern for the sheep or persons in His flock.

  2. One of the great images of Jesus is as the “good shepherd” (v. 11). Jesus pointed to three dimensions of the shepherd-sheep relationship to communicate His relationship to believers:

    1. a. He is the gate to the sheep pen, meaning that no one can enter the fold through any other means than Jesus Himself (vv. 1, 7-9). Only through Jesus Christ can anyone be made right with God and find eternal life.

    2. b. Jesus leads His sheep. No other voice is the true voice of leadership (vv. 3b-5).

    3. c. As the Good Shepherd, Jesus protects His flock – even to the point of death (v. 11).

  3. Unlike someone who watches sheep for employment, Jesus is a Good Shepherd motivated by love for His sheep (vv. 12-13).

  4. John used an unusual term for good. It means “good, beautiful.” It has the connotation of a winsome, attractive, and virtuous person. We might use this word in the sense of a model of perfection. Few portraits of Jesus have more appeal than His role of Shepherd. The “goodness” of this Shepherd abides in the fact that He does not spare Himself in looking after the sheep. The Good Shepherd willingly lays down His life for His sheep. This, in fact, is exactly what Jesus did.

B. Other Sheep to Come

  1. As the Good Shepherd, Jesus mentioned that there are other sheep who will listen to His voice and will one day be brought into the fold.

  2. More than likely, what He had in mind were the Gentiles who would come to believe in Christ. The idea is not that of many shepherds with many flocks, but of one Shepherd joining together one flock (v. 16; See also Eph. 2:14-16).

  3. Jesus was not forced into being the Good Shepherd; He willingly took the role upon Himself, and for this He is loved by God (vv. 17-18).

III. Dedication, Jesus, and His Sheep (10:22-42)

A. The Feast of the Dedication

  1. This section of chapter 10 takes place two or three months later at the Feast of Dedication. This feast celebrated the dedication and reopening of the Temple by Judas Maccabeus in December of 165 B.C., after it had been desecrated by the Syrian ruler Antiochus Epiphanes in 168 B.C. (Daniel 11:31).

  2. This event is commonly referred to as “Hanukkah” or the Feast of Lights, and is still celebrated today by faithful Jews all over the world.

B. The Relationship Between the Sheep and Their Shepherd (vv. 22-29)

  1. These verses cover several key truths presented by John:

    1. a. The sheep hear the Shepherd’s voice (v. 27). Those who are Jesus’ followers respond to His teaching.

    2. b. The sheep know the Shepherd (vv. 14, 27). Jesus’ followers have a relationship with Him and are completely committed to Him.

    3. c. The sheep follow the Shepherd (v. 27). Followers of Jesus are persistent in obeying the teachings of Jesus and His Word.

    4. d. The sheep have eternal life (v. 28). Jesus’ followers are secure in the strong, protective hand of God.

  2. Jesus also declared that “I and the Father are one” (v. 30). Jesus and God are not, according to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, identical persons, but separate persons who are of identical nature.

C. The Jews Attempt to Stone Jesus (vv. 30-42)

  1. The Jews picked up stones to kill Jesus. They considered it blasphemous for a person to claim to be God (v. 33). Jesus had responded to their anger by pointing back to the Old Testament where, in accord with the worldview of the ancient Near East, rulers and judges, as emissaries of the heavenly King, could be granted the honorary title “god” (Ps. 82). If they could accept that title for those to whom the Word of God came, how much more they should accept the idea that God’s anointed should be called God (vv. 34-37).

  2. Jesus went on to say that if they did not believe His testimony, they could look at the works He did (vv. 37-39). However, this argument did not persuade His enemies, and they tried again to seize Jesus for execution.


  1. What did Jesus mean by claiming to be the “gate for the sheep”?

  2. Describe the relationship between the sheep and the Shepherd. What makes Jesus a “Good” Shepherd?

  3. What key truths are associated with the relationship between the sheep and the Shepherd?

  4. Why did the Jewish leaders want to stone Jesus? What happened?