The economics of human language
Language change is prevalently driven by economic principles of language use. Such principles comprise the propensity of the speaker and hearer to act on speech forms in such a way that the communication between the two is guaranteed at the least possible expense for both. Thereby, speaker and hearer make use of two antinomic principles. Speaker Economy: the principle of least effort, which make the speaker restrict the output of energy; and Hearer Economy: the requirements of communication, the need to convey the message. Both economies generate basic competing forces that shape and change human language. Against this backdrop, it is not clear what are the concrete moving causes that make interlocutors following these economic principles in the first place? For example, is it the outcome of a deliberate decision process of rational agents that use language strategically? Or is it rather conducted by unconscious choices of members of a population that are driven by evolutionary principles? Or is it a symbiosis of both? With this symposium we aim at bringing together researchers from different fields that address the study of economic principles of human language, including perspectives that unify language evolution research with ideas and concepts from economics.
The evolution of ambiguity
Roland Mühlenbernd, Management Department, Ca'Foscari University of Venice, Italy
I present game-theoretic communication models that describe language use in the form of signaling systems. In such models, the utility/fitness of a signaling system is defined by its communicative success. It can be shown that a signaling system is optimal when it forms a one-to-one mapping between expressions and meanings. However, human language is not optimal in this respect, not least because it is ambiguous to a large extent, and ambiguity forms a one-to-many mapping between expressions and meanings. It can be shown that under basic conditions, ambiguous signaling systems are not evolutionarily stable and therefore cannot survive under evolutionary dynamics. I will present a number of formal studies that point out conditions which make ambiguity evolutionarily stable. Finally, I will suggest some ideas on how to test those conditions experimentally by applying tools from Experimental Economics.
A data-driven approach to signaling models
Rafael Ventura, Bilkent University, Turkey
This paper proposes a sender-receiver model and shows that it can make contact with observational studies in evolutionary linguistics. In a model with reinforcement learning in which agents invent new signals and forget old ones, simulations recreates the negative correlation between frequency of word use and rates of lexical change observed in natural languages. Simulations also correctly predict the relation between frequency of word use and number of synonyms. These results are found to be robust across several model parameters. But analysis of the model suggests that these patterns depend on Zipf's Law. The model then proposes a mechanisms to generate Zipf's Law: a discovery process according to which agents expand the state space about which they can communicate. Taken together, these results suggest that some of the large-scale patterns observed in natural languages may be due to words following Zipf's Law and not on frequency-dependent or conformist bias.
Zipf’s law of abbreviation, compression and efficiency of coding in primate vocal communication
Stuart Semple, University of Roehampton, UK
Zipf’s law of abbreviation predicts a negative relationship between word length and frequency of use, and holds in a wide range of languages. This law has been mathematically linked to compression, and it has been argued that this phenomenon reflects a universal pressure for coding efficiency. Recent studies have tested whether patterns consistent with this law are also seen in the vocal communication systems of primate species. Agreement with the law has been found in the vocal repertoire of Formosan macaques, in a subset of vocalisations of marmosets, but not in the vocalisations of uakaris. In this talk, I will present results of tests of Zipf’s law of abbreviation in vocalisations of a wide range of primate species not previously considered in this respect. In addition, using new methods to quantify the efficiency of these vocal communication systems, I will present results of additional tests for the occurrence of compression.
Testing shared language as a source of trust in an investment game
Magdalena Schwarz, Theresa Matzinger & Nikolaus Ritt, University of Vienna, Austria
Languages are ideal social markers. Salient and hard to fake, they help us identify group members [1, 2]. We hypothesize that sharing a language increases trust. We test this in an established paradigm for measuring trust, the investment game : the first player receives some money and may entrust a share to the second player. The shared sum is tripled and a part of that may be returned to the first player. In our pilot study, participants played the investment game against what they believed was a player in another room, whom they heard speak in a local dialect. We had two groups of participants. The first group shared a similar dialect with the other player; the second one did not. We predict the first group to entrust their partner with a greater share of money than the second group. This would support an evolutionary link between language and trust.
Rational Griceans are vague
Michael Franke, Institute for Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrück, Germany
I present a model of meaning evolution in which pragmatic agents (formalized in the Rational Speech Act tradition) communicate with antonym pairs of gradable adjectives, and their respective negations. Agents can have different degrees of rationality. Adjectives can have variable degrees of vagueness. I show that evolutionary pressure for efficient communication selects rational Gricean language use paired with a mild degree of semantic vagueness.
A cost-benefit approach in everyday language use
Slawomir Wacewicz, Przemyslaw Zywiczynski, Centre for Language Evolution Studies, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
We sketch out a framework for reclassifying some language use traditionally subsumed under Linguistic Politeness (LP) as strategic language use. Although saying “thank you” or “sorry” costs virtually no time or effort, it can often be used in lieu of money as a virtual payment or compensation, leading to questions about the nature of its purchasing power. Goffman (1967) and Brown and Levinson (1987) suggest that polite language has purchasing power because it converts into a valuable but nebulous social resource “Face”. Following recent work, and especially Chaudhry and Loewenstein (2019), we present a more specific analysis of that social resource in terms of two components: one related to a person’s position in the hierarchy (“Prestige”) and the other to a person’s trustworthiness in observing the norm of reciprocity (“Obligation”). We discuss implications for theories of cooperation.
Roland Mühlenbernd is a researcher in the Management Department at the Ca'Foscari University of Venice, Italy. He is a member of the ERC project "ODYCCEUS: Opinion Dynamics and Cultural Conflicts in European Spaces". Previously, he was a member of the ERC project "EVOLAEMP: Language Evolution – The Empirical Turn" at the Linguistics Department of the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany. He is interested in studying evolutionary and cultural dynamics of human social systems, particularly with respect to language and communication systems, but also norms, conventions, and other (behavioral) characteristics of human cultures. His main research approach comprises formal (particularly game-theoretic) modeling and the application of computational methods.
Sławomir Wacewicz has a background in Linguistics, Philosophy and Literature and holds a PhD in Linguistics. He is Adjunct Professor in Linguistics at the Department of English, Nicolas Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. He is Co-Founder and Deputy-Head of the Center for Language Evolution Studies as well as member of the Polish Society for Human and Evolution Studies. He does research in Language Evolution, Philosophy, Linguistics and Psychology.
Przemysław Żywiczyński is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the Department of English, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. He is Co-founder and Head of the Center for Language Evolution Studies at Nicolas Copernicus University as well as Vice-President of the Polish Society for Human and Evolution Studies. He publishes in the field of language evolution on a number of topics – pantomime and gesture, language evolution, history of the reflection on language origins. Currently, he is leading the project “Pantomime in language evolution: Expressive potential and structural characteristics of bodily mimetic acts” financed by Poland’s National Science Centre.