Admirals Men : The Lord Admiral’s Men was one of the troupes of actors operating in London in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Their leading actor was Edward Alleyn.

Allen : The Bog of Allen is an area of several peat bogs c375 square miles (c970 square kilometres) in the central lowlands of Ireland.

Anglican clergyman : the author of the pamphlet was in fact Peter du Moulin, who was resident in England, though Milton believed the author to be Alexander More, and incorrectly targeted his abuse at this associate of Salmasius.

Azores : this expedition achieved very little.

Baines note seems to be a mixture of truth, exaggeration and plain lies.

'A note containing the opinion of one Christopher Marly concerning his damnable judgment of religion, and scorn of God's word:

That the Indians, and many authors of antiquity, have assuredly written of above 16 thousand years agone, whereas Adam is proved to have lived within six thousand years.

He affirmeth that Moses was but a juggler and that one Hariot being Sir Walter Raleigh's man can do more than he.

That Moses made the Jews to travel 40 years in the wilderness (which journey might have been done in less than one year) ere they came to the promised land, to the intent that those who were privy to many of his subtleties might perish, and so an everlasting superstition reign in the hearts of the people.

That the beginning of religion was only to keep men in awe.

That it was an easy matter for Moses being brought up in all the arts of the Egyptians to abuse the Jews, being a rude and gross people.

That Christ was a bastard and his mother dishonest.

That he was the son of a carpenter, and that if the Jews among whom he was born did crucify him, they best knew him and whence he came.

That Christ deserved better to die than Barabas and that the Jews made a good choice, though Barabas were both a thief and a murderer.

That if there be any God or any good religion, then it is in the Papists, because the service of God is performed with more ceremonies, as elevation of the mass, organs, singing men, shaven crowns, etc. That all Protestants are hypocritical asses.

That if he were put to write a new religion, he would undertake both a more excellent and admirable method, and that all the New Testament is filthily written.

That the woman of Samaria and her sister were whores and that Christ knew them dishonestly.

That Saint John the Evangelist was bedfellow to Christ and leaned always in his bosom; that he used him as the sinners of Sodoma

That all they that love not tobacco and boys are fools.

That all the apostles were fishermen and base fellows, neither of wit nor worth; that Paul only had wit, but he was a timorous fellow in bidding men to be subject to magistrates against his conscience.

That he had as good a right to coin as the Queen of England, and that he was acquainted with one Poole, a prisoner in Newgate, who hath great skill in mixture of metals, and having learned some things of him, he meant through help of a cunning stamp-maker to coin French crowns, pistolets, and English shillings.

That if Christ would have instituted the sacrament with more ceremonial reverence, it would have been in more admiration; that it would have been better much better being administered in a tobacco pipe.

That the angel Gabriel was bawd to the Holy Ghost, because he brought the salutation to Mary.

That one Richard Cholmeley hath confessed that he was persuaded by Marlowe's reasons to become an atheist.'

Ballad :

Preserved by William Oldys, writing in 1743.

A parliament member, a justice of peace,

At home a poor scare-crow, at London an asse,

If lowsie is Lucy, as some volke miscalle it,

Then Lucy is lowsie whatever befall it.

He thinks himself greate,

But an asse is his state,

We allow by his eares but with asses to mate,

If lowsie is Lucy, as some volke miscall it

Sing Oh Lowsie Lucy whatever befall it.

Oldys relates : 'There was a very aged gentleman living in the neighbourhood of Stratford where he died fifty years since who had not only heard from several old people in that town of Shakespeare's transgression, but could remember the first stanza of that bitter ballad, which, reciting to one of his acquaintance he preserved it in writing; and here it is neither better nor worse, but faithfully transcribed from the copy his relation very courteously communicated to me...'

Bryskett : Lodowick Bryskett was the son of a Genoese gentleman. He had studied at Cambridge and travelled on the Continent with Sir Philip Sidney.

Cadiz : The raiding party comprised around 100 ships with 1500 sailors and about 8000 soldiers. They took Cadiz after some stiff opposition, and showed considerable restraint towards the inhabitants, not a single person being killed in cold blood. They stayed for two weeks, but failed to secure the biggest prize, the merchant fleet anchored nearby in Puerto Reale, which was fired by the Spanish commander. They also failed to engage the Spanish treasure fleet, though they did make a landing in Faro in the Algarve, where Essex appropriated the library of Bishop Jeronimo Osorio, which later formed part of the nucleus of the Bodleian Library in Oxford.

Captain : The Captain of the Queen’s Guard was responsible for the Queen’s personal safety, having under his command the Yeomen of the Guard and the Gentlemen Pensioners, who were recruited from the gentry, and were generally handsome, well built men.

Carr : Robert Carr (Ker) (c1590-1645) probably came to England as a page with James I. He was knighted in 1607, and given Sherborne Castle, which had been forfeited by Sir Walter Raleigh (then in the Tower), in 1609. He was made Viscount Rochester in 1611, and the Earl of Somerset in 1613. He was supplanted as favourite by George Villiers.

Cecil : Robert Cecil (1563-1612) was nicknamed ‘Pygmy’ by Elizabeth. He was the only son of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. At 28 he was the youngest ever member of the Privy Council.

Cecil 2 : William Cecil (1520-1598), Lord Burghley, served Elizabeth I as secretary from 1558-72 and Lord Treasurer from 1572-98. He was the administrative head of her government.

Chamberlains : Lord Chamberlain’s Men : on the death of Ferdinando Stanley in 1594, Lord Hunsden, the Lord Chamberlain, became patron.

Charles I (1600-1649) clung tenaciously to the idea that Kings ruled by divine right in an age which began to move strongly towards the idea of personal responsibility and accountability. In this he was more than supported by his wife, Henrietta Maria, sister to the French King Louis XIII. At his death, according to Laurence Echard ‘women miscarry'd, many of both Sexes fell into Palpitations, Swoonings and Melancholy and some, with sudden Consternations, expired.’28

Charles II (1630-1685) was invited back to England in 1660, after the death of Oliver Cromwell. He appointed the Earl of Clarendon as his chief adviser, but his leading subjects became dissatisfied, and he was persuaded to dismiss him in 1667. Clarendon was replaced by a group of five men - Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley and Lauderdale - who became known as the ‘Cabal’, the word formed from the five initial letters of their names.

Christs College, Cambridge : Concerned at the decline in English educational standards, William Byngham, a London parish priest, established God’s House for training grammar school masters in 1437. It had a small endowment and an uncertain future until Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry VII, endowed it with lands in 1505, re-founding and renaming the college at the same time.

Cinthio : Giambattista Giraldi Cinthio (1504-1573) was a poet, dramatist, scholar, teacher and writer of short stories. His Hecatommithi was a collection of 112 stories, similar to Boccaccio’s The Decameron.

Civil War : The Civil War in England began in 1642, when King Charles I raised his standard in Nottingham. It progressed through the battles of Edgehill (1642), Marston Moor (1644), Naseby (1645) and a long succession of skirmishes and sieges around the country, culminating in the surrender of the King in 1646, and his execution in 1649. Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector in 1653, a position he held until his death in 1658.

Coat of arms : it was an expensive business to apply for a coat of arms, probably costing about as much as a modest house, but it brought with it the epithet ‘gentleman’ and the title ‘Mr’. Shakespeare himself would later pursue the matter and secure a coat of arms in 1596.

Coat of arms 2 :

Combe : John Combe (d1613 ) bequeathed £5 to Shakespeare in his will. The following epitaph for Combe is quoted by Aubrey, an early biographer of Shakespeare.

Ten in the hundred the Devill allowes,

But Combes will have twelve, he sweares and he vowes:

If any one aske who lies in this tomb,

Hoh! quoth the Devill, 'tis my John o'Comb.

And the following, transcribed by Robert Dobyns in 1673

Tenn in the hundred herelyeth engraved

A hundred to tenn his soul is not saved

If anny one ask who lyeth in this Tombe

Oh ho quoth the Divell tis my John a Combe

with the note that 'Since my being at Stratford the heires of Mr. Combe have caused these verses to be razed, so yt (that) now they are not legible.'

The William Combe who championed the threatened enclosure was his nephew.

Companies of players : a 1572 Act of Parliament required that all players and minstrels should operate under the protection of a baron or honourable person. Those not so protected were to be regarded as vagabonds and beggars, for which offence they were to be stripped and openly whipped.

Condel : Henry Condell (d1627) became a principle actor with the King’s Men, and died in possession of considerable property in the Strand and Fleet Street.

Corpus Christi College was founded in 1352 by the members of two guilds, Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary. As such it is the only college in either Oxford or Cambridge to have been founded by local people. Matthew Parker, one time student and master of the college (and later Archbishop of Canterbury), obtained for the college some of the greatest Anglo Saxon books from the monasteries when they were dissolved in 1549. College rules from 1573 required that Latin should be spoken at all times, and that any student found speaking English should be ‘beaten at the buttery hatch’22.

Cromwell : Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) began the Civil War as a colonel in the parliamentary army, and progressed to General. He was an able commander, who interpreted his military victories as the will of God. He played a major part in the moves to execute the King, and defended the Commonwealth with ruthless ability against Irish and Scottish insurrections. He was Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (effective head of state) from 1653-1658.

Devereux : The Earl of Essex, Robert Devereux (1567-1601), was a courtier and favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, who was executed on her orders after leading an abortive coup in 1601.

Douai and Rheims were sites of two prominent Catholic seminaries, where English Catholics were trained as priests, and sent back to England.

Drury : Sir Robert Drury (1575-1616) was knighted at the age of 16 by the Earl of Essex at the siege of Rouen in 1592.

Dudley : Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (1532-1588), was the son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who had conspired to put Lady Jane Grey (the wife of his son Guilford Dudley) on the throne after the death of Edward VI, over whom he had gained great influence. John and Guilford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey were all executed in 1553 for high treason, but Robert became a favourite of Elizabeth I, making himself the master of the business of the state and of the person of the Queen. He probably poisoned his first wife, Amy Robsart, to free himself for possible marriage to the Queen, and was reputedly also involved in the deaths of Lord Sheffield and Walter Devereux, the Earl of Essex. According to Ben Jonson his death in 1588 came as a just retribution for his misdeeds. Having bigamously married and tired of Essex’s widow, Lettyce Knollys, he tried to poison her, but she returned the favour by administering to him the ‘cordial’ he had given her.

Dutton : William Dutton (d1675) : his uncle, John Dutton of Sherborne, sat in the Long Parliament, and went to Oxford with King Charles I. He is said to have drafted the articles on the surrender of that city to the Parliamentarian forces. He was afterwards an admirer and friend of Cromwell, and proposed a match between Cromwell’s daughter, Frances, and his nephew.

Dyer : Sir Edward Dyer (1543?-1607) attended Broadgates College in Oxford, but left without taking a degree. He travelled on the Continent, and, on his return to England, attached himself to Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, for whom he acted as a private secretary and confidential agent.

Egerton : Sir Thomas Egerton (1540-1616) was Lord Keeper of the Great Seals, Master of the Rolls and a Privy Councillor. In 1603 he became Lord Chancellor.

Egerton 2 : John Egerton, The Earl of Bridgewater (d1649), was the son of Thomas Egerton, John Donne’s one time employer and father in law. He married Frances Stanley, the daughter of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby.

Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. Her reign was threatened by invasion from the Spanish, who launched an armada against England in 1588, and deposition, as the Pope had pardoned in advance any Catholic who would assassinate her. It was in response to these threats that she enacted anti Catholic legislation, and allowed her ministers to pursue both Catholic and Protestant extremists with brutal savagery. Her continuing unmarried status and supposed virginity encouraged a cult of poetic worship from numerous courtiers, playwrights and poets, by whom she was frequently apostrophized as Diana or Cynthia or Oriana.

Esquire of the Body Extraordinary : a group of personable young men who were available for a variety of Court duties.

Fairfax : Thomas Fairfax, Baron Fairfax of Cameron (1612-1671), was appointed commander of the New Model Forces in 1645, and led the Parliamentary Forces to victory in 1650 at the Battle of Naseby.

Ficino : Marsalio Ficino (1433-1499) was a priest, a doctor, a musician, a translator of classical works, a poet and a philosopher, who established an Academy at a villa on the southern slopes of the Montevecchio near Florence under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici.

Fitzgerald : Gerald Fitzgerald, The Earl of Desmond (d1583), was descended from Maurice Fitzgerald, who had been appointed Governor of Ireland in 1173 by Henry II of England. By the 16th century the family regarded itself as Irish and as upholders of Irish laws and customs. They were in constant feud with the Earls of Ormonde. Desmond was declared a traitor in 1579, and he was hunted down and killed in 1583. His son James spent most of his life in prison, the line ending when he died in 1601.

Fletcher : John Fletcher (1579-1625) was involved in writing 53 plays, some with other authors, including Beaumont, Field, Rowley, Massinger and Jonson, as well as Shakespeare.

Fulman : William Fulman (1632-1688) was the son of a carpenter, born at Penshurst, Kent. He was noticed by Henry Hammond, rector of Penshurst, who took him to Oxford and procured him a place in Magdelene College choir. He subsequently became a fellow of Corpus Christi, to which college he left twenty quarto and two octavo volumes of manuscript notes which included notes for a life of John Hales of Eton and one of Richard Foxe, bishop of Winchester, together with an account of the distinguished members of Corpus Christi and many other incomplete collections, including the notes referred to on Shakespeare. He became rector of Meysey Hampton in 1669 and befriended Richard Davies, vicar of nearby Saperton, to whom he left his collections, requesting that his friend should complete what was unfinished and donate his books to Corpus Christi.

Galilei : Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was born in Pisa of a Florentine family, and made important discoveries in the areas of motion, gravitation and astronomy, the latter bringing him into ideological conflict with the Catholic Church and the Inquisition. Hearing a report of a telescope which had been produced by a Dutchman, he proceeded to design and manufacture one of his own, making detailed observations of the moon, Jupiter and the sun. He was effectively placed under house arrest from 1633 until his death. In 1992 Pope John Paul II admitted that errors had been made by advisers to the pope in the case of Galileo.

Gilbert : Sir Humphrey Gilbert : his motto was ‘Quid non?’ or ‘Why not?’. He had led several campaigns in Ireland and Flanders, often acting with notorious savagery, in one case lining the path to his tent with the decapitated heads of prisoners when receiving their relatives.

Globe Theatre : Giles Allen proved difficult when the company tried to negotiate for a new lease on The Theatre. The company therefore decided to take a lease on land south of the river, in Bankside, and, taking advantage of a clause in the existing lease, took down the Theatre, and re-erected the building on the new land.

Greene : Robert Greene (1558-1592) wrote pamphlets, plays and verse. Shakespeare used his Pandosto as the basis for the Winter’s Tale.

Greville : Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke (1554-1628), attended Shrewsbury School with Sir Philip Sidney, and achieved preferment under both Elizabeth I and James I. His literary productions include a sonnet cycle, a biography of Sidney, two tragedies and a philosophical treatise in verse.

Grey : Arthur, Lord Grey de Wilton (1536-1593), was a trained soldier, who had fought against the French in Scotland at the siege of Leith, and who supervised the massacre at Smerwick in Ireland, where more than 600 men and women were butchered after having surrendered.

Grotius : Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) was Dutch ambassador to England in 1613. He was imprisoned for life in 1619 because of his involvement in a conspiracy against the (Dutch) state. He escaped in a large box sent to him containing books for study, and took refuge in Paris.

Hariot : Thomas Hariot (1560-1621) wrote what was among the first accounts of the Americas, and conducted experiments in the refraction of light, about which he corresponded with Kepler. He developed various telescopes, which he used to observe and document the moon and Jupiter.

Harrington : William Harrington (1566-1594) was born in Mount St John, Yorkshire, and ordained a priest in Rheims in 1592. He was hung, drawn and quartered at Tyburn in 1594.

Hart Hall was established in 1282 by Elias de Hertford. It has been dissolved and recreated on a number of occasions, and the name changed first to Magdelen Hall, and, more recently, Hertford College.

Harvey : Gabriel Harvey (1548?-1630?) was the son of a rope maker. He became a poet and scholar of ancient and modern languages and literature and a fellow of Pembroke Hall. He entered into a battle of words through pamphlets first with Robert Greene and, when he died, with Thomas Nashe. Nashe’s ridicule was highly effective, and has biased Harvey’s reputation ever since. He published an attack on the Earl of Oxford, which he was forced to withdraw, but, despite an apology, Archbishop Whitgift and Bishop Bancroft ordered in 1599 that his books be seized and destroyed, and that none of his books should ever be printed again.

Hatton : Sir Christopher Hatton (c1540-1591), nicknamed ‘Eyes’ by Elizabeth, danced attendance on the Queen for more than 30 years. The fruits of his labours can be seen in the magnificent Kirby Hall, and the much reduced Holdenby House (both in Northamptonshire).

Hay : James Hay (d1636), Viscount Doncaster, was another of James I handsome favourites. He was created successively Viscount Doncaster and Earl of Carlisle. He was best known for his ability to spend large sums of money. The embassy to the German princes was one of a series of ambassadorial roles he undertook for the King. Frederick, the Protestant Elector Palatine, who had married James’ eldest daughter Elizabeth in 1613, had accepted the throne of Bohemia, offered to him by the Bohemian protestant leaders. This brought him into direct conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor, who also claimed the throne, and led to the 30 years war.

Heminges : John Heminges (c1556-1630) is listed as one of the principle actors in Lord Strange’s company in 1593, and therefore had been associated with Shakespeare for some considerable time. Like Shakespeare he was a part owner of the Globe theatre.

Henry : Prince Henry (1594-1612) visited Raleigh regularly during his incarceration. Raleigh gave up writing his History after the boy’s untimely death.

Herbert : Mary (Sidney) Herbert, the Countess of Pembroke (1561-1621) made translations from both French and Italian writers, including Petrarch, and, after the death of her brother, completed his verse translations of the psalms.

Heywood : John Heywood (1497-1580) began his career as a singer for the King. He moved on to training choir boys, then to writing his own music. By middle age he had begun to produce Intervals, short plays based on the tradition of morality plays, but developed by him as comedies of everyday life. He also compiled A dialogue conteinying the nomber in effect of all the proverbes in the Englishe tongue in 1546, which ran to some 200 pages. He was a staunch Catholic, and left England on the accession of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I.

Howard : Frances Howard (1591-1632) managed to get her marriage with the Earl of Essex (son of the Earl of Essex executed in 1601) annulled on the grounds that her husband was impotent towards her (though not with other women). She was later convicted, along with her new husband, Carr, of the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. (Overbury had inconveniently tried to prevent her marriage to Carr.) She was described by Henry, first son of James I, as a ‘stretched glove’.

Howard 2 : Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle (1629-1685), held various offices under Cromwell, and managed to remain in favour at the Restoration. He was governor of Jamaica from 1677-1681.

Hyde : Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon (1609-1674), was initially a strong critic of Charles I, but changed sides in 1641. With the defeat of the Royalists in 1646 he went into exile first in Jersey, and then as adviser to Charles II in exile. At the Restoration he was appointed Lord Chancellor.

James I (1566-1625), previously James VI of Scotland, was invited to England to succeed Elizabeth I. He reigned from 1603 to 1625, surviving the gunpowder plot of 1605. He had homosexual inclinations, and advanced his favourites (particularly Robert Carr and George Villiers). After his years as a monarch in Scotland, he described his time in England as a ‘perpetual Christmas’.

Jesuit : a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of priests established in 1534 by St Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier, to do missionary and educational work.

Jonson : Ben Jonson (1572-1637) was a playwright and inventor of Masques. During the Elizabethan and early Stuart era his reputation outshone that of Shakespeare.

Kepler : Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was first an assistant to Tycho Brahe, then court mathemetician to the Emperor. His methods foreshadowed the methods of scientific enquiry, though his thinking remained rooted in medieval theory, and he continued to search for mathematical models to account for the music of the spheres.

Keys of St Peter : the pope’s flag.

Kings School : The King’s School was an ancient choir school administered by the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral, whose Statutes provided education for 'fifty boys both destitute of the help of friends and endowed with minds apt for learning'21.

Kyd : Thomas Kyd (1558-1594) was the author of the Spanish Tragedy, one of the most popular plays of Elizabethan times. He died shortly after his release from prison.

Lanier : Emilia Lanier (1569-1645) was the wife of Alphonso Lanier, a court musician. She was of Italian Jewish descent, and one time mistress of Lord Hunsden, the Lord Chamberlain from 1592. She was first proposed as the ‘Dark Lady’ of the sonnets by A.L.Rowse, who found notes made by the astrologer Simon Forman concerning her powerful personality and loose morals.

Law scrivener : A law scrivener (from Norman French écrivain public) wrote out legal documents. Though it must be said that Milton’s father made a good deal of money at what he did, and his practice probably included money lending and conveyancing (preparing legal documents for the buying and selling of property).

Lawes : Henry Lawes (1596-1662) was a prolific composer of songs. He became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1626, and a member of the King’s Musicke in 1631.

Lincolns Inn is one of the four main Inns of Court (the others being Inner Temple, Middle Temple and Gray’s Inn), which are unincorporated bodies of lawyers having the power to call to the Bar those of their members that have the proper qualifications. The Inns, a word which in the 14th century meant a town house, particularly one which housed students, provided chambers to live in, a hall to eat in, a church or chapel, and a library for lawyers and their apprentices.

Lucan, M Annaeus Lucanus (39-65) was a poet, and one time friend of the Emperor Nero. He wrote a history of the Civil War (Pharsalia). He joined Calpurnius Piso’s plot to overthrow Nero, and, when the plot was discovered, was given the option of execution or suicide. He chose the latter.

Lucy : Sir Thomas Lucy (1532-1600) was knighted in 1565 and became High Sheriff of Warwickshire in 1586. He was active in prosecuting Catholic recusancy (refusal to attend services in the Church of England).

Manso : Giovanni Battista Manso, Marquis of Villa and Lord of Bisaccio and Panca : Milton writes : ‘By him I was treated in the most friendly fashion as long as I stayed there. Indeed he took me himself through the whole city, and the court of the Viceroy.’27

Masques were a favourite form of entertainment at court and in some noble houses. They gained popularity especially through the partnership of Ben Jonson, the poet and playwright, and Inigo Jones, the architect and designer. They were conceived as opportunities for spectacle, music and dancing.

Merchant Taylors : The Merchant Taylor’s School was founded in 1561 by the Merchant Taylor’s Company at a manor house called the Manor of the Rose in the parish of St Lawrence Pountney in the City of London.

Middle Temple is one of the four main Inns of Court (the others being Inner Temple, Lincoln’s Inn and Gray’s Inn), which are unincorporated bodies of lawyers having the power to call to the Bar those of their members that have the proper qualifications. The Inns, a word which in the 14th century meant a town house, particularly one which housed students, provided chambers to live in, a hall to eat in, a church or chapel and a library for lawyers and their apprentices.

Milton : John Milton (1608-1674) was a poet and pamphleteer. He went blind in 1652, and subsequently wrote Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes. He was politically active during the Civil War, writing pamphlets in favour of a free press, divorce, the execution of the King, and, just before the Restoration in 1660, in defence of the republic.

More : Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) held a series of high public offices under Henry VIII, but refused to condone the King’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon, and subsequently refused to take the Oath of Supremacy. He was executed in 1535.

Mosely : Humphrey Mosely was a very active publisher during the interregnum (1649-1660) with strong royalist sympathies.

Mulcaster : Richard Mulcaster (1530?-1611) believed in physical as well as intellectual training, regarding the soul and body as co-partners in good and ill. He also advocated the value of music and acting, presenting plays every year before the court, and promoted the education of women. The school curriculum included the study of English and the English poets, which was unusual for the time.

New Place : The property was the second largest in Stratford-on-Avon and included two barns, two gardens and two orchards.

Newgate Prison : there has been a prison at Newgate since 1188. It was used as a general prison, and also to house those condemned to death.

Norris : Sir John Norris (1547-1597) fought in France, Ireland and the Netherlands at various times through a long military career.

Norris 2 : Sir Thomas Norris (1556-1599) was, like his brother, a professional soldier who fought in various campaigns.

Oath of Supremacy : The 1534 Act of Supremacy required anyone taking public or church office to swear allegiance to the monarch as head of the Church and state. It was repealed by Mary I in 1554, but re-introduced by Elizabeth I, and extended by her government to include MP’s and anyone taking a degree.

O'Neill : Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone (1550-1616), was the grandson of Conn O’Neill, the first Earl of Tyrone, descended through the widow of a Dundalk blacksmith. His father and elder brother were murdered by Sean (or Shane) the Proud, a rival claimant for the title. O’Neill was brought up in the Pale by an English family, and fought several campaigns on the side of the English. He was made Earl of Tyrone in 1587, and turned against the English in 1595.

Ovid : P Ovidius Naso (43BC-18AD), was a Roman poet who wrote extensively about love, seduction and mythology. He was banished from Rome by Augustus, who was seeking to promote sound republican and family values.

Parliamentarian : the Parliamentarians were followers of the parliamentary faction during the Civil War, also called the Roundheads because of their short cropped hair styles.

Pembroke College was founded in 1347 by the Countess of Pembroke, Marie de St Pol, who gave the nucleus of the present site and an endowment.

Pembroke : William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630) was the eldest son of Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, sister to Sir Philip Sidney. He was Lord Chamberlain from 1615-1625 and a leading investor in the companies which set out to colonise both Virginia and the Bermudas.

Pembroke2 : Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1584-1650) was the second son of Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, sister to Sir Philip Sidney. He was Lord Chamberlain from 1626-1641. He employed Inigo Jones and spectacularly rebuilt Wilton from 1635.

Percy : Henry Percy (1585-1642), Duke of Northumberland, was known as the ‘wizard earl’ on account of his interest in alchemy and science. He was imprisoned in the Tower for 22 years by James I.

Perrot : Sir John Perrot (1528-1592) was rumoured to be an illegitimate son of Henry VIII (and therefore half brother to Elizabeth). He was a favourite at court during the reigns of Henry and his son Edward, but was briefly imprisoned during the reign of Mary, and spent most of the rest of her reign fighting in France. He returned to favour under Elizabeth, and became Lord Governor in Ireland from 1584-1588. In 1591, however, he committed the offence of making indiscreet remarks about the Queen, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he died the following year.

Presbyterian : a church governed by elders all of equal rank.

Prison : a sequence of events which Donne reputedly summed up in the words ‘John Donne, Anne Donne, Undone’.

Privy Council : The Privy Council originated with the Norman kings, and comprised a select group of officials appointed by the King, who met regularly to carry on the business of government.

Protestant Academy : The Protestant Academy in Saumur was established in 1599 by Duplessis-Mornay, a Huguenot scholar. It became the Académie Royale in 1610, but was suppressed in 1685 with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

Quiney : In 1598 Richard Quiney wrote an undeliverd letter requesting a £30 loan to 'my Loving good friend & countryman Mr Wm Shakespeare'. In the same year Adrian Quiney wrote to his son, Richard 'if you bargain with Wm Sha or recover money therefor, bring your money home', and Abraham Sturley wrote to his 'most loving brother', the same Richard, 'our countryman Mr Wm Shak. would procure us money which I will like of as I shall hear when where & howe: and I pray let not go that occasion if it may sort to any indifferent conditions'. (spelling modernised)

Raleigh : Sir Walter Raleigh (1553-1618) was a soldier, sailor, politician, historian and poet, who spent a considerable amount of his life in the Tower. He was executed on the orders of James I in 1618.

Royalist : the Royalists were followers of Charles I during the Civil War.

St Johns : St John’s College was founded in 1511 by Lady Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry VII.

St Pauls : the old St Pauls was a Norman cathedral on which building had begun in 1087, and was completed more than 200 years later in 1310. Its spire, at 161 metres (527 feet), made it the world’s tallest building until it was felled by lightning in 1561. In the 1630’s Inigo Jones added a classical portico, stones from which Wren reused in his rebuilding of the church after the Great Fire of London in 1666.

St Pauls School was a grammar school attached to St Paul’s Cathedral. Probably founded in 1103, its fortunes declined, but were revived by John Colet, who was a Dean of the Cathedral, and inherited a fortune from his father in 1505. He entrusted the governance of the school to his father’s guild, the Mercers (from the French word for merchant), observing that ‘though there was nothing certain in human affairs, he yet found least corruption’23 in married laymen. The Mercer’s Company still forms the major part of the school’s governing body. He intended his school to give a humane and Christian education, and consulted Erasmus in its planning. The first High Master, Lily, produced a book Lily’s Grammar, which, as A Short Introduction to Grammar, was the only such book permitted in English schools until the 18th century. Under Colet’s statutes there were to be 153 scholars (see John XXI, 11) divided into 8 classes ‘of all countres and nacions indifferently’24. The school was free, though scholars were required to bring their own wax candles, a rule that was enforced until 1820. By 1619 the school was able to fund exhibitions for boys who wished to go to Cambridge.

Salmasius, Claude de Saumaise (1588-1653), was an eminent French scholar and professor at Leyden when the future Charles II was living at The Hague. He was commissioned by Charles to write his Defensio Regia.

Shakespeare : William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is known as a playwright and poet, though there is little evidence to support the fact that his contemporaries knew him as such. Documentary evidence of his life supports the fact that he was a player and 'sharer' in a theatrical company, and that he bought and sold corn, and dealt in property and small loans.

Sidney : Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) attended Shrewsbury School, then Christ Church, Oxford, but left without taking a degree. He toured the Continent, visiting Paris with Francis Walsingham, where he witnessed the St Bartholomew's Day massacre, then Frankfurt, Venice and Vienna. Returning to England in 1575 he became a prominent courtier, but fell into disfavour in 1580 when he opposed the proposed marriage of Elizabeth I to the Catholic Duke of Anjou. He retired to Wilton, the estate of his sister, Mary Herbert, the Countess of Pembroke, where he wrote the pastoral romance Arcadia. He also wrote the critical essays The Defence of Poesy and An Apology for Poetry, and Astrophil and Stella, a sonnet cycle, which were published after his death. He came to exemplify the ideal courtier in Elizabethan England. He was appointed Governor of Flushing in the Netherlands in 1585, and died from a musket shot received in a skirmish with the Spanish in 1586.

Sidney 2 : Frances Sidney (1589-1632) was the daughter of Francis Walsingham.

Smerwick : Desmond’s cousin, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, had fled to the Continent in 1575. He persuaded the Papal and Spanish authorities to support a plan to put the nephew of Pope Gregory XIII on the Irish throne. They provided men and ships, and a landing of some 700 soldiers was made in the far west of Ireland at Smerwick on the Dingle Peninsula. They flew banners displaying the Keys of St Peter, and operated under an Italian commander. Lord Grey responded by marching against the invaders, and, after a bombardment lasting several days, the embattled invaders raised the white flag. But Grey was not prepared to give quarter, and put the whole garrison to the sword.

Spenser : Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) is best known for his allegorical romance The Faerie Queen. For a time he owned 3000 acres and a castle in Ireland, close to Raleigh’s estate.

Stationer's List : The Guild of Stationers was established to protect the interests of those concerned with the trade in books, but came to be used by the government of Elizabeth I for the purposes of censorship. A Star Chamber Decree of 1586 provided that all books should be licensed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London prior to printing, and printing restricted to London and the University towns of Oxford and Cambridge. The Stationer's List therefore comprises a fairly comprehensive list of all publications for the period, though there were, of course, unlicensed presses and illegal imports nonetheless.

Stone : Nicholas Stone (1586-1647) was trained under Hendrijk de Keyser in Amsterdam, and was appointed master mason to James I in 1619. He worked on the Banqueting House, where he began a long association with Inigo Jones.

Strange : Lord Strange’s Men : James Burbage had formed a partnership with his brother-in-law in 1567 to create what was probably England’s first permanent theatre, at the house called the Red Lion, in Stepney. After the 1572 Vagabonds Act, he secured the patronage of the Earl of Leicester and in 1576, he negotiated with Giles Allen for a 21 year lease on a plot of land in Shoreditch on which he built the Theatre. When Leicester died in 1588, the company sought the patronage of the Earl of Derby, Ferdinando Stanley, and became Lord Strange’s Men.

Sydney : Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586) was a poet, courtier, diplomat and soldier whose sonnet sequence Astrophel and Stella was influential.

Tasso : Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) was born in Sorrento, near Naples, and became poet in residence in Ferrara first under Cardinal Luigi d’Este, and subsequently under Duke Alfonso II. He achieved celebrity mainly for his long poem Gerusalemme Liberata (Jerusalem Delivered). Later he became paranoid, and was incarcerated as insane in 1579. He was released in 1585 on condition that he left Ferrara.

Throckmorton : Elizabeth Throckmorton : was the daughter of Nicholas Throckmorton, who had served as Elizabeth’s ambassador to Paris, and had been sent to Scotland to try to stop the marriage of Mary Stuart to Lord Darnley. He had also been tried for and subsequently acquitted of treason during the reign of Queen Mary.

Trinity College, Cambridge is the largest college in Cambridge. It was founded in 1546 by Henry VIII, combining Michaelhouse and King’s Hall. Most of its endowments came from land confiscated from monasteries.

Tyburn was the location of the first permanent gallows in London.

Thavies Inn provided, among other things, initial training for those who wanted to join the Inns of Court.

Waller : Edmund Waller (1606-1687) was the leader of a failed plot in 1643 to seize London for the King. He avoided execution by betraying his associates, and was fined and banished instead. He returned to England in 1651, and subsequently managed to write celebratory poems to both Cromwell (Panegyrick to my Lord Protector, 1655) and Charles II (To the King, on His Majesty’s Happy Return, 1660). There were three editions of Waller’s poetry in 1645, but Milton’s book had to wait some 15 years before selling out.

Walsingham : Thomas Walsingham (1561-1630) was the nephew of Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth’s spymaster. Marlowe had met Walsingham while at Cambridge, and was living with him at Chislehurst when he was arrested.

Walsingham 2 : Francis Walsingham (1530-1590) was appointed ambassador to France in 1570, making such a success of the job that he was promoted to Secretary of State. Between 1578 and 1583 he engaged in diplomatic missions, and built up a network of spies throughout Europe. It was Walsingham who uncovered the Babington plot, which led to the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587.

Watson : Thomas Watson (c1557-1592) wrote two collections of sonnets, Hekatompathia or The Passionate Centurie of Love, containing 100 sonnets in an irregular eighteen line form, and The Tears of Fancie or Love Disdained, containing 60 sonnets in the more usual fourteen line form. He also translated Italian madrigals into English which were set to music by William Byrd.

Whitehall Palace was a royal residence in London from 1530 until it was mainly destroyed by fire in 1697. The only part now surviving is the Banqueting House, built to a design by Inigo Jones between 1619 and 1622. It was from this building that Charles I stepped out onto the scaffold in 1649.

Whitgift : John Whitgift (c1530-1604) was given the nickname of ‘Little Black Husband’ by Elizabeth. He was made Archbishop of Canterbury by her in 1583. He favoured Calvinism, finding the Puritan sects heretical and seditious. He became a Privy Councillor in 1586, and promoted increased censorship, which he exercised through the Star Chamber, doing his best to suppress Puritan writings by securing a decree which forbade the publication of books, pamphlets or tracts not authorised by himself or the Bishop of London. In response, the Puritans issued unauthorised pamphlets under the fictitious name of Martin Marprelate, which they printed on unauthorised presses.

Wotton : Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) was ambassador to Venice under James I, and later Provost of Eton. He was himself an accomplished poet.

Wriothesley : Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), was a close friend of the Earl of Essex, and accompanied him on the naval expeditions of 1596 and 1597. His marriage in 1598 to Elizabeth Vernon, one of Elizabeth I’s maids in waiting, angered the Queen, and he lost favour. He was involved in Essex’s abortive coup of 1601, and condemned to death, but reprieved and finally freed on James I’s accession in 1603. He became a privy councillor in 1619, but lost favour because he opposed James I’s favourite, the Duke of Buckingham. In 1624 he volunteered to lead a troupe of soldiers against the Spanish in the Netherlands, but died of a fever shortly after arriving on the Continent.

Young : Thomas Young (1587-1655) was a long time correspondent with Milton, and became master of Jesus College, Cambridge, when the Anglican heads of houses were deposed during the Civil War.