Research

How does learning work?

The goal of this line of research is to understand how learning works by studying how it is changed by context. How do we learn different information from different experiences and why do different people learn different things from the same experience? What are the mechanisms of change taking place during learning?

Representative publications:

  • Carvalho, P.F., & Goldstone, R.L (2017). The sequence of study changes what information is encoded and remembered during category learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.
  • Carvalho, P.F., Vales, C., Fausey, C.M., & Smith, L.B. (under review). Novel names extend for how long preschool children sample visual information.

How can learning be improved?

The goal of this line of research is to understand how we can make learning better by studying why the same intervention sometimes helps improve learning but other times it does not. How does an intervention change learning to lead to different learning outcomes? When is an intervention beneficial?

Representative publications:

  • Carvalho, P.F., & Goldstone, R.L. (2014). Putting category learning in order: category structure and temporal arrangement affect the benefit of interleaved over blocked study. Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 481-495. doi: 10.3758/s13421-013-0371-0
  • Carvalho, P.F., & Goldstone, R.L. (2015). The benefits of interleaved and blocked study: Different tasks benefit from different schedules of study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(1), 281-288. doi:10.3758/s13423-014-0676-4
  • Meagher, B.J., Carvalho, P.F., Goldstone, R.L., & Nosofsky, R.M. (2017). Organized Simultaneous Displays Facilitate Learning of Complex Natural Science Categories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-8. doi:10.3758/s13423-017-1251-6
  • Carvalho, P.F. & Goldstone, R.L. (2017). The most efficient sequence of study depends on the type of test. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp 198-203). Austin TX: Cognitive Science Society.

How does self-regulation change learning?

The goal of this line of research is to understand how being in charge of learning changes how learning works. Does self-regulated learning work the same way as guided learning? Does a learning strategy that improves guided learning also works in self-regulated contexts?

Representative publications:

  • Carvalho, P.F., Braithwaite, D. W., de Leeuw, J.R., Motz, B.A., & Goldstone, R.L. (2016) An in vivo study of self-regulated study sequencing in Introductory Psychology courses, PLoS ONE 11(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152115
  • Carvalho, P.F., McLaughlin, E. A., & Koedinger, K.R. (2017). Is there an explicit learning bias? Students beliefs, behaviors and learning outcomes. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp 204-209). Austin TX: Cognitive Science Society.