MPT Assessment Process and Forms
Continued advances in technologies have created a wide range of options in technology functions and features. As a result, consumers and providers often report feeling overwhelmed and confused when faced with decisions regarding device selection and use. In response to this, and in hopes of providing a more personal approach to matching individuals with the most appropriate technologies for their use, the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) assessment process was developed.
The MPT process contains a series of instruments (self-report checklists about consumer predispositions to and outcomes of technology use) which take into account
- the environments in which the person uses the technology,
- the individual's characteristics and preferences, and
- the technology's functions and features.
Characteristics within these three components can each contribute either a positive or a negative influence on technology use. If there are too many negative influences, the chance of the technology being successfully used is greatly reduced. In fact, the technology itself can appear perfect for a given need, but if the user does not possess the appropriate personal characteristics or does not receive needed support, that perfect technology may go unused or be used inappropriately.
The MPT process contains a series of instruments:
- For persons considering any kind of technology, but believe there may be a general reluctance to use technology, the Survey of Technology Use (SOTU) helps identify technologies an individual feels comfortable or successful in using so that a new technology can be built around existing comfort or success.
Technology-specific forms are:
- The Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) to help people select assistive technologies.
- The Educational Technology Predisposition Assessment (ET PA) to help students use technology reach certain educational goals.
- The Workplace Technology Predisposition Assessment (WT PA) for employers, vocational counselors, etc. who introduce new technologies into the workplace and who train persons in their use.
- The Health Care Technology Predisposition Assessment (HCT PA) for health care providers who recommend or prescribe technologies for health maintenance, pain relief, and so on.
Each instrument is actually a pair of instruments -- one designed for the provider of technologies (counselor, therapist, teacher, employer, trainer, etc.) and the other designed for the technology user (client, student, employee). Each instrument is quick, easy and self-explanatory. They were developed from the experiences of technology users and non-users through participatory action research to ensure providers and users work together to achieve the following goals:
- User goals and preferences drive the MPT process
- The degree of match between user and provider perspectives is assessed
- Providers are guided into considering all relevant influences on the use of a technology while focusing on the user's quality of life
- Mismatches between a proposed technology and a potential user are identified in time to reduce inappropriate use or non-use and eliminate the accompanying disappointment and frustration
- The most appropriate technology is selected when there is a choice of several
- Appropriate training strategies are identified for an individual's optimal use of a technology.
Options in technologies will continue to increase. Therefore, the constellation of factors that serve to influence individuals' predispositions to the use of particular technologies must be understood so that the most appropriate technologies can be provided and the most appropriate training strategies can be designed. The MPT process and accompanying instruments are a step in that direction. As consumer-directed technology evaluation and selection advances, MPT users will find that they a) provide consumer identification of potential obstacles to optimal technology use, and b) give information about a variety of influences on predispositions to and outcomes of technology use.
Using the MPT Assessment Instruments
Steps and Sample Items from Several Forms
For optimal use of the MPT assessments and process, these initial steps should be followed:
Step One: Use the form entitled Worksheet for the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) Model to determine which technologies are potentially useful for the individual. First, write down initial goals that you and the user have established together; include possible alternative goals. Second, determine interventions supportive of these goals and write them in the space provided on the form. Third, determine any technologies needed to support the attainment of the goals. Sample items from this form (approximately 50%) are below.
Step Two: Use the form entitled Technology Utilization Worksheet for the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) Model to identify technologies used, desired, and needed. Sample items for this form are not included here.
Step Three: Select the appropriate MPT instrument(s). Samples items from the following forms (approximately one third of the forms) are included here.
A. Survey of Technology Use - Consumer Form (Companion provider form not included here).
B. Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment - Consumer Form (Companion provider form not included here).
C. Educational Technology Predisposition Assessment - Student Form (Companion teacher form not included here).
General Procedures for Using the MPT Assessment Instruments
All of the instruments in the MPT process (except the Health Care Technology Predisposition Assessment) have two versions: a provider version and a user version. The two versions are meant to be used together in order to identify characteristics of the milieu/environment, person, or technology that could lead to inappropriate use, or even nonuse, of the technology.
The MPT Model/Process is user-driven and person-centered. To gain the most benefit from the MPT instruments, the procedures listed below should be followed:
1. Ask the user (client, student or employee) to complete his or her version of the appropriate form focusing on current feelings and attitudes. [Instead, the user form may serve as a guide for an oral interview, if that seems more appropriate for the situation.]
2. Complete the provider version of the instrument and identify any discrepancies between your version and the user version. Also identify factors that may hinder the user's acceptance or use of the technology. Questions requiring information that you do not currently have should be left blank with a notation to obtain that information later.
3. Discuss with the user those factors that may indicate problems with his or her acceptance or appropriate use of the technology.
4. After you have noted the problem areas, work with the user to identify specific intervention strategies and devise an action plan to address the problems and to describe proposed interventions.
5. Commit to writing the strategies and action plans, for experience has shown that plans that are merely verbalized are not implemented as frequently as written plans. Written plans also serve as documentation and can provide the justification for any subsequent actions such as requests for funding or release time for training, etc.
NOTE: The MPT assessments are designed to inform, not to replace professional judgment. They are tools whose purpose is to indicate areas in need of further assessment and intervention, their overarching assumptions being that (a) each match of person and technology is unique and requires individual attention, and (b) technologies are means for achieving goals, not ends in themselves. In studies comparing known technology users to nonusers, the instruments have successfully differentiated the two groups. This only means the instruments have validity for identifying potential obstacles to the optimal use of a technology.
SAMPLE ITEMS FROM VARIOUS FORMS
Best viewed on a large screen
Sample Items (less than half of the items) from
WORKSHEET FOR THE MATCHING PERSON & TECHNOLOGY (MPT) MODEL
In which of the following does the individual experience a limitation (check all that apply)? For each limitation, indicate goals as well as potentially desirable technologies, environmental accommodations, and other interventions for this person.
Limitations Goals and Desirable Interventions
___ Communication. Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Mobility.Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Vision. Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Hearing. Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Reading/writing. Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Household activities. Write the specific limitation noted:
___ Health maintenance. Write the specific limitation noted:
Sample Items (less than half of the items) from SURVEY OF TECHNOLOGY USE (SOTU) - CONSUMER FORM
1. TECHNOLOGIES YOU FREQUENTLY USE:
List the technologies that you use most frequently (for example, personal computer, VCR, bank ATM, CD player, etc.)
2. OVERALL EXPERIENCES WITH CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES USED:
Generally Feel Generally Feel
They are satisfying They are frustrating
They help my creativity They interfere with my creativity
They bring me together with people They separate me from people
3. PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGIES:
Feel Positive About Neutral Feel Negative About
My childhood technology experiences
My most recent technology experiences
Generally Feel Generally Feel
I am comfortable with technology I am intimidated by technology
I feel good around technology I feel anxious around technology
5. SOME OF YOUR PERSONAL/SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Generally Feel Neutral Generally Feel
Persevering Easily discouraged
Sample Items (less than half of the items) fromThe Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment - C
Date of Birth:
(Side One Sample Questions Completed Pre- and Post-Intervention and Per Person)
1. How are your current capabilities in the following areas? Circle the best response for each:
Poor Average Good
a. Vision 1 2 3 4 5
c. Speech 1 2 3 4 5
d. Upper extremity control 1 2 3 4 5
f. Mobility 1 2 3 4 5
g. Dexterity 1 2 3 4 5
i. Physical strength/stamina 1 2 3 4 5
Put a [-] beside any of the above that you believe are or will be deteriorating over time.
Then put a [+] beside any you believe are or will be improving over time.
2. How satisfied are you with what you have achieved in the following areas? Circle the best response for each.
Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied
a. Independent living skills 1 2 3 4 5
c. Communication skills 1 2 3 4 5
d. Physical comfort & well-being 1 2 3 4 5
e. Overall health 1 2 3 4 5
g. Ability to go where desired 1 2 3 4 5
i. Emotional well-being 1 2 3 4 5
Put a [+] beside the one(s) you most want to see improve over time.
4. Please check all the statements below that describe you.
__ need more privacy __ discouraged
__ do what therapist(s) recommend __ prefer to be left alone
__ satisfied with present situation __ receive emotional support from others
__ want more independence __ receive physical support from others
__ have made friends with therapists __often angry
__ believe the general public accepts the child __often depressed
(Side Two Sample Questions: Completed for Each Device)
not at all a lot
3.How much do you believe you will benefit from using this device? 1 2 3 4 5
5.How much will this AT require changes in your accustomed routine? 1 2 3 4 5
Sample Items (less than half of the items) fromEDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY PREDISPOSITION ASSESSMENT-S
no somewhat yes
Do you understand the goal written above? 1 2 3 4 5
Do you feel you can achieve this goal? 1 2 3 4 5
not much somewhat a lot
How much do you want to achieve this goal? 1 2 3 4 5
Do you prefer to learn from listening to a teacher's lecture or by reading a textbook?
Do you prefer to watch a demonstration or to experiment on your own?
TECHNOLOGY no maybe yes
Have you ever experienced this type of technology or this method? 1 2 3 4 5
Have you observed others using this technology/method? 1 2 3 4 5
Circle all the statements below that describe you.
I am curious & excited about I often want to work I sometimes feel intimidated by
new things slower than others technology
I am impatient I like to try new things I am often easily distracted
I want to control my own I am usually flexible/ I prefer to work in a group
learning pace adaptable than by myself
Matching Assistive Technology & CHild (MATCH)
In hopes of providing a more personal approach to matching children with the most appropriate technologies for their use, the Matching Assistive Technology and CHild or MATCH assessment process has been developed. The MATCH process consists of a progression of instruments designed for AT evaluators, technology providers, IFSP and IEP teams, AT service coordinators, therapists, and parents concerned about achieving the most appropriate match of a child with an assistive technology. Each of the instruments is meant to be completed by the child/parent and evaluator in partnership so that dialogue occurs around options, expectations, and concerns and to:
- choose the most appropriate technology when there is a choice of several;
- decide if a technology is the most appropriate choice given the characteristics of the person, tech & environment;
- decide on the most appropriate training strategies to ensure optimal use of a technology.
Each of the instruments is quick, easy and self-explanatory and no specific scoring system need be used for most practical applications. It is believed that careful completion of each instrument item and observation of the balance of positive to negative responses will often give the provider sufficient insight to determine the quality of the match of a person and a technology.
Sample Items (less than half of the items) fromMatching Assistive Technology & CHild (MATCH)
A. How satisfied are you with this child’s skills and development in the following areas?
- Sleep/wake patterns
- Grasping and holding
- Understanding communication
- Expressing communication
- Physical strength/stamina
- Physical comfort & well-being
- Social & play skills
- Pre-academic development (size, shape, color)
- Rate of learning
- Emotional well-being (tolerates changes, temper)
- Overall development
Put a [+] beside any you believe are or will be improving over time. Then put a [-] beside any of the above you believe are or will be lessening over time.
Finally, put a number beside the ones you most want to see improve over time in terms of their importance to you (#1 in importance, #2 in importance, etc.) .
B. Please check all the statements below that characterize this family.
1. services well-integrated into family routines
2. want more privacy
3. frequently discouraged
4. satisfied with current service plan, IFSP/IEP
5. receive help and support from others
6. often overwhelmed
C. Comparing up to Three Devices to Meet Desired Outcomes
1. Does the device fit in all desired environments (car, living room, bathing area, etc.)?
2. How much will this device help this child achieve the desired outcomes written above?
3. How much does the child like the device?
4. Does this device require cognitive training or physical adaptation in order to fit with this child’s accustomed routine?
5. Does the user have the capabilities and stamina to use the device without discomfort, stress and fatigue?
6. Can the device be adapted to accommodate changes in the user?
7. How easily can this device be integrated into the child’s school environment?