Agricultural Trade Costs

This 3D simulated globe presents the data on ad-valorem equivalent trade costs in percent, that is, the percentage difference between domestic price and world price. This is a comprehensive trade cost measure (i.e., tariff- and non-tariff costs are incorporated), aggregating across three broad primary sectors: Agriculture, hunting and forestry and fishery.


  • If the graph does not display properly, please see it from the RPubs server here.
  • The R code to reproduce the plot can be downloaded here. To use this code, installation of the latest version of Rstudio is highly recommended.
  • I compute the average bilateral cost for each of the 181 countries in the sample. The data span the period 1995 - 2015.
  • The "greener" the countries' colours are, the lower the trade costs they exhibit.
  • Use one of the buttons displayed on screen or the accompanying slider to spin the globe at chosen speed! After pausing, drag mouse to rotate the model. Use mouse wheel or middle button to zoom.

Disclaimer: The data are from the UN's Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), which are available at For the construction of these measures, see the official documentation at