Hurricane Season

... an annual cycle from June 1 - November 30

Though large-scale weather events such as 'hurricanes' occur over all tropical oceans of the world, we will focus on those that may impact our location in New York State. 'Hurricane Season' is a cyclic period of time when the tropical Atlantic Ocean radiates significant amounts of heat energy into the atmosphere that can foster large-scale storms. In previous decades, June 1 - November 30 have been the 'official' starting and ending dates of average storm formation during the year. Whether called 'cyclones', 'typhoons', or 'hurricanes', the only differences in these large-scale storms are the ocean they form over.


    • The Future of Storms [Aaron Byrd/NYTimes]
    • BBC Weather How Hurricanes Form [LEAK/YouTube] 2.5 min
    • New Research and Forecast Model Simulates Sandy-type Storms [NOAAVisualizations/YouTube] 1 min
    • Anatomy of a Hurricane [The Quick Brown Fox Jumps over the Lazy Dog/YouTube] 5 min
    • Hurricane Katrina Day Day [National Geographic/YouTube] 5 min
    • Hurricane Katrina from satellite [siajaver/YouTube] 1 min
    • Earth Observatory > Features > Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth
    • Jeremiah Warren: How are hurricanes named?
    • Understanding Hurricane Rita Through Video and Images [; Rachelle Oblack]
    • Video & Animation Chapters [MontereyInstitute/NOAA]
    • Stronger Hurricanes [NOVA: scienceNOW]

Weather Forecasting Skills

..... when will we have our first 'Snow Day'?

Wind, Humidity, Air Pressure & Temperature (W.H.A.T.) are the four variables of 'weather'

Changes among these four factors at all altitudes of the atmosphere, every minute of every day, and their interactions amongst each other, yield differences in weather. Predicting these changes and interactions (predicting the weather) is extremely difficult and complicated, though satellite technology has greatly assisted meteorologists in improving accuracy.

Weather effects our daily lives, of course, but more importantly weather patterns over long periods of time (cycles) influence more than our daily routine. Seasonal changes, decadal changes, century-long cycles and millenial cycles also affect the planet. Climates (and changing climates, as we see today), the formation of rocks on Earth, our ability to view and interpret light from distant stars in space, all of it is related to weather and the interactions amongst winds, humidity levels, air pressure and temperatures in the atmosphere.

Our ability to sustain ourselves on Earth's surface is directly dependent upon weather patterns, but also the longer-term cycles that have a great impact on all species and the Earth's surface. To explore more long-term cycles, visit Climates & Climate Change.



Gradient & Computer Modeling

Watch on You Tube

      • Detailed Forecast Discussion – 1/22/2016 (**start at Min 1:30) [Hudson Valley Weather/YouTube] 15 min

The Carbon Cycle

Watch The Carbon Cycle

      • NASA: Keeping Up With Carbon [720p] [Our Universe Visualized/YouTube] 5:30 min
      • Ocean Particles Big & Small [WoodsHoleOceanus/YouTube] 4 min

The Nitrogen Cycle

Watch The Nitrogen Cycle

      • Nitrogen Cycle in the Soil [Yara International/YouTube] 5:30 min

The Hydrologic Cycle

Watch The Hydrologic Cycle

      • Science Casts: Mud Matters [ScienceAtNASA/YouTube] 3 min

The Greenhouse Effect

Watch The Greenhouse Effect

      • 'The Greenhouse Effect' [HMMI] 2 min
      • The Greenhouse Effect: Climate Control & Global Warming [greenplanetfilms/YouTube] 5 min

The Ozone Layer

Watch The Ozone Layer

      • Mystery In The Ozone Layer [ScienceCasts/YouTube] 4 min
      • NASA / Why are the ozone holes getting smaller? [NASA Goddard/YouTube] 1.20 min

The Jet Stream

Watch The Jet Stream

      • The Jet Stream [720p] [Our Universe Visualized/YouTube] 30 sec
      • How Does The Jet Stream Work? [KCRA News/YouTube] 4 min
      • Minute: Blowin’ In The Wind [NASA EarthMinute/YouTube] 1 min (Impacts of global winds)
      • The Coriolis Effect [NOVA PBS/YouTube] 3:30 min
      • Why Do Clouds Stay Up? [It’s OK To Be Smart/YouTube] 6:30 min
      • Climate Science: What You Need To Know [It’s OK To Be Smart/YouTube] 6 min
      • Rainshadow Effect [Discover the Ice Age Floods/YouTube] 4:30 min

Interpreting Synoptic Weather Maps = Predicting the Weather

Watch Synoptic Maps

      • What are weather fronts? [Met Office/YouTube] 5:30 min
      • The Coriolis Effect [NOVA PBS/YouTube] 3 min
      • How Does the Jet Stream Work? [KCRA News/YouTube] 4 min
      • What is the Jet Stream & How Does It Work? [Met Office/YouTube] 2 min

Station Models

Watch Station Models

      • Earliest Known BBC Weather Forecast (Autumn 1953) [Essex Weather and Flood Forecasting Centre/YouTube] 3 min
      • AWESOME 3D Explanation on How Different Precipitation Types Form! [The Weather Channel/YouTube] 3 min

Forecasting Severe Weather: Planning and Preparing for Safety