This Week...

UNIT 3 EARTH!

Wednesday, 2/13/19

A Day completes Unit 4 and Quarterly Assessment

Monday, 2/11 & Tuesday, 2/12

Lab- 1) Identification of Fossils 2) Using trace fossils as evidence of behavior

BUILDING A FOSSIL RECORD

ESSENTIAL QUESTION What does the fossil record tell us about the history of life on Earth?

Activity 1- Use the pictures of fossils and the clay models of fossils to identify the fossils at your table - make a sketch of 2 types of the fossils and write their names and ages in your lab book.

Activity 2 - On your long poster assemble the samples in order based on the geologic time scale. IN your lab book draw a timeline oldest to youngest, identifying the fossil by name and its age - THEN underneath write the eon, era or period it belongs to (Use p.518 for reference).

Activity 3 - How were the real fossils formed? Look at pages 513 and 514

Activity 4 - Identify extinction events associated with at least two fossils - Add the extinction events to the timeline in your. journal.

Activity 5- List as quickly as possible in your journal as many possible reasons for a species to become extinct as you can - you have 3 minutes.




DISCUSSION:

Does a species die out if it can adapt to changes in its environment? What kind of changes might need to happen?

The definition of evolution is change over time, what evidence exists that the life forms on Earth have changed over time?

Home Learning:

Evidence of evolution – Read Text p.5542-544 and complete the graphic organizer on p.546

Due next class session.


Thursday 2/7 & Friday 2/8

Starting UNIT 4 EVOLUTION

How fossils are formed graphic organizer

Review Fossil formation G/O p.524 #1-5 &

Evidence of Evolution (p.542 - 544)

Compare p.520 w/ p. 542 Common ancestor

Homologous structures v. Analogous structures

Vestigial structures

Evolution & the Fossil Record Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-aGAX27SIo


Friday 2/1 Monday 2/4 Tuesday 2/5 (Wednesday 2/6 - Ms. Sapp absent B Day completes Unit4 and Quarterly Assessment)

LAB TITLE: Mining for Molybdenum

PROBLEM: How can we locate this substance and mine it with the least ecological damage?

Background research:

https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals-database/molybdenum/

Source: Molybdenum metal is not found free in nature. The main ore of molybdenum is molybdenite, (molybdenum disulfide, MoS2). It also occurs in wulfenite (lead molybdate) and powellite (calciummolybdate). Commercially, the metal is obtained by mining molybdenite directly and it is also recovered as a by-product of copper mining.

bulleted notes from video slides

Hypothesis:

IF rock samples are tested THEN we can locate the best sites for mining Molybdenum.


EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Materials:

$$$ to buy samples

samples test kit and scoop

Rock samples from Mining sites 1-24

Indicator solution

Map of Mining sites


Procedure:

Each shareholder will choose 1 site to test. Record as such-

______________________________________________________________________________________________

SAMPLE NUMBERS SITE NUMBER

CEO ___________________________Test Sample 1 _________________

Shareholder___________________ Test sample 2 __________________

Shareholder___________________ Test sample 3 __________________

Shareholder___________________ Test sample 4 __________________

Shareholder___________________ Test sample 5 __________________

Shareholder___________________ Test sample 6 __________________


ANALYSIS:

  • (sample) Our company located 3 yellow ( less than 0.1 ppb) mines, and 1 blue (0-1 -1.0 ppb) concentrations that are too small to mine for profit. We also found 1 blue-green (1.1 -10.0 ppb) mine and 1 red (> 10.0 ppb) mine sites which have high enough concentrations to be profitable.

CONCLUSION:

  • The hypothesis was supported by the data. The river system moves sediment deposits in a pattern that indicates good mine sites.


https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals-database/molybdenum/

Source: Molybdenum metal is not found free in nature. The main ore of molybdenum is molybdenite, (molybdenum disulfide, MoS2). It also occurs in wulfenite (lead molybdate) and powellite (calciummolybdate). Commercially, the metal is obtained by mining molybdenite directly and it is also recovered as a by-product of copper mining.


PART 2 OUR MINE WAS SUCCESSFUL - WE ARE ALL RICH! (We made $700,000,000 the last year of the mine's operation)

NOW IT IS TIME TO CLOSE THE MINE AND RECLAIM IT AS A WILDLIFE HABITAT FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

GOTO THE SIMULATION BELOW AND DESIGN A WILDLIFE HABITAT

http://www.digintomining.com/sites/digintomining.com/files/aim-to-reclaim/#/welcome


HOW TO INVEST IN ORES

Use the $$$ left over from your company's start up and invest in as much of the ores listed on this exchange - we will check back in one week and see which company makes the most profit as investors!

http://www.infomine.com/investment/metal-prices/

Things you need to know:

  • 1 Ordinary Ounce = 0.911458333 troy ounce
  • 1 Troy Ounce = 1.097142857142857 ordinary ounce
  • 1 Ordinary Pound = 14.58333 troy ounces


HOME LEARNING :

  • Due Feb 13th or 14th

Make a mini-poster listing Human Impacts on the Earth

What are the negative effects of human population expansion ? What can we do to reduce the impact we have on the Earth's diverse environments?


Wednesday, January 30, 2019 & Thursday, January 31, 2019

Science Family Night! 6:30 -8:00PM Great Spaghetti Dinner too! Extra Credit for participation!

Make Up tests and Review for Unit Assessment covering all topics in Unit 3

Period 5 - Period 2 - Period 6 & Period 8 Red River Mining Lab M/Up


Monday, January 28 & Tuesday, January 29 GEOLOGIC TIME UNIT TEST


Tuesday, January 22, 2019 - Friday, January 25 , 2019

GEOLOGIC TIME UNIT TEST will be taken Monday, January 28 & Tuesday, January 29

You may use your graphic organizers during the test as a reference, NOT the text!

TODAY YOU WILL COMPLETE The Cenozoic Geological & Biological Changes - this is the information that goes inside the first graphic organizer you made - Information on pages 172 -178

Make sure you notes are complete about the Mesozoic Era - this is information on pages 158- 162

And check over your foldable on the Paleozoic Era (DO YOU HAVE THE TITLE ON THE COVER!!!)

This foldable is divided in the Early Middle & Late listing the associated geological and biological changes

this information is on pages 142 - 149

Another resource to study for this test would be to watch the video on geologic time we started this unit with...

https://www.pbs.org/video/a-brief-history-of-geologic-time-jaljq2/



Tuesday, January 15, 2019 and Wednesday, January 16, 2019

We continue "The Age of the Foldable!"

The Paleozoic Era pages 144 & 145

and The Mesozoic Era pages 158 & 159


Friday, January 11, 2019 and Monday, January 14, 2019

The Geologic Time Scale Foldable

On the front flap copy the Geologic time scale from Text p. 129

On the side tab copy the Cenozoic Era - Period & Epochs p. 172 & 173

Refer to the example above ( You can click on the picture to expand it)


Welcome Back & Happy New Year!

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Fossil Samples

Crinoid & Brachiopods fossil samples from 445 mya Ohio RIver Valley Slate

(Crinoids occur in Ohio rocks ranging in age from Late Ordovician to Pennsylvanian (445 million years to 299 million years ago)


Ammonoid fossil samples , also called ammonite, any of a group ofextinct cephalopods (of the phylum Mollusca), forms related to the modern pearly nautilus (Nautilus), that are frequently found as fossils in marine rocks datingfrom the Devonian Period (began 419 million years ago) to the Cretaceous Period (ended 66 million years ago)

Knightia fossil sample Eocene

(Green River Formation outcropped about: 45-50 million year old two visible imprints (fossils) of fish species, called Knightia eocaena)

Geologic Time Scale p.129 ( http://apps.usd.edu/esci/geoltime.pl )

https://www.pbs.org/video/a-brief-history-of-geologic-time-jaljq2/


More information about the Cenozoic Era is divided into three periods:

  • Paleogene Period (65-23 million years ago), which consists of the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene epochs);
  • Neogene Period (23-2.6 million years ago), which includes the Miocene and Pliocene epochs);
  • Quaternary Period (2.6 million years ago to the present), consisting the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs).
Holocene ~Last 11 thousand YearsThe Holocene is the current interglacial period. Perhaps because of man, this interglacial period has lasted longer than previous ones. Agriculture developed fairly early in the Holocene, and for about the last half of the Holocene there have been human civilizations and written language.
Pleistocene ~1.8 Million Years Ago To 11 Thousand Years AgoThe Pleistocene has commonly been called the ice age. Glaciers advanced and it was very cold most of the time. But there were also warmer interglacial periods, like the one we are in now.
Pliocene ~5.3-1.8 Million Years AgoThe climate is about the same as ours, and the animals are also quite similar. For the animals think of hairy version of today's Africa.
Miocene ~23-5.3 Million Years AgoThe animals in the Miocene were quite different from the Oligocene but quite similar to those we have today. The climate was cooling but still warmer than ours. Much of the Miocene was as warm as the earlier Oligocene.
Oligocene ~34-23 Million Years AgoThe Oligocene began with an extinction event. The earth may have been hit by a large object.As the earth became cooler and dryer the mammals became very large. This was the era of indricotherium, the giant hornless rhino which is the largest land mammal that ever lived. It is also the era of brontotherium, the giant animal that looks like a rhino with a forked horn.This period of relatively unsophisticated giants seems to be similar to the Jurassic for the age of dinosaurs, which was also an age of unsophisticated giants.
Eocene ~ 56-34 Million Years AgoSomething made the earth much hotter for 100 thousand years at the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene. This is called the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Many species went extinct as a result. It is the official explanation that the heat got them.Even after the hot spell the Eocene was very warm. From the Eocene through the Pleistocene, the world generally became colder.In the tropical world of the Eocene the mammals were somewhat smaller than before or after the Eocene. The mammals were on average only 60 percent of the size of the late Paleocene mammals.The earliest fossils of most of the modern mammalian orders are found in the Eocene.
Paleocene ~ 65-56 Million Years AgoThe comet or meteor hit and the dinosaurs, except the birds, were wiped out roughly 65 million years ago. This left the relatively tiny mammals to seize the larger land niches. The mammals rapidly evolved larger sizes.It is my impression that many of the larger mammals were evolution's rather crude early drafts.


ROCK CYCLE LAB

Wednesday, January 9, 2019

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

OB TEST PLATE TECTONICS

Advanced Rock & Mineral Observations



Monday, January 7, 2019

TECTONIC PLATES & LANDFORMS REDUX

P.80 Tectonic Plate Boundary Summary

TEST - Open Book p.56-77

MAJOR PLATE BOUNDARIES MAP


FIELD TRIP TO FROST MUSEUM HAS BEEN RESCHEDULED TO TUESDAY, DECEMBER 18th

December 17th & 18th PLATE BOUNDARIES INTRODUCTION

The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century.

Diagram of the internal layering of the Earth showing the lithosphere above the asthenosphere (not to scale)

Plate tectonics is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of many smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The key principle of plate tectonics is that the lithosphere exists as separate and distinct tectonic plates, which ride on the fluid-like (visco-elastic solid) asthenosphere. Plate motions range up to a typical 10–40 mm/year

LANDFORMS

http://worldlandforms.com/landforms/list-of-all-landforms/

https://www.google.com/search?q=powerpoint+plate+tectonics&rlz=1C5CHFA_enUS740US740&oq=Powerpoint+Plate+t&aqs=chrome.0.0j69i57j0l4.9022j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8


December 13 & 14 Thursday & Friday

From Magma to Metamorphic Rock

Create a diagram detailing the processes involved in changing magma into each of the major classifications of rock.

p.46 #1-6

LINKS


December 12 Wednesday (B)

ROCK CYCLE

Graphic Organizer (p.41)

Use information on text pages 36-40 to describe the processes of the rock cycle.


December 10 & 11 Monday & Tuesday

ROCK IDENTIFICATION LAB

PART 1 Samples 40 -75 IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY & METAMORPHIC

Listing rock sample names and recording characteristics after observation

Write a summary of similarities and differences between the samples in each category

REMEMBER - HOME LEARNING DUE NEXT MONDAY

Edgenuity Theory of Plate Tectonics SC.7.E.6.5

You need to complete all of these :

Warm-Up, Instruction, Summary, Assignment Explore the theory of plate tectonics,

Assignment Describe the theory of plate tectonics and Quiz


December 7 Friday (A)

ROCK CYCLE

Graphic Organizer (p.41)

Use information on text pages 36-40 to describe the processes of the rock cycle.


December 5 & 6 Wednesday & Thursday

ROCKS Formation Textures & Composition Graphic Organizer based on information p. 24-29

Text p. 31 #1-4

Text p.32 #1-9

STUDY VIDEO on ROCKS & QUIZ


December 3 & 4 Monday & Tuesday

The MAGNETOSPHERE (ODDLY THIS IMPORTANT INFO IS NOT IN YOUR TEXT) - PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING

The magnetosphere is the region above the ionosphere and extends several tens of thousands of kilometers into space, protecting the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays that would otherwise strip away the upper atmosphere, including the ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

The Earth has a magnetic field with north and south poles. The Earth's magnetic field reaches 36,000 miles into space.

The magnetic field of the Earth is surrounded in a region called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere prevents most of the particles from the sun, carried in solar wind, from hitting the Earth.

Some particles from the solar wind can enters the magnetosphere. The particles that enter from the magnetotail travel toward the Earth and create the auroral oval light shows.

The Sun and other planets have magnetospheres, but the Earth has the strongest one of all the rocky planets. The Earth's north and south magnetic poles reverse at irregular intervals of hundreds of thousands of years.

Our planet’s magnetic field is believed to be generated deep down in the Earth’s core.

Nobody has ever taken the mythical journey to the centre of the Earth, but by studying the way shockwaves from earthquakes travel through the planet, physicists have been able to work out its likely structure.

Right at the heart of the Earth is a solid inner core, two thirds of the size of the Moon and composed primarily of iron. At a hellish 5,700°C, this iron is as hot as the Sun’s surface, but the crushing pressure caused by gravity prevents it from becoming liquid.

Surrounding this is the outer core, a 2,000 km thick layer of iron, nickel, and small quantities of other metals. Lower pressure than the inner core means the metal here is fluid.

Differences in temperature, pressure and composition within the outer core cause convection currents in the molten metal as cool, dense matter sinks whilst warm, less dense matter rises. The Coriolis force, resulting from the Earth’s spin, also causes swirling whirlpools.

This flow of liquid iron generates electric currents, which in turn produce magnetic fields. Charged metals passing through these fields go on to create electric currents of their own, and so the cycle continues. This self-sustaining loop is known as the geodynamo.

The spiraling caused by the Coriolis force means that separate magnetic fields created are roughly aligned in the same direction, their combined effect adding up to produce one vast magnetic field engulfing the planet.


DYNAMIC EARTH INTERACTIVE

http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/otherboundaries/

Home Learning

Edgenuity Theory of Plate Tectonics SC.7.E.6.5

You need to complete all of these :

Warm-Up, Instruction, Summary, Assignment Explore the theory of plate tectonics,

Assignment Describe the theory of plate tectonics and Quiz


November 29th Thursday & 30th Friday

POSTERS Layers of the Earth

Chapter 1 Section 1 Pages 19 & 20

Foldable Layers of the Earth


November 27th Tuesday & 28th Wednesday

Journey to the Center of the Earth

http://www.floridastudents.org/PreviewResource/StudentResource/119030

Complete Mystery Box Lab - Scientific Thinking Lab

Move WAVES UNIT notes & work into Student File

NEW UNIT:

  • PLANET EARTH - EARTH 101

Earth. The only planet known to maintain life…

A product of scientific phenomena and sheer chance, this blue speck in space holds the past, present, and future of our very existence.

Approximately 4.5 billion years ago, the Earth formed from particles left over from the formation of our sun.

Gravity drew these particles together to form pebbles, which then formed boulders and eventually the Earth.

At its heart is a solid, inner core covered by a liquid, outer core. Above this sits the mantle, made of flowing silicate rocks; and a rocky crust.

This rocky mass is the third planet from the Sun, orbiting the star from an average distance of about 93 million miles.

It is close enough to the Sun to be warm, unlike the cold gas giants, but not so close that its surface is exposed to extreme heat and solar radiation, as is the case with Mercury.

Earth’s unique position in the solar system allows it to house phenomena yet to be found anywhere else in the universe, particularly liquid surface water and life.

According to one theory, much of Earth’s water is as old as its rocks, which both formed during the Earth’s earliest days.

Because of Earth’s unique distance from the Sun, the planet is able to contain water in all of its forms – liquid, ice, and gas – rather than have them permanently frozen or evaporated into space.

But Earth is the only known place in the universe with liquid water on the surface, thereby having unique, cascading effects on the planet:

It hydrates the land, helping create nutrient-rich soil; it collects and pools to form oceans and freshwater systems; and it cycles upward to add moisture to Earth’s protective atmosphere.

And where there is liquid water, there is life.

About 3.8 billion years ago in Earth’s oceans, primitive life existed in the form of microbial organisms.

They, in the ensuing billions of years, gave rise to a range of more advanced lifeforms that thrived in Earth’s seas, lands, and skies.

As the only world known to harbor life, Earth’s biodiversity is expansive in nature.

An estimated 1.5 million species of plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, and others have been cataloged, with potentially millions, if not billions, more yet to be discovered.

Home to life and fueled by water, Earth houses a unique global ecosystem as curious and as grand as the astronomical events that made them possible


=======================================================================================

November 19 & 20 UNIT EXAM


STUDY GUIDE WAVES

https://schoolwires.henry.k12.ga.us/cms/lib/GA01000549/Centricity/Domain/9400/Waves%20Unit_test_studyguide_2015_2016.pdf



CLASS SESSION 26 Friday, 11/9 and Tuesday 11/13

Mirrors, Lenses & the Eye Outline & Work Packet

LABS

Convex Lenses Concave Lenses

http://practicalphysics.org/image-formation-lens.html


CLASS SESSION 25 Wednesday, 11/7 and Thursday 11/8

LIGHT Outline & Packet

LIGHT LABS

Make a tent fold

Cover Page:

write across the top - Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet

write the word LIGHT in the center

under write - EMS waves ranging from 700-400 nm

at the bottom write your team's names (Your name & Roy G. Biv, your partner)

Inside top

write Reflection

Copy the definition and diagram from p.384

Inside bottom

write Refraction

Copy the definition and diagram from p.385

On the back

write Diffraction

Various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or slit. It is defined as the bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow.

Observations using diffraction glasses:

CLASS SESSION 24 Friday, 11/2 and Monday, 11/5

Lesson 8.1 SOUND


CLASS SESSION 23 Wednesday, 10/31 and Thursday, Nov. 1

LECTURE & NOTES ON SOUND

https://www.arborsci.com/cool/top-10-demonstrations-with-tuning-forks/

LAB ACTIVITY - Exploring sound with tuning forks


CLASS SESSION 22 Monday, 10/29 and Tuesday, 10/30

HOW DO WE USE SOUND ENERGY?

In teams of two create a poster explaining how one of these technologies work and what they are used for: SONAR RADAR ULTRASOUND

Home Learning: Science Project


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END OF GRADING PERIOD 1

CLASS SESSION 21 Wednesday, 10/24 and Thursday, 10/25

GIZMOS Explore Learning Vocabulary- Waves

Hints:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=73Kh8HPql_Y

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BN5-JSsu_4

https://www.brightstorm.com/science/physics/oscillatory-motion/resonance/


Explore Learning GIZMO WAVES Simulation Lab Activity

No Home Learning Assignments - End of Grading Period 10/26/18


CLASS SESSION 20 Monday, 10/22and Tuesday, 10/23

HOME LEARNING P.339 - 346

https://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/101-videos/earthquake-101

Seismic Waves

An earthquake strikes and everyone panics, diving for the nearest sturdy table or door-frame. Earthquakes can cause huge amounts of death and destruction. Understanding them is important if we want to save both lives and property. But earthquakes, like light, sound, or infrared, are nothing more than waves. So, how is it that a wave can cause such incredible damage?

Waves carry energy. Earthquake waves are waves in the earth, and they're extremely high energy. Earthquakes are caused by the movements of tectonic plates, which are sections in the earth's crust that float on the liquid magma underneath. Most of the Pacific Ocean, for example, makes up the Pacific Plate. When these huge plates collide, or slide alongside one another, the resulting friction creates earthquake waves. But, since the plates are so large and the movements so significant, the waves have a lot of energy stored in them. This gives earthquakes the potential to cause massive damage.

The focus of the earthquake is directly below the epicenter. The focus is the origin of the earthquake under the surface. The epicenter is the point directly above the focus on the surface. Energy is released from the point of earthquake origin. That energy moves in waves across the surface of the Earth or across water. Energy from an earthquake can even travel through the planet. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake had a magnitude of 9.1 and caused the entire planet to shake a tiny amount.

The strength of an earthquake is measured using a piece of equipment called a seismometer. The measurement gives an earthquake a number on the Richter scale. The largest earthquake ever recorded was in Chile in 1960, and registered a 9.5 on the Richter scale. An earthquake can many kinds of problems. A landslide and property damage could be immediate results of a quake. A tsunami could be created and hit shorelines hours after the earthquake was over. Tsunami systems are set up around the world to protect people along coasts from ocean waves generated by earthquakes.

Waves generated by an earthquake are called seismic waves. The prefix comes from the ancient Greek word ”seismos” which means “to shake”. Many earthquakes happen at the borders of tectonic plates. There is a large amount of geologic activity and movement along the borders of these plates. That activity builds stress and creates earthquakes.

While many earthquakes do happen at the borders of plates, there are faults that cross plates in many locations. A fault or crack in the plate can occur anywhere. The cause does need to be need to be large faults such as the San Andreas Fault in California. The energy of earthquakes moves away from the focus in all directions. While some of the waves occur on the surface, other waves of energy move through the planet at very deep levels. The large earthquake that triggered the tsunami of 2004 sent waves of energy through much of the planet. Many earthquakes happen because of stress on local areas of rock. When the stress builds to a level that is too high, the rock gives way, snaps, and breaks. That break is the origin or focus of the earthquake. Another cause of earthquakes can be volcanoes. They pack a lot of energy and sometimes flow around existing fault lines such as the Ring of Fire. There is scientific debate about whether natural gas exploration is causing local small quakes as energy companies drill deep into the Earth.

Surface vs. Body Waves

Imagine you're sitting on your couch when an earthquake hits. You panic and run around aimlessly for a while before getting control of yourself and hide underneath the kitchen table. But, if you were calmer and could feel how the ground was moving, you might notice some changes in the earthquake over time. This is because an earthquake contains a mixture of many types of waves.

One way of categorizing the many waves that are involved in an earthquake is to separate surface waves and body waves. Surface waves are exactly what they sound like. They move along the surface of the earth. Body waves, on the other hand, go through the earth's interior.

P-Waves vs. S-Waves

There are two main types of body waves: the primary wave and the secondary wave.

When an earthquake hits, the first thing you feel is the primary wave (P-wave). The primary wave moves faster, and therefore, arrives at a particular location first, which is why it is called the primary wave. It is a longitudinal wave, which means that it vibrates the ground parallel to the direction in which it is moving. You can think of it as shaking the ground up and down or side to side. Because of this, it tends to cause the least damage of any of the types of seismic waves.

Just when you think it's safe to come out from under your table, the secondary wave (S-wave) hits! Unlike the primary wave, this one is transverse, which means that the vibration is at 90 degrees to the direction the wave is moving. You can think of this as a ripple in the ground. This motion is much more dangerous to buildings, and therefore humans, because it moves the ground in a variety of directions at once and can cause it to split apart.

Rayleigh vs. Love Waves

Just as the secondary wave (and your heart rate) starts to calm down, things get even worse! When the P-Waves and S-Waves hit the surface of the earth, they can interact in such a way as to produce surface waves. These are more dangerous than either of the body waves, because they run right along the surface, where we humans live.

Rayleigh waves (or Lamb waves) are one kind of surface wave. They radiate outwards from the epicenter (or source) of the earthquake like ripples on a pond. Although they're slower than either P-waves or S-waves, they have large amplitudes, and that full amplitude is focused on the surface of the earth. This is why they cause more damage.

Love waves are the most dangerous of all kinds of seismic waves. They are faster than Rayleigh waves and even larger in amplitude. They move in a similar way to Rayleigh waves but are shearing waves, which means that they cause the earth to move rapidly in different directions, causing splits and making buildings and bridges collapse.

KEY IDEAS:

Earthquake waves are waves in the earth that carry large amounts of energy. There are four main types of earthquake waves: P-wavesand S-waves (which are body waves), and Rayleigh waves and Love waves (which are surface waves). Love waves tend to cause the most damage due to their large amplitude and P-waves the least, but P-waves are the first to arrive.

MORE EARTHQUAKE VIDEO


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZA2YGFjsJU4


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSeO_tHNn-I


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlwZzbGh7Cw


https://nocciolini.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/mexico-nikon-2010-069.jpg






https://www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/cms/lib/NC01001395/Centricity/Domain/7110/Seismic%20Waves%20and%20Earths%20Interior%20PPT.pdf

https://www.exploratorium.edu/faultline/basics/images/rayleighlove_lrg.gif



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EA7iZPymiQM




CLASS SESSION 19 Tuesday, 10/17 TWIN and Wednesday, 10/18 WACKY TACKY

SLINKY WAVES LAB

SAFETY NOTE - DO NOT LET GO OF THE SPRING UNTIL IT IS NOT MOVING - THERE IS A LOT OF FORCE IN THE SPRING WHEN IT IS IN MOTION!

Part 1 Using the spring - model a transverse wave

Measure the wavelength

Calculate speed of the wave

Note:

Wavespeed - distance a wave travels in a given amount of time

Wavespeed can also be calculated by the formula wavelength * frequency

Frequency is the number of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time


Part 2 Model a compression wave in one direction

Then model a compression/ longitudinal wave from two directions

What is the difference?



Next Activity

FINISHING THE EM SPECTRUM DIAGRAM

How EMS Waves are produced:

Gamma-rays are produced by neutron stars and pulsars, supernova explosions, and regions around black holes. On Earth, gamma waves are generated by nuclear explosions, lightning, and the less dramatic activity of radioactive decay.

X-rays are produced when electrons, traveling at high speed, collide with matter or change direction.

Ultraviolet radiation is produced by high-temperature surfaces, such as the Sun, in a continuous spectrum or by atomic excitation in a gaseous discharge tube as a discrete spectrum of wavelengths.

Visible light is created by electrons within atoms in an excited state returning to the ground state (a lower energy configuration).

Infrared - When an object is not quite hot enough to radiate visible light, it will emit most of its energy in the infrared. For example, hot charcoal may not give off light but it does emit infrared radiation which we feel as heat. The warmer the object, the more infrared radiation it emits.

Microwaves are basically extremely high frequency radio waves, and are made by various types of transmitter. In a mobile phone, they're made by a transmitter chip and an antenna, in a microwave oven they're made by a "magnetron". Their wavelength is usually a couple of centimeters.

Radio waves are generated by electric charges undergoing acceleration, such as time varying electric currents. Naturally occurring radio waves are emitted by lightning and astronomical objects. Radio waves are generated artificially by transmitters and received by radio receivers, using antennas.

Video Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cfXzwh3KadE


QUIZ - EM SPECTRUM



CLASS SESSION 18 Friday, 10/12 and Monday, 10/15 (SUPER HERO DAY!)

Home Learning: If you did not finish Edgenuity Lesson 7.10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation - Vocabulary, Direct Instruction, Journal, Practice & Quiz finish it at home by 10/17

1) WAVE Competition


2) Good Vibrations Mini-Lab

Compare the sounds made by gently flicking different items: a skewer, a wooden ruler and a plastic ruler

Does the sound change based on how far the object is held on the table or over the edge of the table?

Write up your observations of the sounds and vibrations in a table.



3) Copy and complete this table with information such as: the range of wavelength, how it is produced, and how is it used


TYPE OF WAVE CHARACTERISTICS


Radio Wave

Microwave

Infrared wave

Light

Ultraviolet wave

X-Rays

Gamma Rays



https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum1.html


https://www.siyavula.com/read/science/grade-10/electromagnetic-radiation/11-electromagnetic-radiation-03


http://www2.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/ALSTool/EMSpec/EMSpec2.html


Pinhole Camera- https://learning-center.homesciencetools.com/article/how-to-make-a-pinhole-camera-science-project/

CLASS SESSION 17 Wednesday, 10/10 Thursday, 10/11

Computer Lab - Edgenuity Electromagnetic Spectrum

Edgenuity Lesson 7.10.1 Electromagnetic Radiation - Vocabulary, Direct Instruction, Journal, Practice & Quiz


CLASS SESSION 16 Monday, 10/8 and Tuesday, 10/9

Worksheets - WAVE PROPERTIES

WAVE - a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another without transferring matter

AMPLITUDE – is the maximum distance that the wave moves from its rest position

Higher amplitude =higher energy

WAVELENGTH – the distance from one point on a wave to the same point on the next wave

FREQUENCY – is the number of wavelengths that pass by a point each second

Frequency and wavelength are related. The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength.

To calculate frequency divide the number of wavelengths by the time

Hertz is the unit of frequency , it is the same as 1/s

Corrections to HW p.312 - 316- 318 - 319 - 320

Final Science Project Contract!


CLASS SESSION 15 Thursday, 10/4 and Friday, 10/5

Notes: Types of Mechanical Waves

On to LABS...

Lab Activity Gummy Bear Wave Machine

Objective:

Build a wave machine that demonstrates various wave phenomena. Observe and record wave motion as wave characteristics are altered.

Materials:

Painters tape, scotch tape, bamboo skewers, gum drops/gummy bears/jelly babies, ring stand , rulers, meter sticks

Guidelines:

  • Always stop all waves on the machine prior to making the next set of observations.
  • A wave pulse is a single burst of energy.
  • A periodic wave is generated from repeated motion at a regular time interval (period).
  • While your Wave Machine is on the table check that all of the skewers are lined up parallel and are as even as possible on both sides of the tape.
  • Test the observations with two students holding the machine first - then test using the ring stand.
  • Record your answers as you test!

Observations

1. Send a pulse down your wave machine by gently lifting a jelly baby up and pushing it down.

What moves through the machine, energy or the jelly babies? How do you see the energy moving?

2. Time how long it takes for the wave to move from one end of the machine to the other. Three students should be timing. Repeat for 3 trials. Find the average time. Measure the length of the machine (in m, to the nearest cm) and determine the velocity of the wave. (v = d/t)

3. Repeat steps one and two with a different amplitude (lift the jelly baby higher or not as high). How is the wave different? Does amplitude affect the velocity of the wave ? Time it to find out!

4. a. What kind of wave have you been making in your machine? Explain.

5. What happens to the wave when it reaches the other end of the machine?

6. Generate a periodic wave on your wave machine. Alter the frequency of the periodic wave. Can you find a frequency that generates a repeating wave pattern? Describe the pattern. How many waves do you see?

7. What happens to your wave pattern if you increase the frequency of the wave? How many waves do you see now?

8. Make a statement about the relationship between how changing the frequency changes the wavelength of a wave.

Analysis Questions:

1. At one end of the wave machine, lift one jelly baby up and let go. Record your observations. From your observation, finish the following sentence: Waves transmit not .

2. Repeat step one with a different amplitude (lift the jelly baby higher or not as high). How is the wave different? Does the wave move down to the other end faster? (Time it!)

3. What happens if you start a periodic wave rather than a pulse?

4. What was the spacing on your wave machine? What kind of gummy did you use?

5. Find another wave machine with the same spacing, but different gummies on the end. Send a wave pulse down the machine. How is the wave different than yours?

6. Find another wave machine with a different spacing, but the same gummies as yours. How does the wave pulse on the other machine differ than yours?






CLASS SESSION 14 Friday, 9/28 Monday 10/1

INTRO TO WAVES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JppViH


GUMMI BEAR WAVES https://www.flinnsci.com/api/library/Download/302eb8450d264a99b0e72b14bcff9994

Home Learning Text p.307-320 DUE A Days - Oct 4 B Days Oct. 5

Read pages 307-320 Complete the work on pages -312 -316 -318 -319- 320





CLASS SESSION 13 Wednesday, 9/26 and Thursday 9/27

UNIT TEST 1- ENERGY


CLASS SESSION 12 Monday, 9/24 and Tuesday, 9/25

Review for UNIT 1 TEST

POWERPOINT STUDY GUIDE FOR UNIT TEST

IF YOU CANT OPEN THE ABOVE USE THIS ONE:



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfQwE168Jes


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnPEtwQtmGQ




CLASS SESSION 11 Thursday 9/20 and Friday 9/21

Using the Engineering Design Process and energy transformations to construct a Rube Goldberg Contraption

Constraints

1) You will start off the the first step (add energy) but the team is hands-off until the defined task is accomplished.

2) Use all materials supplied

3) Use only materials supplied

4) make the most number of steps (energy transformations) possible to accomplish a defined task

5) make the most different kinds of ways energy is transferred

6) successfully accomplish the defined task

TO THE DRAWING BOARD!

Home Learning:

Finish writing up how you completed the Rube Goldberg Contraption Challenge as an ENGINEER

The steps to the Engineering Design Process are:

  • Define the problem in terms of the constraints
  • How did the research (Example video of a contraption) help?
  • How many different solutions did the team come up with? How many were successful?
  • How did you define success or pick the best solution?
  • How did you build the model (prototype)?
  • How did you test the model (prototype)?
  • How many times did you go back and modify a part of the prototype before you had a final best version?
  • Draw a simple layout of your Contraption from start to finish.



CLASS SESSION 10 Monday 9/17 & Tuesday 9/18

Review Homework p.275 -278

TEMPLATE FOR MINI POSTER on ENERGY & CHANGES IN MATTER ( Text p.258-267 Chapter 6 Lesson 2)


The Law of Conservation of Energy

(Write the definition below)

Energy Transfer - (definition)

Energy Transformation - (Definition also add this sentence after the definition " Energy transformations are inefficient because not all of the energy transferred is useable."

Work - (definition and formula)


OPEN SYSTEM CLOSED SYSTEM

(Definition) (Definition)


ENERGY RESOURCES

Non-Renewable Renewable

(List 5) (List 5)


QUIZ 2

HINT ABOUT NEXT CLASS...

https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/best-rube-goldberg-machines/

https://pbiscyberpd.org/welcomefiles/storylines/ene_storyline_full.pdf


CLASS SESSION 9 Thursday 9/13 & Friday 9/14


HOME LEARNING : TEXT Pages 275-284 due next class! Do not complete page 281

On page 275 - Use the Observation Lab we did adding HOT water of one color to another glass of different colored COLD water to answer the questions.

Difference Between Conduction, Convection and Radiation

Conduction is the transfer of heat energy by direct contact

Conduction occurs when two objects at different temperatures are in contact with each other. Heat flows from the warmer to the cooler object until they are both at the same temperature.

Conduction is the movement of heat through a substance by the collision of molecules. At the place where the two objects touch, the faster-moving molecules of the warmer object collide with the slower moving molecules of the cooler object. As they collide, the faster molecules give up some of their energy to the slower molecules. The slower molecules gain more thermal energy and collide with other molecules in the cooler object. This process continues until heat energy from the warmer object spreads throughout the cooler object.

Some substances conduct heat more easily than others. Solids are better conductors than liquids and liquids are better conductor than gases. Metals are very good conductors of heat, while air is very poor conductor of heat.

EXAMPLE: You experience heat transfer by conduction whenever you touch something that is hotter or colder than your skin e.g. when you wash your hands in warm or cold water.






Convection is the movement of heat in gas or liquid (fluids) in cycles.

In liquids and gases, convection is usually the most efficient way to transfer heat.

Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. As this happens, cooler liquid or gas takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This cycle results in a continuous circulation pattern and heat is transferred to cooler areas.

MINI LAB: CONVECTION CURRENT

(Examples of convection currents on Earth https://physics.info/convection/







Radiation is the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves.

Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object.

EXAMPLE: We feel heat from the sun even though we are not touching it.

Heat can be transmitted though empty space by thermal radiation. Thermal radiation (also infrared radiation) is a type of electromagnetic radiation (or light).

Radiation is a form of energy transport consisting of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light. No mass is exchanged and no medium (matter in the form of gas, liquid or solid) is required.

Objects emit radiation when high energy electrons in a higher atomic level fall down to lower energy levels. The energy lost is emitted as light or electromagnetic radiation.


SEE DIAGRAMS BELOW IN IMAGES LIBRARY



WORKING WITH DRY ICE

Dry Ice is frozen carbon dioxide, a normal part of our earth's atmosphere. It is the gas that we exhale during breathing and the gas that plants use in photosynthesis. It is also the same gas commonly added to water to make soda water. This gas is often captured during industrial processes and recycled to make Dry Ice.

Dry Ice is particularly useful for freezing, and keeping things frozen because of its very cold temperature: -109.3°F or -78.5°C. Dry Ice is widely used because it is simple to freeze and easy to handle using insulated gloves. Dry Ice changes directly from a solid to a gas -sublimation- in normal atmospheric conditions without going through a wet liquid stage. Therefore it gets the name "dry ice."

As a general rule, Dry Ice will sublimate at a rate of five to ten pounds every 24 hours in a typical ice chest. This sublimation continues from the time of purchase; therefore, pick up Dry Ice as close to the time needed as possible. Bring an ice chest or some other insulated container to hold the Dry Ice and slow the sublimation rate. Dry Ice sublimates faster than regular ice melts but will extend the life of regular ice. The gas CO2 is heavier than air.

https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/lake-nyos.htm



DEMONSTRATION OF SUBLIMATION & DEPOSITION



CLASS SESSION 8 Tuesday 9/11 & Wednesday 9/12

(Picture Day Interruptions & No A/C!!!)

Review & Make Corrections to QUIZ 1

ENERGY Puzzle

Finish Rubber Band Launcher Lab

Homework: No HW for students that have completed & handed in text pages - 243-254 completed.

If you have not completed these assignments next class will be your last chance to make up this work!


CLASS SESSION 7 Thursday, 9/6 & Friday, 9/7

QUIZ - Based on Tutorial HW Thermal Energy, Temperature & Heat

Check HW TEXT pages 244-247

Complete Graphic Organizer using TEXT pages 248 -250

Review steps to complete Rubber Band Launcher Lab

Collect results in Data Table - complete Analysis & Conclusion of Lab

Home Learning:

  • Text p.252 -254 Answer questions based on information in pages 244-250


NOTES:

Work is done upon an object whenever a force acts upon it to cause it to be displaced.

Work involves a force acting upon an object to cause a displacement.

In all instances in which work is done, there is something that supplies the force in order to do the work.

If a World Civilization book is lifted to the top shelf of a student locker, then the student supplies the force to do the work on the book.

If a plow is displaced across a field, then a tractor or supplies the force to do the work on the plow.

If a pitcher winds up and accelerates a baseball towards home plate, then the pitcher supplies the force to do the work on the baseball.

If a roller coaster car is displaced from ground level to the top of the first drop of a roller coaster ride, then a chain driven by a motor supplies the force to do the work on the car.

If a barbell is displaced from ground level to a height above a weightlifter's head, then the weightlifter is supplying a force to do work on the barbell.

In all instances, an object that possesses some form of energy supplies the force to do the work.

In the instances described here, the objects doing the work (a student, a tractor, a pitcher, a motor/chain) possess chemical potential energy stored in food or fuel that is transformed into work.

In the process of doing work, the object that is doing the work exchanges energy with the object upon which the work is done.

When the work is done upon the object, that object gains energy.

The energy acquired by the objects upon which work is done is known as mechanical energy.

Mechanical energy is the energy that is possessed by an object due to its motion or due to its position.

Mechanical energy can be either kinetic energy (energy of motion) or potential energy (stored energy of position).

Objects have mechanical energy if they are in motion and/or if they are at some position relative to a zero potential energy position (for example, a brick held at a vertical position above the ground or zero height position).

A moving car possesses mechanical energy due to its motion (kinetic energy).

A moving baseball possesses mechanical energy due to both its high speed (kinetic energy) and its vertical position above the ground (gravitational potential energy).

A World Civilization book at rest on the top shelf of a locker possesses mechanical energy due to its vertical position above the ground (gravitational potential energy).

A barbell lifted high above a weightlifter's head possesses mechanical energy due to its vertical position above the ground (gravitational potential energy).

A drawn bow possesses mechanical energy due to its stretched position (elastic potential energy).

(From The Physics Handbook website)


CLASS SESSION 6 Tuesday 9/4 & Wednesday 9/5

TEAMWORK LAB - Measuring the effect of launch altitude on the kinetic energy of a rubber band

Suggested altitudes 30 60 90

Criteria Working in a TEAM and accurate completion of the Lab Report according to the template.

HOME LEARNING:

Next class bring in pages 243 -250 You should read, highlight and complete all activities on pages 244 -247

We will use pages 248-250 in class after grading the homework.

https://connected.mcgraw-hill.com/media/repository/protected_content/COMPOUND/50000022/46/76/Potential%20Energy/potientialenergy.html?mghCourseID=32PF3GDTE3S7MZ3C7BCNOL7OT1


https://connected.mcgraw-hill.com/media/repository/protected_content/COMPOUND/50000022/46/78/Kinetic%20Energy/kineticenergy.html?mghCourseID=32PF3GDTE3S7MZ3C7BCNOL7OT1


CLASS SESSION 5 Thursday 8/30 & Friday 8/31

Complete Pre-TEST

Review - Heat, Thermal Energy, & Temperature

CLASS SESSION 4 Tuesday 8/28 and Wednesday 8/29

Seventh Grade Benchmark PRE-TEST

Video & Notes ENERGY - Heat, Thermal Energy and Temperature

HOME LEARNING FOR THIS WEEK IS:

This tutorial should be completed by September 6th


CLASS SESSION 3 Friday & Monday, August 23 & 24


Scientific Processes & Engineering Design

1. Create template in your Science Journal for Lab Reports

TITLE

PROBLEM STATEMENT:

BACKGROUND/ RESEARCH:

HYPOTHESIS: IF ______ THEN _______

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Variables & Controls:

Materials:

Procedures:

DATA:

ANALYSIS:

CONCLUSION:

=============================================================================

2. Start our lab activity - Making a Whirlygig - Which size will most accurately hit a target?

Why does a Whirlygig fly? As it falls, air pushes up against the blades, bending them up just a little. When air pushes upward on the slanted blade, some of that thrust becomes a sideways, or horizontal, push.

Why doesn't it simply move sideways through the air? That's because there are two blades, each getting the same push, but in opposite directions. The two opposing thrusts work together to cause the toy to spin.


You have two sizes of templates - each partner will make 1 tall and 1 small model

Next we will write the start of the lab from Title to Analysis

Your data charts will look like this:

Accuracy of Tall and Small Whirlygig Models

Points

T S T S

Trial 1 Trial 2

To collect data we will launch the models at the targets -

The circle is the target area and the bowl is the bull's-eye. Take turns standing on a chair at the edge of the newspaper and dropping your Roto-Copters.

Scoring = 3 points for a bull's-eye, 2 points for landing inside the circle, and one point for just hitting the newspaper.

Once all data has been gathered - Combine your data into a graph that includes the results of everyone at your table - This should be a bar graph of the total number of points earned for Tall and Small Whirlygigs at your table. This will be your ANALYSIS


For our CONCLUSION we will use the CLAIM-EVIDENCE-REASONING (CER) format.

In our hypothesis we made the claim the _________model would be more accurate. After repeated trials the evidence we collected showed that _________________________. The reason why our results were ___________ could be affected by the way we launched the models, the quality of the construction of the models and

HOME LEARNING FOR THIS WEEK IS:

This tutorial should be completed by September 7th


CLASS SESSION 2 Wednesday & Thursday, August 21 & 22

Materials Check - Do you have your composition notebook for labs?

Please write the Experimental Design Diagram in the first page of your Lab book.

Activity 1 - Balloons Observation

With your group partially blow up and tie off your group's balloon (one person please!) then pass the balloon around a gently squeeze and observe the balloons properties.

Activity 2 - Temperature Changes Everything Demonstration Lab

Refer to vocabulary on the lab sheet.

Complete lab worksheet

HOME LEARNING FOR THIS WEEK IS:

This tutorial should be completed by September 7th


CLASS SESSION 1 Monday & Tuesday

Welcome Back!

Our first activity is making a foldable so that I can get to know you:

PAGE 1

NAME

DADESCHOOLS EMAIL

ACADEMIC STRENGTHS

ACADEMIC WEAKNESS

HIGH SCHOOLS YOU WILL BE APPLYING TO

COLLEGES THAT INTEREST YOU

CAREERS THAT INTEREST YOU

PAGE 2

WHAT ARE YOUR INTERESTS?

WHAT DO YOU LIKE TO DO?

HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT TECHNOLOGY?

HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT YOUR PHONE?

PAGE 3

MOST IMPORTANT THINGS FOR A GREAT CLASS ARE:

THINGS THAT MAKE A CLASS SOMETHING I WANT TO STAY HOME TO AVOID:

PAGE 4

LEARNING STYLES INVENTORY

https://www.gadoe.org/Curriculum-Instruction-and-Assessment/Special-Education-Services/Documents/IDEAS%202014%20Handouts/LearningStyleInventory.pd

Now let's do some science!

"FEEL THE HEAT"

HEAT

https://mdcpsportalcollaboration.dadeschools.net/pacingguides/Middle/Science/r_Formative%20Assessment%20Probes%20NSTA/Vol1/UncoveringV1-ch15-Objects_and_Temperature.pdf

https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/info_activities/pdfs/LA_heat_temperature_and_conduction.pdf

HOME LEARNING FOR THIS WEEK IS:

This tutorial should be completed by September 7th