Studii şi cercetări
Apostu Iulian, 2016, Postmodernity and the Solidarity Dilemma – a Challenge for the Contemporary Couple in Postmodern Openings, 7(2), p. 9 – 12, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/po/2016.0702.01
Abstract: The analysis of the existing social researches in the field of conjugal couple shows that the contemporary social mentality still values solidarity as being an important value for the conjugal functionality. However, the increasingly frequent social tendencies show that solidarity alters more and more into becoming a type of solidarity “of the other towards myself”. It gets consistency up to the extent in which it is attributed to the other, not to one’s self. Therefore, from an individualist perspective, solidarity appears ement understood as being the other’s moral responsibility. This new orientation tends to reconceptualize solidarity which is being pertained the very fusional aspects in favour of those related to the personal ideal. The reason to stay together no longer involves solidarity of purposes or mutual ideals, the partner becomes means of resource for fulfilling the personal ideals and the coherence of the new solidary orientations derives from the extent to which the other also fulfills his individual ideals through his partner. Thus, solidarity is no longer substantiated by commonly developed and fulfilled values, but it emerges as a consequence of individual fulfillment through the other. This article aims to present a possible theoretical explanation of social mentalities that could explain functionality through a structural reconfiguration of solidarity.
Keywords: solidarity; conjugal individualism; conjugality; conjugal values; postmodernity.
Apostu Iulian, 2016, The two dimensions of infidelity in Postmodern Openings, 7(2), p. 167 – 178, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18662/po/2016.0702.11
Abstract: An objective assessment of a conjugal relationship should measure the level of satisfaction of each partner, so that the happiness produced by such a partnership to be equal for both of them. Also, in a relationship, guilt doesn’t have to be sought in one of the partners, or in a final effect, but in the context of factors that generated it. However, conjugal postmodernity shows that the tendencies of partners’ orientation are more obviously guided by conjugal individualism, which marks another stage in the development of the relationships between genders, but also in the type of functional relationship. The partners tend to see the other as a resource for individual fulfilment, and their fusion no longer gives priority to solidarity, but to the personal need for selfaccomplishment through the other. They pretend from each other more than they are willing to offer themselves in a conjugal relationship, and all these new orientations seem to outline more obviously the postmodern structure of the conjugal individualism. Therefore, from an appreciative perspective, individualism appears, either in a client centred approach, or in an approach centred on task, both models being tributary to the model of deconstruction that underlies postmodernity. The individual and its actions matter more than the social and moral norms of the society, and the individual’s dysfunctionality in report with the exterior norm is correlated with the more evident inconsistency of the systems to which they belong (Sandu, 2015, p. 185). The negative individualism is easy to explain conceptually. It is gradually being extracted from the moral norm of the majority, and it transcends the idea of solidarity; the personal ideal becomes norm for the other, and the solidarity towards the other quickly turns into a type of self-solidarity. The positive individualism is appreciated in a certain scientific community due to the sincerity of the partner in asking what he wishes from a conjugal relationship, but the impact of this “sincerity” can only have an individualist effect, not one that would lead to fusion. This is because the other’s solidarity with “myself” ensures my security, while my solidarity to myself ensures my self-accomplishment. Thus, all the conjugal values have a double value, based on the type of evaluation: evaluation of own actions or evaluation of the partner’s actions. My fidelity must be contextually appreciated, with fluctuations based on the circumstances of life, while fidelity of the other must be seen as an inflexible moral norm. In this regard, the very concepts of fidelity/infidelity acquire double value, based on the type of reporting: towards self or towards the other.
Keywords: fidelity; infidelity; conjugal modernity; conjugal postmodernity
Apostu Iulian, 2017, Female management – between motherhod and career in Ecoforum Journal, vol. 6, 1(10)/2017
Abstract: The current data about the marital relations indicate with a substantial share in all the existing statistics that the partners are assessed with modern structures. They speak of equality, fairness as regarding the tasks, the gender attitudes and the functional system. However, the same social data reveals that between the declaration and the practical fact there are often obvious differences. The same relevance and has the historical data indicating that in 1866 Romania, the Constitution of the Kingdom attested the equal rights of all Romanians, though, from the legal authentication of this law until the assimilation of the social equity a lot of time has passed. However, the social inequities are still visible in each social structure and the idea of gender equity melts into a set of roles that show, of course, in a diminished form, functional elements of a traditional marriage. Today, most times, the woman’s desire to assert socially and professionally has a cost – the role overcrowding. Women take care about their career but do not neglect the classic set of spousal role, which often places them in a position to choose between career and family. Moreover, the childbirth becomes an even greater challenge as the decision for the pregnancy must be accompanied by a decision for a career break. This is also becoming a challenge in itself given that the child dependency on their mother and the career break make the reintegration of women in the professional environment increasingly difficult. Based on a qualitative analysis, the study aims to analyze how women manage to build their own balance between career and family by organizing the functional way of restructuring family activities in relation to their career. Also, it aims to identify the impact that the women’s return to work after the maternity leave produces upon the family.
Keywords: role equity; role inequity; marriage functionality; woman career; maternity.
Apostu Iulian, 2017, The Social Construction of the Image of Mother-in-law – the Perspective of the Daughters-in-law, in International Scientific Electronic Journal, vol.2, nr. 96, 2017, ISSN 2307-2334
Abstract: Very often, the stereotyped image of a phenomenon generates effects by itself. The individuals are poorly evaluated by a formal assessment based on cliches, labels and stereotipes, their effect being the risk of producing relational jams, even before the existence of a relationship. In social relationships, blinded by the wide legitimacy of stereotypes, the individuals tend to show attraction or rejection towards a certain state, or even person, based on the set of socially associated cliches. In this regard, the access to a person appears to be intermediated by the cliche image a certain person or community attributes it, fact which may insurmontably affect the direct and objective relationship with the other. Today, the isue of in-laws and the way they understand to support the young family has many valences: there are young people who accept the in-laws co-participation in the role dynamic of the young couple, others consider any form of external intervention of the in-laws to be an abuse, as well as there are a wide range of in-laws ideologies regarding their „natural duty” to manage the conjugal relationships of their own children. The research is based oh Thomas’ theory (1982) which states that when people consider a situation to be real, it becomes real through its consequences. Our study aims to analyse the image of the mother-in-law in the eyes of the daughter-in-law, based on a quantitative research, the method used being the sociological inquiry and the research instrument – the survey. The study was conducted on a sample of 200 women with conjugal experience of at least 3 years, 100 being unmarried and 100 – married. The unmarried women were selected from the age group between 25 and 29 years old, being the age category before the marital peak, and the married women from the age category comprising the tip of mariage, namely between 30 and 40 years old.
Keywords: stereotype, mother-in-law, daughters-in-law, communication, conflict