James D. Grayot

I'm a postdoctoral research fellow in the Mind, Language & Action Group (MLAG) of the Instituto de Filosofia, Universidade do Porto.

I've held visiting fellowships at the Tilburg Center for Moral Psychology, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science (TiLPS) (Tilburg University) and at the Center for Research in Experimental and Applied Epistemology (CRESA) (Vita Salute San Raffaele University).

I've taught courses at universities across Europe and the US, including Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Leiden University, University of Groningen, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rutgers State University, and San Jose State University.

I completed my PhD at the Erasmus Institute for Philosophy and Economics (EIPE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

You can contact me at: james [dot] grayot [at] gmail [dot] com


  • Philosophy of economics and behavioral science. I investigate the epistemic aims and explanatory power of decision models in behavioral economics, experimental psychology, and neuroeconomics. Among other things, my aim is to clarify how cognitive-psychological theories and neuroscientific evidence interact in the study of decision-making.

  • Philosophy of mind and cognitive science. I investigate whether and how theories of E-cognition (especially embodied and extended cognition) can explain ‘higher’ cognitive activities, like strategic reasoning, decision-making, and problem solving. My aim is to develop a philosophical framework that can synthesize non-representational accounts of cognition (such as dynamical and ecological cognition) with computational and representational models of the mind.

Click here to read an interview about my research in the Erasmus Magazine.



  • "How Can Embodied Cognition Naturalize Bounded Rationality?" (w/ Enrico Petracca) (under review)

  • "Representation-hungry Cognition: Reformulating the Explanatory 'Problem-Domain'" (under review)

  • "The Problem of Instrumentalized Knowledge" (w/ Job Siegmann) (under review)

  • Taming Uncertainty: Review of Hertwig, Pleskac, and Pachur (2019). Erasmus Journal for Philosophy & Economics. 15, 2. 2022. https://doi.org/10.23941/ejpe.v15i2.703

  • From Philosophy to Anesthesiology and Back: An Interdisciplinary Reflection on the Neural Correlates of State Consciousness (co-authored with Hjalmar Hansen). Biology & Philosophy 37, 3. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10539-021-09832-z






  • Neural Networks, Real Patterns, and the Mathematics of Constrained Optimization: An Interview with Don Ross. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, 9(1), pp.142-155. 2016. https://doi.org/10.23941/ejpe.v9i1.224


  • "Dual Process Theory and the Challenges of Functional Individuation (w/ Lukas Beck and Thijs Heijmeskamp) (completed)

  • “Two Problems With the Mentalism-Behaviorism Dichotomy in Economics” (completed)

  • "Experimenting with Risky Choices: A Dynamical Systems Perspective" (w/ Ralf Cox) (in progress)

  • "Disambiguating Dynamical Systems in Human Decision-Making" (in progress)

  • "Representing Value in Neuroeconomics” (in progress)



  • "On the Supposed Explanatory Power of Dual Process Theory" (w/ Lukas Beck and Thijs Heijmeskamp). Annual Conference for the Nederlandse Onderzoeksschool Wijsbegeerte (OZSW): Tilburg University (Dec 4).

  • "Practical Skepticism About Mental Representation in the Decision Sciences." Center for Research in Experimental and Applied Epistemology (CRESA) (May 5).

  • “Why Cognition Matters for Contemporary Decision Research.” Applied Cognitive Psychology: From lab to the field: Panteion (Athens) University of Social and Political Sciences (April 13).

  • “New Functionalism and the Social and Behavioral Sciences” (with Lukas Beck). ANPOSS/ENPOSS/ POSS-RT 2021: University of Tokyo (March 7).


  • “Strategic Reasoning, Decision Making, and the Anti-Representationalist Agenda: Methodological Considerations for Scaling-Up E-Cognition.” Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science (Dec 10).

  • “Imagination and the Anti-representationalist Agenda.” Pretend play and E-cognition: University of Antwerp, Center for Philosophical Psychology (Sept 19-21).

  • “Improving Decision Models: Enlightened Bayesianism meets Computational Cognition.” Economic Behaviors: Models, Measurements, and Policies: Como School for Advanced Studies (June 30-July 5).

  • “Enlightened Bayesianism meets Computational Cognition.” From Brain to Behavior - Neuroscience and the Social Sciences: IMT Lucca School for Advanced Study (May 22-24).


  • “From Selves to Systems: on the Refinement and Integration of Dualistic Models of Rational Choice.” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Behavioral Economics Workshop: University of Helsinki (May 22-23).

  • “Cognitivism in Behavioral Decision Research: on the Computational Basis of Cognition.” 5th Annual Nordic Network for Philosophy of Science: University of Copenhagen (Apr 20-21).


  • “The Quasi-Economic Agency of Human Selves.” Graduate Conference in Philosophy of Science: University of Antwerp (Sept 14).

  • “Folk Psychology and the Human Socio-Cognitive Syndrome”. 2nd Conference for the Intl. Association for Cognitive Semiotics: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (June 20-22).


  • “What Are We Really Talking About When We Talk About Folk Psychology?” Annual Conference for the Nederlandse Onderzoeksschool Wijsbegeerte (OZSW): Vrije University Amsterdam (Dec 12).

  • “Minded Agents, Economic Agents, and Ordinary Folk”. Conference 12th Intl. Network for Economic Method: University of Cape Town (Nov 18-23)


Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | lecturer | 2018 - 2022

Courses completed:

    • Epistemology [two terms]

    • Philosophy of Social Science [two terms]

  • PPE in Practice (PiP 2)

Guest lectures:

  • "Time Discounting"

  • "Ethical Aspects of Climate Science" (in PiP 2).

Leiden University | lecturer | 2021

Current courses:

  • Science Methodology

University of Groningen | lecturer | 2019 – 2020

Courses completed:

  • Philosophy of Mind

  • Philosophy of Cognitive Science

  • Scientific Knowledge: Theory into Praxis

  • Philosophy of Science (Honours College) [two terms]

Rutgers State University | lecturer | 2017 - 2020

Courses completed:

  • Introduction to Formal Reasoning and Decision-Making (online) [six terms complete]

Erasmus University Rotterdam | guest lecturer | 2018

Guest lectures:

  • “Values in Science” (Philosophy of Science 2)

  • “Theory” (Philosophy of Science 1)

  • "Models" (Philosophy of Science 1)

University docent:

  • Curriculum development of “Philosophy of Science 3”

Erasmus University Rotterdam | tutorial instructor | 2015 – 2018


  • Philosophy of Economics [14 tutorials]

San Jose State University | lecturer | 2011

Courses completed:

  • Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking [two terms]


Academic Refereeing

  • Psychological Review

  • Journal of Economic Methodology

  • Journal of Value Inquiry

  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

  • Diametros

  • Erasmus Journal of Philosophy & Economics

Book Review Editor | 2022 - present

  • Journal of Economic Methodology

Copy Editor / English Proofreader | 2013 - present

  • Erasmus Journal of Philosophy & Economics. Over 100 articles copy-edited.

PhD Council representative | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2016 – 2017

  • Representative for the Erasmus Graduate School of Social Sciences and Humanities (EGS3H).

EIPE Research Assistant | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2013 – 2014

  • Assistant for Dr. Conrad Heilmann, co-director of Erasmus Institute for Philosophy & Economics.

EIPE Student Representative | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2013 – 2014

  • Organizer and liaison for research master student affairs within the department of theoretical philosophy.