James D. Grayot

philosophy of economics | philosophy of cognitive science | philosophy of mind

I'm a lecturer at Leiden University (Institute for Philosophy) and research associate at the University of Groningen (Department of Theoretical Philosophy). I've also taught courses at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (PPE programme) and Rutgers State University (Department of Philosophy).

In Fall 2019, I was a visiting fellow at the Tilburg Center for Moral Philosophy, Epistemology and Philosophy of Science (TiLPS) at Tilburg University. In Spring 2021, I started a research visit at the Center for Research in Experimental and Applied Epistemology (CRESA), at San Raffaele University, Milan.

I completed my PhD at the Erasmus Institute for Philosophy and Economics (EIPE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam under the supervision of Jack Vromen and Conrad Heilmann.

You can contact me at: james.grayot@gmail.com


My research has two streams:

  • Philosophy of economics and behavioral science. I investigate the epistemic aims and explanatory power of contemporary decision models in behavioral economics, experimental psychology, and neuroeconomics. Among others things, my aim is to clarify the respective roles that psychological theories (including folk theories) and neuroscientific evidence play in the study of decision-making.

  • Philosophy of mind and cognitive science. I investigate whether and how theories of E-cognition (especially embodied and extended cognition) can explain ‘higher’ cognitive activities, like strategic reasoning, decision-making, and problem solving, among other complex forms of thinking. My aim is to develop a philosophical framework that can reconcile and synthesize non-representational models of cognition (e.g., dynamical systems theory) with traditional computational and representational models of the mind.

Click here to read an interview about my research in the Erasmus Magazine.



  • New Functionalism and the Social and Behavioral Sciences (co-authored with Lukas Beck). European Journal for Philosophy of Science. Accepted.

  • From Philosophy to Anesthesiology and Back: An Interdisciplinary Reflection on the Neural Correlates of State Consciousness (co-authored with Hjalmar Hansen). Biology & Philosophy. Accepted.

  • Economic Agency and the Subpersonal Turn in Economics. Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. In press.





  • Neural Networks, Real Patterns, and the Mathematics of Constrained Optimization: An Interview with Don Ross. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, 9(1), pp.142-155. 2016. https://doi.org/10.23941/ejpe.v9i1.224

Papers under review and in progress:

  • "Getting Practical about Anti-Representationalism: Lessons from the Decision Sciences" (under review)

  • “Two Problems With the Mentalism-Behaviorism Dichotomy in Economics” (under review)

  • On the Concept of Computation in Neuroeconomics” (in progress)

  • "Disambiguating Dynamical Systems in Decision Models" (in progress)



  • "Practical Skepticism About Mental Representation in the Decision Sciences." Center for Research in Experimental and Applied Epistemology (CRESA) (May 5).

  • “Why Cognition Matters for Contemporary Decision Research.” Applied Cognitive Psychology: From lab to the field: Panteion (Athens) University of Social and Political Sciences (April 13).

  • “New Functionalism and the Social and Behavioral Sciences” (with Lukas Beck). ANPOSS/ENPOSS/ POSS-RT 2021: University of Tokyo (March 7).


  • “Strategic Reasoning, Decision Making, and the Anti-Representationalist Agenda: Methodological Considerations for Scaling-Up E-Cognition.” Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science (Dec 10).

  • “Imagination and the Anti-representationalist Agenda.” Pretend play and E-cognition: University of Antwerp, Center for Philosophical Psychology (Sept 19-21).

  • “Improving Decision Models: Enlightened Bayesianism meets Computational Cognition.” Economic Behaviors: Models, Measurements, and Policies: Como School for Advanced Studies (June 30-July 5).

  • “Enlightened Bayesianism meets Computational Cognition.” From Brain to Behavior - Neuroscience and the Social Sciences: IMT Lucca School for Advanced Study (May 22-24).


  • “From Selves to Systems: on the Refinement and Integration of Dualistic Models of Rational Choice.” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Behavioral Economics Workshop: University of Helsinki (May 22-23).

  • “Cognitivism in Behavioral Decision Research: on the Computational Basis of Cognition.” 5th Annual Nordic Network for Philosophy of Science: University of Copenhagen (Apr 20-21).


  • “The Quasi-Economic Agency of Human Selves.” Graduate Conference in Philosophy of Science: University of Antwerp (Sept 14).

  • “Folk Psychology and the Human Socio-Cognitive Syndrome”. 2nd Conference for the Intl. Association for Cognitive Semiotics: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (June 20-22).


  • “What Are We Really Talking About When We Talk About Folk Psychology?” Annual Conference for the Nederlandse Onderzoeksschool Wijsbegeerte: Vrije University Amsterdam (Dec 12).

  • “Minded Agents, Economic Agents, and Ordinary Folk”. Conference 12th Intl. Network for Economic Method: University of Cape Town (Nov 18-23)


Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | lecturer | 2018 - 2021

Current courses:

    • Epistemology

    • Philosophy of Social Science

Courses completed:

  • PPE in Practice (PiP 2)

Guest lectures:

  • "Time Discounting"

  • "Ethical Aspects of Climate Science" (in PiP 2).

University of Groningen | lecturer | 2019 – 2020

Courses completed:

  • Philosophy of Mind

  • Philosophy of Cognitive Science

  • Scientific Knowledge: Theory into Praxis

  • Philosophy of Science (Honours College) [two terms]

Rutgers State University | lecturer | 2017 - 2020

Courses completed:

  • Introduction to Formal Reasoning and Decision-Making (online) [six terms complete]

Erasmus University Rotterdam | guest lecturer | 2018

Guest lectures:

  • “Values in Science” (Philosophy of Science 2)

  • “Theory” (Philosophy of Science 1)

  • "Models" (Philosophy of Science 1)

University docent:

  • Curriculum development of “Philosophy of Science 3”

Erasmus University Rotterdam | tutorial instructor | 2015 – 2018


  • Philosophy of Economics [14 tutorials]

San Jose State University | lecturer | 2011

Courses completed:

  • Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking [two terms]


Journal of Economic Methodology

  • Referee

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

  • Referee

Erasmus Journal of Philosophy & Economics | 2013 - present

  • Copy-editor and occasional referee. Over 75 articles copy-edited.

PhD Council representative | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2016 – 2017

  • Representative for the Erasmus Graduate School of Social Sciences and Humanities (EGS3H).

EIPE Research Assistant | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2013 – 2014

  • Assistant for Dr. Conrad Heilmann, co-director of Erasmus Institute for Philosophy & Economics.

EIPE Student Representative | Erasmus University Rotterdam | 2013 – 2014

  • Organizer and liaison for research master student affairs within the department of theoretical philosophy.