Research Seminar for International Scholars in Sociology in Japan

Purpose

本会は、国際誌掲載を目指す若手研究者の相互協力を促すために開催します。日本の社会学で国際化が叫ばれて久しいですが、未だに国際誌へ投稿する研究者は多くありません。このような状況は、国際誌投稿を続けたい研究者やこれから投稿したい研究者にとって、ノウハウやピアエフェクト、そして原稿の質を高める機会の欠如をもたらしているといえます。

本会では、すでに国際誌掲載経験がある研究者やこれから投稿しようと思っている研究者を対象に、情報やノウハウの交換および原稿へのコメントを行い、掲載確率を上げることを目的としています。

Contact

Akira Igarashi (Rikkyo University) igarashi.a[at]rikkyo.ac.jp

Ryota Mugiyama (Hitotsubashi University) mugiyama[at]ier.hit-u.ac.jp

  • Please contact either of us if you would like to participate in the seminar.

  • Please check the presented papers and bring them with you to the meeting. The papers will be circulated by mailing list until about 1 week before the meeting.

Anti-harassment policy

Participants for this seminar have to agree to comply with the Anti-Harassment Policy in attending. The following Anti-Harassment Policy outlines expectations for all those who attend in meetings. Please see here (in Japanese).

13th Meeting: March 25, 2021

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Ryota Mugiyama (Hitotsubashi University)

Title

Why Does Non-regular Work Delay Marriage? A Test of Economic Independence, Job Qualities, and Opportunities to Meet in Japan

Abstract

The rise in precarious and non-regular work among high-income societies had a significant impact on change in family formation behavior. Especially in Japan, the rise in non-regular work is closely linked to fertility decline via later and less marriage. While previous studies show that non-regular work is associated with delayed marriage, little is known about what aspects of non-regular work contribute to the association. Using nationally representative panel survey data in Japan, we test the three explanations on why non-regular work is associated with delayed marriage: Economic independence, job qualities, and opportunities to meet. Employing logit models predicting transition to first marriage, we found that economic independence measured by individual income explains around 40 percent of the total difference in marriage rate between male non-regular and regular workers. For women, economic independence did not have a significant role in explaining the association. Although job qualities and opportunities to meet were significantly associated with the transition to marriage, they did not explain the effect of non-regular work both for men and women.

12th Meeting: January 28, 2021

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Akira Igarashi (Rikkyo University) and Ryota Mugiyama (Hitotsubashi University)

Title

Discrimination against immigrants in the Japanese labour market: Factorial survey approaches

Abstract

TBA

11th Meeting: November 26, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Shoki Okubo (University of Tokyo)

Title

Long-term and Heterogenous Burdens of Informal Caregiving on Health Outcomes

Abstract

The caregiver stress theory assumes that informal caregiving can involve various primary (e.g., severity of impairment of the care recipient) and secondary stressors (e.g., role captivity of the caregiver). Depending on the resources available to the caregiver, these stressors can be attributed to a variety of negative effects. Despite rich theoretical and empirical work, two questions have not been well addressed: Does the caregiver’s stress process operate over a long period of time? And is the stress process affected by the caregiver/care recipient relationship? This paper aims to identify the long-term and heterogeneous effects of informal caregiving on health outcomes. Exploiting the event study design using national representative panel data, we find that the negative effects of informal caregiving on health outcomes persist over a long period of time. We also find that the effects of informal caregiving on health varies depending on who the care recipients are. Additional analyses show that female and male caregivers experience different health consequences. This study contributes to the extension of the stress process theory by clarifying the circumstances under which informal caregiving negatively impacts health; furthermore, it suggests that gender should be taken into account when investigating informal care and its consequences, and formal caregiving support should be tailored to the each stress process of female and male caregivers.

10th Meeting: October 29, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Kwon Aram (Waseda University)

Title

The Impact of Intergenerational Mobility on Perceptions of Status and Well-being

Abstract

The present study examined the influence of intergenerational class mobility on subjective aspects in Japan. This study focused on two perceptions in particular: subjective social status, which has increased dramatically in Japan, and life satisfaction, which is one of the representative aspects of subjective well-being. To capture the mobility effects, we used the diagonal reference model, which deconstructs the origin, destination, and mobility effect, respectively. On the basis of Social Stratification and Social Mobility surveys from 1985 to 2015 for men, we confirmed the overall effects of class mobility and conducted a cohort analysis. We found that mobile members’ subjective aspects are affected mainly by their destination class, not their origin class. However, we could not find strong over and additional mobility effects on both subjective aspects. From the cohort analysis, we confirmed that even though the effects of class mobility slightly differ among cohorts, there were trends of weights of the origin, the destination class. The youngest cohort began to be less affected by their destination class than the former generation. The present study indicates that class mobility effects are similar to each perception; however, the effects are slightly different, and they change according to the socioeconomic environments.

9th Meeting: September 28, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

17:00–19:00

Presenter(s)

Sho Fujihara (University of Tokyo)

Title

Single Parenthood and Children’s Well-being in Japan: Comparing the Effects of Fathers' and Mothers’ Absence caused by Death or Divorce

Abstract

In Japan, as in many Western countries, the number of single-parent families has increased in the recent years but public support for these families has been limited. This study investigated the effects of being raised by a single parent on children’s well-being. Recent studies have employed several methods of causal inference to investigate whether growing up in a single-parent family has causal effects on children’s outcomes. However, the different impact of the absence of the mother or father has not been explored in detail. We used data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions, nationally representative surveys conducted in Japan in 2010, 2013, and 2016. We applied the natural experimental approach and compared children raised in a single-parent family (because of death of one parent or divorce) with those raised in two-parent families on six outcomes. We also compared the families with absent fathers or mothers to investigate the heterogenous effects of single parenthood. The father’s absence had a causal effect on children’s poor health, stress levels, mental illness, and high school graduation, whereas the mother’s absence had a causal effect on children’s smoking behavior. Whereas the father’s absence had a negative causal impact on several aspects of children’s well-being, most of the observed negative effects of the mother’s absence were not causal but reflected the selection process that takes families into single fatherhood.

8th Meeting: August 31, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

17:00–19:00

Presenter(s)

Takuma Kamada (Osaka University)

Title

The Crack Epidemic and the Rise and Persistence of Concentrated-Poverty Neighborhoods in the Inner-City

Abstract

Sociological explanations highlight two demographic channels in shaping concentrated- poverty neighborhoods: (i) the out-migration of selective individuals from the inner- city to the suburbs and (ii) racial segregation. Despite rich theoretical and empirical work, two questions have not been well addressed: Why is concentrated poverty in impoverished minority communities so enduring? And what are relevant historical contexts that simultaneously generate those demographic channels in shaping concentrated poverty? This paper proposes that the crack epidemic in the mid-1980s has long-run effects on concentrated poverty in the inner-city over two decades through those demographic channels. Exploiting a difference-in-differences-in-differences variation in an event-study framework, I find the long-run effect of crack’s emergence on Black concentrated poverty, but not White or Hispanic concentrated poverty. Black concentrated poverty in central cities is higher two decades later in formerly crack-affected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) relative to non-crack-affected MSAs. I then find that the long-run effect operates through non-poor Black suburbanization and racial segregation. This study broadens our understanding of why Black concentrated poverty is so enduring; furthermore, it helps us understand historical conditions under which some of the key sociological mechanisms of concentrated poverty are operative.

7th Meeting: July 27, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Ryota Mugiyama (Hitotsubashi University)

Title

A Reconsideration of Educational Gradient in Women's Employment around First Childbirth in Japan

Abstract

Objective: This paper explores how the educational gradient in women’s employment around the first childbirth has changed since the mid-1990s in Japan. Background: Studying how the relationship between education and women’s employment changes across periods in various national context is important for understanding the relationship between family formation and inequality. While Japan is known for the weak relationship between education and employment, recent policy and labor market change suggests that the women’s employment around childbirth is becoming differentiated by their educational background. Method: The data is obtained from the Japanese Panel Study of Consumers. The observations from two years before to two years after the childbirth for women who gave birth in 1995–2004 and 2005–2014 are compared. Results: First, the employment rate has increased only for middle- and highly-educated. Second, the proportion of non-regular employment has sharply increased among low-educated and moderately increased among middle-educated. Third, the employment exit has decreased for middle- and highly-educated compared to low-educated and about one-third of the rise in educational gap are mediated by the compositional change in employment status. Conclusion: This paper provided evidence that the educational gradient in women's employment has become positive between 1995–2004 and 2005–2014 in Japan. The results are consistent with trends in some Western societies and also consistent with the change in family formation behavior in Japan.

6th Meeting: June 29, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Akira Igarashi* (Rikkyo University) and Kikuko Nagayoshi (University of Tokyo)

Title

Are global norms widespread? Investigation of prejudice with list experiments

Abstract

Does global norms against racial/ethnic prejudice and discrimination prevail worldwide? Despite norms are strong tools to address prejudice against immigrants and ethnic minorities, most of the studies on norms have been exclusively conducted in countries that domestically developed the norms, providing little knowledge of global norm diffusion. Two opposing hypotheses can be drawn: citizens internalise norms regardless of the country’s history of norms, or citizens resist against norms because pre-existing norms do not match the global norms. We investigated how citizens respond to normative questions who live in Japan, a modernised country that do not domestically develop anti-prejudice norms. We compared answers to list experiments and direct questions on attitudes towards immigrants to reveal Japanese’s reactions to norms. Results show that Japanese citizens attempt to show more negative attitudes in the direct question than in list experiments, indicating it is normative to express prejudice against immigrants rather than suppressing prejudice.

5th Meeting: May 25, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

17:00–19:00

Presenter(s)

Hirofumi Taki (Hosei University)

Title

Educational Stratification under the Context of Context of Standardized Education System: Ronin as a Class Strategy in Japan

4th Meeting: April 27, 2020

Place

It will be held online. Please contact by e-mail about how to access the online seminar.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Shuhei Naka (University of Tokyo)

Title

Retiring from Self-Employment in the Elderly: Effects of Personal Attributes, Health Conditions, and Economic Factors

Abstract

Self-employment provides job opportunities to those later in life in Japan, but there have not been sufficient studies on individuals’ processes for ending their businesses. This paper examines how retirement from self-employment occurs in old age. It analyzes the effects of personal attributes, health conditions, and economic factors on retirement, using a nationwide panel survey of older people conducted from 1999 to 2006 (N=4,464). The analysis results revealed the following findings. First, the effects of aging on retirement choices were not seen when considering health conditions and economic factors. Second, while worsening health conditions hastened retirement, rising income and assets had the effect of preventing retirement. Although acquiring a pension was unrelated to retirement from agricultural work, it facilitated retirement from non- agricultural work. Third, there was a tendency for men to continue their self-employment. Based on these results, we will discuss the self-employment retirement process for people in the elderly.

3rd Meeting: March 30, 2020

Place

Bldg. No.9, room 9305 (on the 3rd floor), Ikebukuro Campus, Rikkyo University. map

Held online.

Time

16:00–18:00

Presenter(s)

Naoki Maejima* and Shohei Usui (Sansan, Inc.)

Title

Too Fast Embedding Promotes Tie Decay: The Effects of Temporal Patterns of Mutual Friends Accumulation on Tie Persistence

Abstract

What kind of social tie is more persistent? Many researchers have been investigating the endogenous effects of social network on tie strength or persistence. There have been two approaches to tackle this issue: structural approach and temporal one. However, these two features have been considered independently. In this study, we demonstrate that, not only structure or temporal pattern of social contact, but also ”temporal pattern of network structuring” effects on the success of an encounter. In particular, we focus on ”Mutual Friends Accumulation (MFA)”, i.e. how number of mutual friends increases over time. From large-scale and longitudinal data sets that record business encounters in Japan, we e amine what factor produces successful encounters. We found two important facts. First, burstiness of MFA when a dyad encounters negatively affects persistence of social ties. We speculate that it is partly because they have no time to build trust each other per person. Second, number of mutual friends before two individuals meet also negatively effects on that. This can be caused by that no profit (e.g. novel information) is left in the network cluster and it is difficult for the dyad to exploit any profit from the tie. This study contributes to the method of finding essential edges from temporal network which each connections can be observed only once.

2nd Meeting: February 24, 2020

Place

Bldg. No.9, room 9305 (on the 3rd floor), Ikebukuro Campus, Rikkyo University. map

Presenter(s)

Sho Fujihara (University of Tokyo)

Time

16:00–18:00

Title

The Effects of Class and Status on Life-Chances and Life-Choices: Causation or Selection?

Abstract

Recent sociological studies have suggested a return to a traditional conceptualization and measurement of social stratification: Weber’s distinction between class and status. Previous studies showed that class was more strongly related to economic security, prospects, and life-chances than status, whereas status was more strongly related to cultural consumption. However, there may exist the unobserved dispositions that confound the observed associations. This paper addresses whether class and status have causal effects on life-chances and life-choices by using data from longitudinal surveys in Japan, where class and status matters as in other industrialized societies. We show that social class affects economic security and prospects more strongly than status, even after controlling for the unobserved dispositions. We also show that status is strongly associated with cultural activities, but after controlling for the unobserved stable characteristics, these associations disappear. Class and status do not affect health conditions, smoking, and alcohol drinking, but status affects health-related activities such as doing exercise, eating balanced diets, and eating fast food. Class has a causal effect on an individual’s life-chances, and status has a causal effect on life-choices such as health-related activities, although the unobserved dispositions also produced much of the observed associations.

1st Meeting: January 25, 2020

Place

Bldg. No.9, 3F, Ikebukuro Campus, Rikkyo University. map

Time

14:00–16:00

Presenter(s)

Ryota Mugiyama* (Hitotsubashi University) and Kohei Toyonaga (University of Tokyo)

Title

Role of Cohort Size for Explaining Trends in Social Class Returns to Education at First Job: A Case of Men in Japan born in 1936–1985

Abstract

In recent years, some studies have investigated the impact of compositional change in educational qualification due to educational expansion on occupational returns to education against a background of the declining association between education and class destination in some societies. However, the occupational returns to education remain stable in other societies in spite of the rapid educational expansion. To explain the mixed results, we examine how the change in cohort size affects the trends in the occupational returns to education. Using the nationally representative survey data in Japan, we analyze the trend in the association between education and class attainment at first job for men who were born in 1936–1985. The findings are twofold. First, the association between education and class destination remains stable during the cohorts. Second, two macro-social changes, the decrease in cohort size and the educational expansion, have opposite impacts on the occupational return to education: Specifically, the smaller cohort size rise the advantage of university graduates to obtain service class jobs, and the higher university enrolment rate in cohorts decrease the advantage of them. These results suggest that the decline in cohort size favoring the highly educated people masks the credential devaluation due to educational expansion. We argue that mixed trends in the association between education and class destination might be explained by the different pace of declining fertility among societies.