I)Mechanisms of the cell membrane by AFM and High Speed-AFM

Samples: Integral membrane proteins / Membrane-bound proteins / Drug interacting with the cell membrane

Data: Label-free visualisation of individual membrane proteins (structure, dynamics and external stimuli) / Label-free visualisation of the supramolecular environment of the membrane (structure, dynamics and external stimuli) / Mechanical measurements and manipulations using the tip of the AFM

Results: Physics of the interactions between the membrane proteins, their supramolecular environment and external stimuli (soluble proteins, salinity, pH , force, radiated light or applied electrical fields) / Biological and medical implications

II)Technical developments

-Integration of HS-AFM and Optical Microscopy

-Mechanical mapping by HS-AFM

1. Pixel by pixel force curve approach

2. Multifrequency cantilever excitation approach

- Stimuli of the cell membrane by applied electric fields

III)Emerging lines

- Mechanics of the infectious processes

Sample: Salmonella infection of HeLa cells

Data: Mechanical properties of the infected host cells

Results: Salmonella infection affects the mechanical properties of cells

- Enveloped virus: structure-mechanics-dynamics-function

Samples: VSV virus / B. Alphavirus

Data: HS-AFM imaging

Results: Dynamics of assembly and membrane interaction

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