Genetics/DNA

Genetics

We will cover definitions and how to complete a punnett square the first day of this unit. The next 2 weeks will be practice, practice, practice. Some students will understand the concepts on Day 1 and will enjoy an easy unit.

  • PPT with terms such as Allele, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive. There will be a POP-QUIZ on these terms (flashcards below).
          • Practice Problem 1: Brown eyes are dominant to blue. A heterozygous parent mates with a blue eyed parent. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. Answer.
  • Genetic Babies: looking at dominant and recessive traits and creating a picture of the baby that was created by these traits. In this activity incomplete dominance is covered.
  • Simulation: Time Flies. Look at crosses of Long winged and vestigial winged flies and Gray and black bodied flies.
  • Sponge-Bob punnett square practice
  • 12 problem activity, punnett square practice
  • multiple qwizdom activities for punnett square practice
  • Karyotype activity that will be used for conversations in the DNA unit.

Quiz/Test

      • Pop Quiz within the first few days of the unit covering the terms from the PPT. Flashcards below.
      • a few Punnett Square questions (usually called tickets out the door) will be given as quizzes to check the progress of students in their understanding of completing a punnett square.
      • The unit test is 2 parts.
            • The first part is composed of 17 multiple choice questions based on filling out punnett squares and definitions from the unit.
            • The second part is 4 punnett square questions. The review in the packet (crossword puzzle and 4 practice problems) is the best way to test your knowledge.

DNA

  • DNA project: this project will be in class but will have some preparation to do ahead of time. I have told the students they are aloud to get help with coloring and cutting of the nucleotides. Most of the rest will be completed in class. This project will provide a visual for how DNA replicates and how mutations can happen.
  • Using DNA to solve crimes
  • Types of Reproduction Simulation
  • Movies that show Mutations or genetic disorders and how that affects each individual. NOVA: Cracking your Genetic Code and Wonder (not the movie but a documentary of boy)
  • Pedigrees
  • Quizzes/ Unit Test
            • Pop Quiz on the structure of DNA. Know for the quiz: DNA is made of nucleotide. A nucleotide is made up of sugar, phosphate and a base. The rungs (middle of the ladder) are made up of 4 bases (A T, C and G). Chargaff discovered that Adenine and Thymine bond and Cytosine and Guanine always bond together. Watson and Crick came up with the double helix. 3 bases code for an amino acid. A chain of amino acids make up a protein.
            • Test: 50 multiple choice questions on Genetics & DNA

DNA Mutations

The following websites will be used with the video: Nova Cracking the Genetic Code.

  1. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/howgeneswork/genelocation How to read what chromosomes traits can be found on.
  2. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/newbornscreening/nbsdisorders Babies get their heel pricked at birth and genetic tests are completed. This site talks about a few that are completed.
  3. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome shows the chromosomes and genetic changes that can be found on each.
  4. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition Health conditions. Search for a few that you are interested in.


Quizzes

Genetics Pop Quiz: Before I can teach you about Punnett Squares, it is very important that you know 6 very important terms for this unit. There will be a "pop quiz" at the beginning of this unit . Of course, I will announce this quiz ahead of time.

NGSS

Genetics

MS-LS1-5. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.

MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.


MS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

MS-LS4-5. Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

DNA

MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

MS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

MS-LS4-5. Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

MS-LS4-6. Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.


This unit also provides a foundation of knowledge for the High School NGSS standards.

HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells

HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.

HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. 7th grade will only cover part of this standard. The focus will be on the affects of mutations on an organism.