Emissions - General

"...Harvard University researchers find that the transition to wind or solar power in the U.S. would require five to 20 times more land than previously thought, and, if such large-scale wind farms were built, would warm average surface temperatures over the continental U.S. by 0.24 degrees Celsius....

...The Harvard researchers found that the warming effect of wind turbines in the continental U.S. was actually larger than the effect of reduced emissions for the first century of its operation...."

Source: https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2018/10/large-scale-wind-power-has-its-down-side/

"…The result of the comparison is less favorable for electric cars when looking at the current impacts of their production on ecosystems and the toxicity of the materials involved…."

Source: https://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/11/201081126-eea.html

"...It is estimated that the potential human toxicity impacts of the production phase are between 2.2 and 3.3 times greater for electric vehicles than for ICEVs… (Page 16)

…emissions of NOx, SO2 and PM from BEV production are 1.5-2.5 times higher than those of ICEV production… (Page 26])

...Research does, however, suggest that BEVs could be responsible for greater negative [human toxicity] impacts overall than their ICEV equivalents (Figure 6.2). The increased impact of BEVs compared with ICEVs results from additional copper and where relevant nickel requirements associated with BEVs, with toxic emissions mostly occurring in the disposal of the sulphidic mine tailings associated with extracting these metals...." (Page 58)

Source: European Environmental Agency, "Electric vehicles from life cycle and circular economy perspectives, TERM 2018: Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) report." EEA Report No 13/2018, November 2018, https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/electric-vehicles-from-life-cycle/at_download/file

"...Depending on the scenario, year, and impact, EVs can perform better or worse than ICEVs...."

Source: Beltran et al., "When the Background Matters: Using Scenarios from Integrated Assessment Models in Prospective Life Cycle Assessment." Journal of Industrial Ecology, November 2018, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jiec.12825

"…Resource demand in EV manufacturing is extremely high, largely due to the battery materials…."

Source: https://www.dieselnet.com/news/2017/11fad.php

"…in terms of other environmental burdens such as acidification, particulate matter formation, and toxicity, BEV may in some cases and FCV are likely to perform worse than modern fossil fueled cars as a consequence of emissions along vehicle and fuel production chains…."

Source: Bauer, C., et al., 2015, 'The environmental performance of current and future passenger vehicles: life cycle assessment based on a novel scenario analysis framework', Applied Energy 157, pp. 871-883, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915000252 (Abstract)

"…the BEV manufacturing phase determined the highest environmental burdens mainly in the toxicity categories as a result of the use of metals in the battery pack…."

Source: Tagliaferri, C., et al., 2016, "Life cycle assessment of future electric and hybrid vehicles: a cradle-to-grave systems engineering approach'." Chemical Engineering Research and Design 112, pp. 298-309, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263876216301824 (Abstract)

"...This study found that the electric bus was preferable in only eight states, including Washington and Oregon...."

Source: Cooney et al., "Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses." Journal of Industrial Ecology, April 2013, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jiec.12024 (Abstract)

"... Our results imply subsidies of -$1,095 on average with a range from $2,785 in California to -$4,964 in North Dakota [for an electric vehicle]. Thus environmental benefits from driving cannot, alone, justify the federal subsidy. As discussed above, other studies have estimated upstream environmental benefits of electric vehicles of about -$1,500 and have estimated benefits of $1,400 due to reduced oil consumption. Combining these three factors cannot justify the federal subsidy...."

Source: Holland et al. (2016), "Are There Environmental Benefits from Driving Electric Vehicles? The Importance of Local Factors," American Economic Review, 106(12): 3700-3729, http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/aer.20150897

"...Electric cars lead to hidden environmental and health damages and are likely more harmful than gasoline cars and other transportation options...."

Source: http://electriccarsreport.com/2013/07/electric-cars-among-dirtiest-transportation-options-study-says/

"...Electric vehicles and grid-dependent (plug-in) hybrid vehicles showed somewhat higher nonclimate damages than many other technologies for both 2005 and 2030. Operating these vehicles produces few or no emissions, but producing the electricity to power them currently relies heavily on fossil fuels; also, energy used in creating the battery and electric motor adds up to 20 percent to the manufacturing part of life-cycle damages....

...Fully implementing federal rules on diesel fuel emissions, which require vehicles beginning in the model year 2007 to use low-sulfur diesel, is expected to substantially decrease nonclimate damages from diesel..."

(Note last paragraph of press release: "...The report was sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.... Committee members, who serve pro bono as volunteers, are chosen by the Academies for each study based on their expertise and experience and must satisfy the Academies's conflict-of-interest standards. The resulting consensus reports undergo external peer review before completion....")

Source: National Academy of Sciences, "Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use." Press Release, October 19, 2009, http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=12794

"...The grid-dependent electric options have somewhat higher damages and GWP than other technologies, even in our 2030 analysis, in large measure due to the continued conventional and GHG emissions from the existing and likely future grid at least as of 2030...." (Page 219 (of 506))

"...Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NOx emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel...." (Page 350 (of 506))

Source: National Academy of Sciences, "Hidden Cost of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use." (2009), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12794, Figure 3-7, Page 212 (of 506)

"...[Diesel] vehicles using low-sulfur diesel should become one of the least damaging vehicles...."

Source: http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports/reports-in-brief/hidden_costs_of_energy_Final.pdf (Page 6)

"...EVs exhibit the potential for significant increases in human toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and metal depletion impacts, largely emanating from the vehicle supply chain....

...In the absence of foreseeable improvements to electricity mixes, a more significant reduction in GWP could potentially be achieved by increasing fuel efficiency or shifting from gasoline to diesel ICEVs without significant problem-shifting...."

Source: Troy R. Hawkins, et al. (2012) "Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles." Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17: 53-64, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00532.x/full

"...The results of a new, comprehensive modeling study characterizing light-duty electric drive vehicle (EDV) deployment in the US over 108 discrete scenarios do not demonstrate a clear and consistent trend toward lower system-wide emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx as EDV deployment increases....

...the model deploys diesel and diesel hybrids in many scenarios, which may be a cost-effective way to reduce CO2 emissions given their higher efficiency compared to conventional gasoline vehicles...."

Source: Samaneh Babaee, Ajay S. Nagpure, and Joseph F. DeCarolis (2014), "How Much Do Electric Drive Vehicles Matter to Future U.S. Emissions?" Environmental Science & Technology, http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4045677 (Abstract) (See also http://www.sciencedaily.com; http://www.greencarcongress.com/2014/01/20140115-baabee.html)

"...The global warming potential for EVs that rely on natural gas - generally considered to be the cleanest fossil fuel - show an improvement of only 12 percent over gasoline, and break even with diesel...."

Source: http://www.digitaltrends.com/cars/hold-smugness-tesla-might-just-worse-environment-know/#!br7Vx8

"...The link is graphite, a vital component in batteries used in Tesla's Model S, Toyota's plug-in Prius and other electric cars, as well as in electronic gadgets including iPhones. It's mostly mined and processed in China where graphite pollution has fouled air and water, damaged crops and raised health concerns..."

Source: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-03-14/teslas-in-california-help-bring-dirty-rain-to-china

"...The companies making those products promote the bright futuristic possibilities of the "clean" technology. But virtually all such batteries use graphite, and its cheap production in China, often under lax environmental controls, produces old-fashioned industrial pollution...."

Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/business/batteries/graphite-mining-pollution-in-china/

"...Cobalt mining comes at a great cost to public health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...."

Source: https://nieuws.kuleuven.be/en/content/2018/scientists-at-ku-leuven-and-university-of-lubumbashi-reveal-hidden-cost-of-cobalt-mining-in-dr-congo

"...Renewable energy companies need to disclose more about their heavy reliance on mining...."

Source: https://www.dropbox.com/s/qop9b0b63vveoh7/Coming%20Clean%20-%20Nature%20Climate%20Change.pdf?dl=0

"...But behind the green growth is a filthy secret: In a nation famous for its windmills, electricity is coming from a far dirtier source. Three new coal-fired power plants, including two here on the Rotterdam harbor, are supplying much of the power to fuel the Netherlands' electric-car boom..."

Source: http://www.theage.com.au/business/electric-car-boom-fuels-demand-for-coal-20151124-gl79hn

"...The platforms made to anchor the turbine tower require more than one thousand tons of concrete and steel rebar, and depending on the land contour, are 6 to 30 feet deep. The manufacture of each one ton of cement emits 900 kg (kilograms) of CO2 into the atmosphere. That equates to uncountable millions of tons of carbon dioxide emissions attributable to wind energy..."

Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/the-dirty-part-of-green-energy_us_57607f8fe4b057ac661b23d0

"...To fill the yawning gap between the real and the ideal, methane must generate most of the farm's "nameplate" power: A one-gigawatt solar farm with a 23% CF is actually a 770-megawatt gas plant enhanced by 230 megawatts of sunshine..."

Source: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/3/18/1503359/-Wind-and-Solar-s-Fukushima-The-Methane-Meltdown-at-Porter-Ranch

"...particulate matter emissions...are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions...."

Source: Soret et al., "The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)." Atmospheric Environment, Volume 99, December 2014, Pages 51-63, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014007419 (Absract)

"...governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight...."

Source: Victor R.J.H. Timmers, Peter A.J. Achten (2016) "Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles." Atmospheric Environment, Volume 134, Pages 10-17, http://www.soliftec.com/NonExhaust%20PMs.pdf

"...Overall, it appears that EVs do not result in significant reductions of PM and therefore cannot be considered the single solution to urban air pollution...."

Source: Victor R.J.H. Timmers, Peter A.J. Achten (2018) "Chapter 12 - Non-Exhaust PM Emissions From Battery Electric Vehicles" Academic Press, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128117705000121

"...Regulated emissions of NMHC, CO, and PM were 95, 98, and 89 percent below the EPA 2007 standard...

...Unregulated emissions that included single ring aromatics, PAH, nitroPAH, alkanes, alcohol and organic acids, hopanes/steranes, carbonyls, metals and elements, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and dioxins/furans were 79 to 99 percent lower than the emissions from a similar 2004 technology engine...." (Page 83)

Source: "Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) Phase 1 Final Report." June 2009, Coordinating Research Council, http://www.crcao.org/reports/recentstudies2009/ACES%20Phase%201/ACES%20Phase1%20Final%20Report%2015JUN2009.pdf

"...Regulated emissions of NOx, NMHC, CO, and PM were 61%, 100%, 97%, and 92% below the 2010 emission standards, respectively....

...Unregulated emissions that included single ring aromatics, PAH, oxyPAH, nitroPAH, alkanes, alcohol and organic acids, hopanes/steranes, carbonyls, metals and elements, organic carbon, elemental carbon, dioxins and furans were 50% to 99% percent lower than those emitted from 2007 technology engines tested in ACES Phase 1...." (Page 69 of 70)

Source: "Phase 2 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study - Final Report." November 2013, http://www.crcao.org/reports/recentstudies2013/ACES%20Ph2/03-17124_CRC%20ACES%20Phase2-%20FINAL%20Report_Khalek-R6-SwRI.pdf

"...Animals were generally healthy and gained weight as expected - Females exposed for 30 months, males for 28 months due to overall lower survival rates - No overt clinical signs of disease other than normal aging..." (Slide #19)

Source: ACES DOE Merit Review June 2013, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f13/ace044_greenbaum_2013_o.pdf


The first study to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of lifetime exposure to new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) has found no evidence of carcinogenic lung tumors. The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), issued today by the Health Effects Institute (HEI)1 also confirmed that the concentrations of particulate matter and toxic air pollutants emitted from NTDE are more than 90% lower than emissions from traditional older diesel engines (TDE).

The study exposed laboratory rats 80 hours a week, for up to 30 months, to emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine meeting stringent 2007 US EPA standards that use new filters and other control technology to reduce emissions significantly. In contrast to previous health studies of TDE, the ACES study found that lifetime exposure did not induce tumors or pre-cancerous changes in the lung and did not increase tumors related to NTDE in any other tissue...."

Source: https://www.healtheffects.org/system/files/ACES-RR184-Press%20Release_0.pdf

[http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=430 (Full Report)]

"...'We tested over 100 health endpoints, including a range of non-cancer effects such as respiratory effects and cardiovascular effects, as well as the cancer testing,' said Greenbaum. 'Almost none of the endpoints showed any effects; the only ones that did occur were mild inflammation effects consistent with exposures to NO2 in the exhaust; those exposures have fallen substantially further with the 2010-compliant and later model year engines. We actually compared the lungs of rats exposed to the earlier engines and in earlier NO2 studies in order to make that comparison (the labs had maintained the samples)....

...Given we wanted to get the health results sooner rather than later, we did use only the 2007 engines in the rat exposures,' said HEI President Dan Greenbaum, 'although given that the emissions of the 2010 engines were even lower (with the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology) we would have expected even fewer effects if we had used the newer engines'..."

Source: http://www.hybridcars.com/study-clears-newer-diesels-of-lung-cancer-and-other-risks/

"...there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that health effects studies of pre-2007 DE likely have little relevance in assessing the potential health risks of NTDE exposures...."

Source: Hesterberg TW, Long CM, Sax SN, Lapin CA, McClellan RO, Bunn WB, Valberg PA. 2011. "Particulate matter in new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) is quantitatively and qualitatively very different from that found in traditional diesel exhaust (TDE)." J Air Waste Manage Assoc 61:894-913, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22010375

"...A team of researchers in Germany has found that the mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) is eliminated in the gas phase by a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)..."

Source: Gotz A. Westphal et al, "Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase." Environmental Science & Technology (2012), http://www.greencarcongress.com/2012/05/westphal-20120527.html

"...it is clear that using DPFs creates surplus emission reductions that translate directly into additional, quantifiable health benefits enjoyed by all Americans...."

Source: http://www.meca.org/resources/MECA_UFP_White_Paper_0713_Final.pdf

"Study shows significant reductions in real-world heavy-duty diesel emissions from 2010 regulations"

"...Frey and Sandhu found that a truck in compliance with the older 1999 standards emitted 110 grams of NOx per gallon of fuel used, and 0.22 grams of PM per gallon of fuel used. A 2010 truck emitted 2 grams of NOx per gallon of fuel-a decrease of 98%. The PM emissions were 95% lower...."

Source: Sandhu, G.S., and H.C. Frey, "Real-World Measurement and Evaluation of Heavy Duty Truck Duty Cycles, Fuels, and Emission Control Technologies." Transportation Research Record, (in press), http://www.greencarcongress.com/2012/04/ncsu-20120417.html

"... According to conventional wisdom, hydrogen-fueled cars are environmentally friendly because they emit only water vapor -- a naturally abundant atmospheric gas. But leakage of the hydrogen gas that can fuel such cars could cause problems for the upper atmosphere, new research shows...."

Source: http://www.theozonehole.com/hydrogeneconomy.htm

"...But diesel fuel is being made cleaner, said David Friedman, research director for clean vehicles for the Cambridge-based Union of Concerned Scientists, and could become 'a good option by the end of the decade.'..."

Source: http://www.dieselforum.org/

"...Diesel engines equipped with the latest emission controls emit lower levels of deadly fine particles than gasoline engines, according to various trade groups in the automobile industry.

'Diesel particle filters appear terrific at eliminating virtually all diesel particulate matter emissions,' Clean Air Watch President Frank O'Donnell said Nov. 27.

In the tests by the Association of Emissions Control by Catalyst, diesel engines with emission controls also produced about one-tenth of the carbon monoxide emitted by gasoline engines and less than half of the hydrocarbon emissions...."

Source: http://www.aecc.be/content/pdf/SAE%202006-01-1516.pdf

"...Hybrids and diesel engines are cleaner than gas, causing fewer air pollution deaths and spewing less heat-trapping gas...."

Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/science/environment/your-all-electric-vehicle-may-not-be-so-green-study-n268961

"...According to co-author Dr. Tom Kirchstetter of LBNL, black carbon levels have decreased by about 90 percent over a 45-year period....

...The reductions occurred during a time when diesel fuel consumption increased by about a factor of five..."

Source: https://www.arb.ca.gov/newsrel/2013/blackcarbonclips.pdf