Who will win the EV Car Race?

As of 2022, there are approximately 1.15B vehicles (cars, trucks, etc) on the world's roads today. Around 17.5 Million new cars are sold each year. Almost all of them are using the internal combustion engine (ICE) which requires non-renewable fossil fuels to run.

Eight years from now (2030), many Western European countries will no longer have pure ICE cars on the road. They must at minimum be a hybrid which has an electric motor and batteries which stores energy through the car's regenerative braking. By 2035-2040, most of the Western World (including the US) is expected (by law) to switch primarily to fully battery electric vehicles (BEVs) requiring no ICE and therefore no petrol.

In China, where large CO2 emissions are produced by both manufacturers and cars, the government has introduced the most stringent industry standards, tighter than European emissions regulations for light vehicles. This does not only help the environment but has forced Chinese Car Companies such as NIO and BYD to leap ahead of the pack in terms of BEV and systems technology.

It isn't any better if it still takes fossil fuel to generate the electricity to charge your vehicle. How is China making its energy sources renewable?

Key to adoption of BEVs is the infrastructure to charge your vehicle. From NIO's 5 minute in & out battery swap station (shown below) to parking lots equipped with superchargers (around 75 minutes for 250km), how are the countries of the world changing their petrol fuel pumps into charging stations? What is Singapore doing in this regard?