Early Broughs

Pedigree of the Early Broughs of Staffordshire: 1055 to 1510

The Early Broughs of Leekfrith, Staffordshire:

1300's to 1500's

by Catharine Ann Brough Hind. March 2004

Incorporating material she wrote for the 1988 RBFO book:

The Ancestors and Descendants of the Broughs of Staffordshire, England

We may wonder what prompted our ancestors to uproot their lives from one area only to flourish in considerable numbers of households in another. What was the catalyst, the crises, the advantage?

In 1327, Lord William de Burgh of Burgh in Ronton, South Staffordshire, married as his third wife, Joan, daughter of Lord de Weston, whilst William, eldest son of Lord de Burgh, married Joan`s niece Elizabeth de Weston, and they too had a son they called William. In 1328, the newly-widowed Joan granted to this grandson lands of her late husband--the first such grant between the de Burghs and the de Westons before 1348 and 1349 as the Great Pestilence, the Black Death laid waste to England and whole communities were depopulated. Both of these families were ravaged by it as much as any other and poor Joan was in the eye of the storm as her loved ones died around her.

Three generations of her own de Weston family conceded their lands and made bequests to her and her de Burgh kin. The grants and wills made at short intervals of eighteen months by both sides contained fewer names at each writing and tell a sad story with an inevitable conclusion. Staffordshire suffered terribly as land stood denuded of beasts and crops, for too few men survived or had strength to man the ploughs. Those who could, moved on, hoping to find friends or relatives in remoter places.

The family pedigree of that time of these generations show one central male heir: William Capelanus (Chaplain). Such a one, a monk of Dieulacres Abbey, became Vicar of Leek in 1370. When the Abbot and monks involved themselves too enthusiastically in violence and murder between some of the tenants of their monastic manor, the Vicar was brought to book for receiving known murderers at his Vicarage. Absenting himself he returned with Letters of Protection signed by John de Knightley, whose wife Elizabeth was a grand-daughter of Lord William de Burgh, with a lionesses share of his estates. Her Northamptonshire descendants portray William Capelanus as the surviving heir on the pedigree they had drawn up in the next century.

Another Capelanus in the north of the county was Thomas del Brugge. Two monks and a long history of senior members of the family having been Seneschals to one or another Monastic House were perhaps the magnet bringing de Burghs to the Leekfryth was Dieulacres Abbey. The 1532 census taken in each Archdeaconry of the county survives and whilst not entirely legible of the majority that are, two full households of Bourgh families, of two and three generations match the earliest wills--husbands, wives and children, and even grandchildren. Together they indicate that several generations of each House implies long settlement in the district from the preceding century.

Early documentation speaks of Robert Brough of Ye Chplhse, Meerbrook, who as Forrester to the Monastery, was responsible not only for the welfare of its flora and fauna but for its tenants and workers. The trees were every bit as vital a crop to the economy of the monks and the district as any blade of oats that grew on their fields, and the deer and birds were used for both food and sport. Robert was the family`s Senior Statesman, as it were, and there can be little doubt that his position was a central factor to the successful leases, grants and purchase of properties that were formerly part of Dieulacres` Monastic Manor estates sold off after the Reformation and demolition of the great Abbey in 1538.

By now,seven Houses of Broughs were established on the Fryth: Chappelhowse, Rochegrange and New Grange, and Windygates--all certainly monastery properties. Waterhowse and Brownsword which may have been built since then, albeit on former Dieulacres, for they are not shown on its 13thc map. The one Brough house that is on the map but indicated as not monastery property is Middlehulme--it was however paying rents to the Abbey. One important thing to bear in mind is that the Fryth country was still being stripped of its oak forests for farmland and every family would take a part and rent or lease portions.

The most important document of the time to us,is the Last Will and Testament of that Elder statesman Robert Broughe of Chappelhowse, who named his four sons and three grandsons, two Brough and a daughter's child; Edmund of Brownsword and Robert and Thomas his sons; Richard of Windygates; and William Burgh and Thomas Burgh. One other of his family is John Bullocke, his seemingly widowed son-in-law, and young grandson John.

Robert`s assets were considerable and two most interesting factors were that his small bequest of money to the shrine of St Chad in Lichfield and rather more for the Service of St Mary in Meerbrook which "if God`s Service do decay, shall be returned to Edmund my son" indicate surely that he was pessimistic indeed for the future of The Faith after the Reformation. Further testimony of family devotion to Christian Life is shown in the ownership of a silver cross and a silver heart,along with the Seal of the Convent Yarde, entrusted to Edmund. I suggest that these last were treasured artifacts from the worshipping life they had known at the monastery.

One other Burgh amongst those with whom there is business to be concluded is John of Middull Hulme, a more distant kinsman.

Research Report

on The Early Broughs of Staffordshire:

1055 to 1510

by David Bethell, Professional Genealogist

Edited and reprinted from the 1981 RBFO book:

The Ancestors of Richard Brough and Mary Horleston, pp.5-42.

The family of Brough takes its name from Brough (mediaeval Burgh, Latin Burgum), a hamlet in the south of Ranton (alias Ronton) parish in South Pirehill hundred of the county of Stafford in England. The present Brough Hall, close to the ancient boundary with Gnosall parish, stands on the site of the ancient manor house of Brough.

The first surviving reference to Brough is in Domesday Book, of 1086 (1):

Statfortscire (Staffordshire)

The land of Robert de Statford

Robert himself holds in Bu(r)ghale one virgate of land which pertains to Halstone (Haughton). The land is one carucate. Ulmarus held it and was a free man. There are two villeins with one curucate, and two acres of wood. It is worth five shillings.

Bu(r)ghale is taken to represent the Old English burh halh, 'Brough hamlet'; burh or Brough itself is a common English placename element meaning 'camp, fortification, or manorhouse'.

The Domesday entry gives us little information about Brough. Robert de Stafford held immense estates in Staffordshire, most of which had been held before the Norman Conquest by indigenous English thanes. Many of these thanes and their descendants continued to hold the manors as subtenants to the new Norman lords after the Conquest, but Domesday Book is only concerned with enumerating the tenants in chief. We see that Ulmarus (a Latinization of the Old English name Ulfmaer) held Brough manor in the time of King Edward the Confessor (1042 to 1066); he may or may not have been the ancestor of the later lords of Brough manor.

Robert de Stafford or his immediate successors granted a large area of land from their Staffordshire estates to the Noel family. By the 15th century the acquisition had been romanticized a little, as described in the cartulary of Ranton priory (2):

First of all, a man called Noel, with Celestria his wife, came in the army of William the Bastard (the Conqueror) into England, and had the said manor of Elinhale with its parts by the grant of the said William the Bastard. From the said Noel descended the right and inheritance to a certain Robert Noel his son and heir, who married a certain Alice, and founded the Priory of Ranton while his mother Celestria was still living.

The Augustinian priory of St. Mary des Essarz at Ranton was founded by Robert fitz Noel about 1150, and received several further bequests from the Noel family (v.inf.). Noel, at the head of the line, was not in fact contemporary with William the Conqueror. His wife Celestria is known to have been a daughter of Robert de Limesi, who succeeded Peter as Bishop of Chester c.1088, and died in 1117 (3)

The large central English diocese of Lichfield, including Cheshire, Derbyshire, northern Warwickshire, northern Shropshire, southern Lancashire and Staffordshire, had three seats, at Chester, Lichfield, and Coventry. The see was moved to Chester from Lichfield in 1075 by Bishop Peter. Robert de Limesi his successor removed it to Coventry "in order to possess himself of the riches of the monastery of Coventry, which had been so amply endowed by earl Leofric, that it was looked upon to be the most wealthy in the land", but Robert continued to style himself Bishop of Chester (4).

Robert de Limesi used his position as bishop to expropriate extensive lands in Staffordshire belonging to the diocese for his daughter Celestria and her husband Noel. By this means the Noel family acquired Ellenhall, Seighford, Clanford, Bridgeford, Podmore and Milnmease, as well as Granborough in Warwickshire. Ranton Priory was a little more than a mile north of Brough; Ellenhall lies immediately to the north of Ranton.

Although, prior to the Reformation, English bishops were normally strictly celibate, it was neither illegal nor uncommon for bishops in the 12th century to marry and have children, and it may be assumed that there were other descendants of Robert de Limesi. Philip fitz Bishop, who was at Brough by 1199 (v.inf.), and is thought to have been a cousin of Thomas Noel (son of Robert fitz Noel), was probably a grandson of Robert. Robert is assumed to have been a son or brother of Ralph de Limesi, ancestor of the Barons Odingselles. Ralph was described as a son of the sister (unspecified) of William the Conqueror; he "enjoyed the lands of Christiana, one of the sisters of Edgar Atheling, by marriage (as some affirm, and according to others by gift of the Conqueror), among which was Ulverly in the county of Warwick, which he made his principal seat." (5). This would make Robert de Limesi, Bishop of Chester, a grandson or greatgrandson on the material side of Robert Duke of Normandy. If Ralph de Limesi was husband of Christiana the legitimate title to the English throne would have passed through Ralph's eldest descendants.

The Brough property was acquired by the Noel family with Ranton in about 1145, when this grant was made by Nicholas de Stafford to Noel (husband of Colestria) (6):

Because in all matters between those greater of birth and those lesser, and between the powerful and the powerless, testimonies to deeds have been found necessary to free them from litigation, therefore let it be known to both the greater and lesser men of the whole of the honour of Stafford and may it shine forth in their memories, that Nicholas de Stafford, when still a young man, granted to Noel by right of inheritance, and similarly afterwards to Robert his son, the land of Ronton and Cokeslone in fee, and by the service of half a manor, and of half a knight, and at the service of lord Nicholas's own shield, and free from all ward and upkeep of the Castle; Afterwards, morover, lord Robert came by inheritance from his father successor to the honour of Stafford by hereditary right, by the grace of God, and granted this agreement which his father had granted to Noel and to Robert son of Noel, that it should be known to all men, by his grace; and that the said lord Robert after the death of his father has given to Robert son of Noel land which is next to Gnowshale &c. These being witnesses, Nicholas son of Nigel, Ralph son of Brian, &c.

Brough itself is first specified in the confirmation grant by Robert de Stafford to Thomas, Noel's grandson, about 1182 (7):

Robert de Stadford to Thomas Noel (grant of) the land of Ranton and of Cokeslaine and the land of Burgh which is next to Gnoweshale (Gnosall), by the service of half a manor, that is of half a knight to the service of my own shield; all this for the service of his ancestors and for homage, and money, to wit 30 marks (£20) which Noel grandfather of Thomas gave to lord Nicholas my father, I grant. These being witnesses, Hervey de Stretton, Robert de Brinton, Roger son of Henry, Philip Holegate, Robert son of Pagan, Ivo de Mutton, Adam de Staundon, Adam de Alith(1)egh (Audley).

The Noel pedigrees (8) indicate that Robert fitz Noel was married to Alice daughter of Hugh Montfort, and Thomas Noel his son was married to Margaret Strange. Thomas had a brother Phillip...to whom Thomas his brother granted lands in Cestiford (9), but we know that he was not Philip fitz Bishop, since both on occasion witnessed the same deeds (v.inf.) (10). When Thomas Noel died he left two daughters, of whom one, Alice Har(e)court, inherited the greater part of his estates.

Thomas Noel granted all or part of the Brough estate to Philip fitz Bishop c.1190 (11):

May men present and future know that I T.Noel have given and granted and by this my present deed confirmed to Philip fitz Bishop for his service and homage my lands from the assarts of Rouel in Ronton; that land, to wit, which Misant the priest held, and that land which Alfwin the Palmer held, and all the land which Lovenad held from me, and that land which Siward held, and that land which Reginald Perler held together with that Reginald and with all his issue, and that land which Osbert fitz Ailric held; and a meadow which Waren the Forester held, by that houndary which Warin himself had against Benet. Moreover, I grant to him ti farm a certain marsh at Holebroc next to the land of Robert Harding, to make into a fishpond. I give and grant all these aformentioned lands according to the bounds by which the aforesaid men held them from me in Ronton, to him and his heirs, to hold from me and my heirs in fee and inheritance freely quietly wholly and honourably, with all liberties and with pannages for his feed, with all other appurtenances belonging to the same lands and all easements and commons, in wood, in plain, in meadows and fisheries, in ways and paths, in waters and in mills, Rendering to me and my heirs at Michaelmas by my bailiff at Ronton sixpence for all service due to me or to my heirs. And because I wish this gift and grant to be agreed and sure and unharmed to him and his heirs from me and my heirs, I confirm it by the affixing of my seal to this present deed, these being witnesses: Philip Noel, Thomas fitz Roger, Jordan de Chnitteleia, Thomas de Kerseuell, Ralph de Blore, Ralph Grim, Roger de Wareine, Walter Durant, Geoffrey de Meis, Hamon de Ondesaker, Roger Daraz, Geoffrey fitz William and many others.

Further land, in this lost hamlet of Aluredston, was granted to Philip by Thomas son of Roger de Haughton (12):

Know present and future that I Thomas son of Roger de Halthtona have given to Philip fitz Bishop a half virgate of land in Aluredestona &c Witnesses Thomas Noel, Philip Noel, Jordan de Knehteleia, Roger his brother, William de Dustona, and many others.

About two miles southwest of Brough, and close to Gnosall village, is an ancient farmstead called Plardiwick. This hamlet was held in 1199 by Alured son of Orme, who in that year paid Osbert son of Orme and Alina his wife two marks (£I 6s 8d) for a quitclaim on the property (14). It is possible, but as yet unproven, that Aluredston took its name from this Alured, being part of his property, perhaps even adjoining or containing Plardiwick. Plardiwick became part of the Brough estates (v.inf.), and it may be that it was in the guise of Aluredston. 28 Sep 1199 (15) Philip fitz Bishop employs William de Aluredston to essoin for him at Lichfield from prosecuting Agnes daughter of Eleine (?=Alina) in a plea of land.

Philip also appears as witness to two undated grants re Ranton Priory by Thomas Noel at this period (13):

Thomas Noel gave &c to William the Baker a moiety of the meadow to Mees mill. Witnesses, Philip fitz Bishop, Philip Noel, and many others.

I Thomas Noel gave &c (to Ronton Priory) all my land of Claneford, and all the land which Nicholas son of Edric son of Luveric held in Ronton. Witnesses, Thomas de Kersewelle, Philip fitz Bishop, Philip Noel, Simon Steward, William de Hecstall.

1199 is the year in which we first find Philip fitz Bishop adopting the surname de Burgo from Brough; he appears as Philip de Burgo in a list of jurors to Staffordshire Assizes (ib.). Philip de Burgo is among the witnesses to an inspeximus and confirmation by John de Chetewynd of a charter by Richard de Stocton to lord Adam de Chetewynd of a virgate in Stocton (20).

In September 1203 Agnes wife of Elias de Piria, Eve wife of William, and William de (lost) (the three children of Eleine) challenged Philip fitz Bishop's right to hold a half virgate of land in Aluredston, at the Staffordshire assizes (16); but Philip obtained a verdict in his favour, and Elias and William were amerced. Philip also served as a juror in four cases in that assize, and appeared as Philip de Burgo as an elector on June 2nd previously.

In April and May 1206 Philip fitz Bishop, having been elected among others to make a grand assize of land at Acton, failed to appear (17). In September 1208 Philip de Burgo is listed among "the knights who ought to have testified, have not come, or have essoined" (18). By 1219 Philip is dead, and he may well have been indisposed in 1206 and 1208. He is last active in 1203.

One of Philip's last grants was to Ranton Priory, made with the assent of Alice his wife, and of Bertram his heir (19):

I Philip de Burgo, with the assent of Alice my wife and of Bertram my heir, have granted &c. together with my body all right &c of all the tenement which Syward son of Leverac held from me, &c., in Ronton, &c.

It would seem likely from this that Philip was buried at Ranton Priory. The grant is confirmed by Bertram, who refers to Philip, according to the cartulary text, as his father (19):

I Bertram son of Philip de Burgo have granted &c. the gift which Philip my father has made, to wit, of that tenement which Siward son of Levenac held from him in Ronton, &c. Witnesses, William de Barecurt, William de Dustone, and others.

Confusingly, another parentage is suggested for Bertram by an undated deed from the ancient Brough papers (21):

To all men to inspect these letters, Jordan de Kulegh sends greetings. Know that I with the assent of Goditha my wife have given to Philip my son and to Richard brother of the said Philip a plot in my wood of Kulegh, that to wit which Swain my father gave &c. These being witnesses, lord Hamon de Plerdewicke father of Bertram de Burgo, Walter son of Adam de Cotes, William son of Vivian de Tromwyne and others.

Hamon de Plardiwick, who could well have been a younger brother of Philip de Burgo, probably also used the name de Burgo. We have this grant of the same period in the Ranton cartulary (19); the original grant to Hamon junior is preserved in the Brough papers (22), and transcribed below:

Know &c that I Robert son of Robert le Champyon &c have given &c that land which Hamon son of Hamon de Burgo once held from me in Halchetone (Haughton) fee &c.

Know present and future that I Michael son of William Chanflyer of Halethtone have granted to Hamon son of Hamon de Burgo a plot of land which is called the Haynge which lies &c. These being witnesses, Michael de Morthon, Walter de Merton, Henry de Wyverston, Richard lord of Coulegh, William de Wotton and others.

Bertram de Burgo made an important addition to the Brough estates by the acquisition of the manor of Wilbrighton in Staffordshire. Wilbrighton is about two miles southwest of Plardiwick; Wilbrighton Hall stands on the site of the ancient de Burgo manor house.... The original grant is preserved at Stafford (24):

Adam de Brunyton, lord of Wilbryghton, grants to Bertram de Burgo his capital messuage in Wilbryghton with all the demesne belonging to it and with all hte nativi of the said vill &c. Tenure, a pair of gilded spurs at Easter to Adam and his heirs, and to the chief lord due service as specified in the charter which Adam had of Hervey de Wilbryghton (&c).

There are several copies of undated deeds of this period which may belong to this Bertram or to his son Bertram (II). Thus we have a grant to Sir Hugh de Weston (20); Bertram de Burgo witnesses a bond of Alan de Chelfton to William and Alditha Trumwyn (25); Bertram de Burgo witnesses a grant to an assart in le Rusimere from John fitz Alan de Fonte to Hugh lord of Weston under Brewood (26); lord Bertram de Burgo witnesses the confirmation by William son of Philip de Cowley to Richard his brother of a messuage in Cowley fee (21); Bertram de Burgo witnesses the quitclaim in Benwode by Edith daughter of Robert de Dodinton and of Savina de Knightley to Robert lord of Knightley (27), a grant by Sir Ivo Paunton to Robert (on his marriage to Ivo's daughter Alina) of his manor of Rodelowe, and a grant of land in Lethnardeswood by Robert to William his brother (28).

In this last deed the witnesses include Bertram de Burgo, Philip Noel, and Michael de Burgo. This Michael may be identified by this undated deed (22):

Know all men present and future that I Bertoline son of Hamon de Burgo have confirmed the grant with my father made and granted to Hamon my brother and his heirs of those four pieces of woodland in Cowley fee, &c., These being witnesses, Nicholas de Chnytel(egh), Swain de Culegh, Robert Pykard, Michael de Burgo my brother and others.

It is probable that this Bertoline or Bertland de Burgo (brother of Michael) is the son of Hamon de Burgo alias Hamon de Plardiwick mentioned above as Bertram de Burgo. This is the interpretation put on the deeds by Sir William Dugdale in the 16th century, with the advantage of being able to judge the dates of the original Brough deeds, which are now lost (20).

By 1219 Bertram de Burgo, son of Philip, was dead. He had held the manor of Lee Brackhurst in Shropshire, apparently by inheritance from the family of his mother, Alice de Picheford. Lee Brockhurst, is about 2½ miles southeast of Wem, and so relatively remote from the Staffordshire possessions.

Bertram's son Bertram (II) was a minor on his father's death. His grandmother, Alice, seized the two carucates of land at Lee, and her brother Ralph de Picheford entered the property. Bertram II's mother, Elisand, complained to the King's Court (Curia Regis), and recovered the land; a writ was sent to the Sheriff of Shropshire in October 1219 to deliver seisin to the boy (23). About this period (20) Bertram son of Bertram de Burgo granted lands in Brenesford to Richard Bagot of Brenesford.

However, Bertram de Burgo II appears to have died young and without issue. Apart from any dower remaining in the hands of his mother, Elisand, the property descended to Bertram's kinsman Bertoline (son of Hamon son of Hamon). In about 1237 Bertoline de Burgo is recorded as the tenant of Wilbrighton manor (29):

Cuttlestone hundred

Bartoline de Burgo holds Wilbrighton from John le Strange, and the said John from Nicholas Bar' &c.

A grant of 1251 by Bertoline de Burgo (the text is now lost) was preserved among the Brough papers (20). In 1253 (30) Elisand, Bertram I's widow, was prosecuted for alienating a carucate of land and 25 shillings of rent in Little Onn, but she replied by stating that she only held half a virgate of land and four shillings of rent there, presumably by dower. The circumstances of this prosecution are not stated, but it was most likely undertaken immediately after Bertoline's death, perhaps while his eldest son Bertram (III), was a minor. Little Onn is a hamlet of Church Eaton parish, about 7 miles southwest of Stafford, in Staffordshire; the Onn estates appear to have been inherited from the de Picheford family by the Broughs.

Bertram III certainly inherited by 1255. He appears as a juror in 1254-5 (31,32); in 1255 (33) he is recorded as holding Lee Brockhurst township from John de Picheford by half a hide, half a knight's fee, twopence mootfee, twopence streetward, and suit twice yearly to the Great Hundred. We also find (34) that Robert de Lacy held two hides of land in Colemere in Shropshire from Bertram by service of an eighth of a knight's fee in wartime. In 1255-6 Bertram is assessed as holding thirty librates (pounds' worth per annum) of land, holding by knight's service, but not knighted.

In January 1255/6 (35) Bertram was sued by John son of Hugh de Bolas, who claimed that Bertram's quarter knight's fee is Lee Brockhurst was rightfully held, not of John de Picheford, but from himself; and that Bertram had paid his yearly rent of twenty shillings to John's father Hugh, but after Hugh's death had denied any further payment. The case was adjourned, and apparently not pursued further. Bertram appears frequently as a juror and witness from 1256 onwards (36).

In April 1258 (37) William, abbot of Buildwas in Shropshire, sued Bertram for two years' arrears of an annual rent of 12 shillings for a tenement in Cowley which Thomas son of John de Cowley had formerly held there by the gift of Thomas de Sambrok and Alice his wife. Bertram acknowledged the debt, and the Abbot remitted the arrears. In 1258-9 Bertram de Burgo served as a coroner (38). In October 1260 (39) the Abbot of Buildwas sued Bertram for half an acre of land and common of pasture in Wilbrighton, claiming that Bertram had unjustly seized these from his predecessor. Bertram failed to appear.

In 1261/2 Bertram de Burgo and his brother Thomas are reported in the Shropshire forest assizes as habitual trespassers in the royal forest. Bertram failed to appear immediately, but when he did he was imprisoned, together with his brother and his retinue; he was released on payment of a fine of five marks (£3 6s 8d) (40).

Another relative of Bertram III appears in the records at this period. William de Burgo appears alongside Bertram among the jurors for Cuttlestone hundred in 1254-5 (32). William is identified as Bertram III's son by this undated deed (22):

Know all men present and future that I William son of lord Bertram de Burgo have given to Richard son of William Cappe of Cotes all that plot of land which my father had by the gift of Bertoline his father &c These being witnesses, Richard lord of Coulee, William son of John of the same, William de Coe, William Pykard, Richard Townsend and others.

Another undated deed of William's identifies another son of Bertram III (22):

Know present and future that I William de Burgo have given to Henry de Burgo my brother for his whole life a plot of land within the manor of Brough which is called the Faldewode &c. These witnesses, Richard de Cowleye, William Sturnell, William de Wotton, Thomas de Kynton and others.

In 1261/2 Bertram of Bertoline de Burgh is reported (41) to have illegally brought into cultivation his wood at Oxley within Cannock Forest. In 1268 Bertram made an agreement with the Prior of Ranton and with Rose widow of John Doyley for the division of Ranton common.

In September 1267 John son of Hugh de Bolas renewed his claim of mort d'ancestre against Bertram for 20s rent from Lee Brockhurst (42); there were several hearings of the case, and Bertram called John de Picheford, whom he claimed as mesne lord, to warranty. Bertram was worsted and appealed. In Easter term of 1270 the case was brought Coram Rege, Bertram claiming that the Assize of mort d' ancestre had been faulty in process. The process was ordered to be reviewed, and John son of Hugh and John de Picheford were summoned at attend at Michaelmas. After several adjournments the case was reviewed, Coram Rege, in Hilary term of 1272. Martin de Littlebury, the judge who had determined the suit of mort d'ancestre, stated that "John de Picheford, being called to warranty by Bertram de Burgh, had appeared in court and desired to know why he was bound to give such warranty"; that thereupon "Bertram had produced a charter of Ralph de Picheford, John's father, which gave to Bertram the vill of Lee under Brockhurst salvo forensico servicio with all the rights which Ralph had had by gift of Richard de Legh, except half a virgate which the prior of Wombridge held, to hold to Bertram and his heirs udner Ralph and his heirs by render of the anceitn service. After this Bertram departed in contempt of court, and did not prosecute his plea of warranty against John de Picheford. So, at an adjourned hearing of mort d'ancestre against John son of Hugh, the jury had found for the latter, to wit that Hugh, his father, had died seized of the twenty shillings annual rent now claimed by John. Thus did John son of Hugh recover the twenty shillings annual rent, plus damages." On hearing this, the court of appeal noted that Bertram had asked for this review, and was again not present. So the court ordered that the former decision should stand, and that the Sheriff should raise £9 damages by distraint from Bertram's lands.

Apparently Plardiwick was held at this time by a cousin of Bertram, presumably a descendant of Hamon de Burgo alias de Plardiwick his grandfather. We find in May 1269 an extraordinary item in the Staffordshire plea rolls (43) about an attack on Norbury manorhouse in which Bertram de Burgo took part; an attack in which, according to the rolls of the previous October, Hamon de Plardiwick had also been involved (44):

6 October 1268

Philip Marmiun appeared by attorney against Robert de Knytelegh, William his brother, Roger de Brunton ... Hamon de Plerdewicke ... for entering vi et armis his manor of Northbyri, and pulling down his house and mills, carrying away his timber, destroying his fishponds, cutting down his trees, and committing other damage to the amount altogether of £200; and the defendants did not appear, and the Sheriff returned that there were no sureties (for the prosecution); and as Richard de Stafford of Staffordshire and Richard de Hereford of Staffordshire were the sureties, the Sheriff is ordered to attach the defendants for fifteen days from Hilary.

26 May 1269

Philip Marmyun by his attorney appeared against Jordan de Pulesdon, Roger Bagot, Thomas de Pesale, Geoffrey de Grescle, Roger de Walton, Geoffrey de Aston, Richard de Flotebroc, Bertram de Burgo, Henry de Wyliston, Thomas Donne, and eight others named, for entering his manor of Northbury vi et armis and committing damage &c. The defendants did not appear; and the Sheriff was ordered to attach them, and sent word that Roger Bagot was attached by John Bagot of Suston, and Richard de Pesenhale and Henry de Wiverston by Adam Miller of Wyverston and another, and Bertram de Burgo by Thomas de Wilbriton and another. The Sheriff is ordered therefore to arrest them and produce them at fifteen days from Midsummer.

In April 1271 Bertram was sued by Sarah widow of Thomas de Cowley for a third of two parts of Cowley manor as dower. Bertram's attorney requested a view of the premises, and the case was adjourned to Trinity term (45). The following September (46) Michael de Burgo was presented for poaching deer in Kinver Forest, and John de Burgo was fined for default in the court of Cannock and Kinver.

We have no information on the precise position of this John de Burgo in the family, which is particularly unfortunate in that he appears to be the direct ancestor of the Broughs of Leek. Michael de Burgo was a younger brother of Bertoline, and thus an uncle of Bertram III (see above). It is possible that John was his son or brother, certainly John's descendants inherited part of the Brough estates, and there is no doubt that he was a son or grandson of Hamon de Burgo alias de Plardiwick.

We do have a copy of the deed by which John's widow Alice released to their son Elias their lands in Haughton and Ranton (47):

Know all men by these presents that I Alice late wife of John de la Bourgh in my widowhood have released to Elias son of the said John all my right in Halghton and Ronton &c. These witnesses, John de Knytheley Thomas Banastre, Richard Noel and others.

In 1271-2 Bertram de Burgo pays half a mark (6s 8d) at Staffordshire assizes to compound with Richard de Boreweston (Burston) and Rose his wife who had sued him for breach of covenant. The assize roll also records that Bertram was still serving as a coroner, and that he still had not taken up knighthood, for which he was amerced (48).

The following year Rose Doyley prosecuted William Sturnell, Michael de Burgo, William de Onecotes, Hamon de Burgo, William son of Michael de Burgo and five others for breaking open her house at Ranton vi et armis, and killing her cattle with bows and arrows. The defendants (49) failed to appear, and after three separate summonses the Sheriff was ordered to produce them in court at three weeks from Michaelmas 1273.

In 1274-5 (47) Bertram granted William his brother a messuage in Aluredston; he appointed his cousin Robert Bagod to deliver seisin to William. This deed is important to us, partly because it was given at Gnosall, tending to indicate that Bertram lived in Staffordshire rather than at Lee Brockhurst; and partly because he sealed the deed with his seal, giving us the earliest known representation of his coat of arms: a buck's head, with a cross patonce between the antlers. [Arms containing "Argen three stags' heads caboshed sable" is shown online at: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol8/pp72-74#anchorn8.]

In 1275 Bertram sued in the Staffordshire county court, and also by writ in King's Bench, a certain Sibilla daughter of Walter le Blund, whom he claimed as one of his natives and a fugitive. She appeared and acknowledged that she belonged to Bertram, andhe recovered her with all her issue and possessions. In the same court Matilda Devereux sued Bertram for seizing her goods and chattels at Longnor, to the value of 10 marks (£6 I3s 4d); the case was adjourned to Hilary (50).

Bertram assumed his knighthood in 1275-6; he appears as a knight at Shropshire Assizes in June 1276, and also serves as foreman of a jury at Halesowen (51). In 1278 (52) William de Brugges the Abbot of Buildwas complained in the Staffordshire assizes that Bertram had not carried out the terms of a fine levied between his predecessor William and Bertram concerning arrears of an annual rent of twelve shillings from the tenement which Thomas son of John de Cowley once held in Cowley: this was the case which Bertram had admitted to twenty years before.... Bertram failed to appear, so the Sheriff was ordered to levy the arrears by distraint, and to produce Bertram in court at Michaelmas.

In 1279-80 Rose Doyley (widow of Sir John Doyley) and her son John received a formal quitclaim from Michael de Burgo of all that virgate of land in Ranton once held by Walter Noel (53). William de Burgo (whether the son of Bertram III or the son of Bertoline or the son of Michael is not indicated) sued John de Pykestoke in 1281-2 (54) for a messuage, 4 acres of land and 3 acres of meadow in Burgh (Brough); John called to warranty William de Pykestoke, who was to be summoned for Easter. Later in the same roll we find that Bertram de Burgo III is dead; his widow Emma is being sued by Peter de Grauntsele for land, and the case is adjourned until Hilary.

Sir Bertram de Burgo III was succeeded in his Shropshire and Staffordshire estates by his eldest son Bertram de Burgo IV. The succession did not pass without challenge. In 1282 John abbot of Shrewsbury claimed a messuage and half a virgate of land in Wilbrighton (55). Bertram IV resisted, calling to warranty William de Ruton, who did not appear at the Easter assize. The Sheriff of Staffordshire was therefore ordered to seize land from William de Ruton to the value of the tenement claimed; but it was found that William owned no land in Staffordshire. The Sheriff was therefore ordered to make a survey of the land in question, and the case was adjourned to the Shropshire Michaelmas assize.

In 1283 Sarah widow of Thomas de Cowley sued Richard Townsend for dower of 19 acres in Cowley, and another tenant for a third of his holding. Richard called Bertram IV to warrant; he failed to appear at the Easter assize, so was summoned to appear at Michaelmas. He failed to appear, and Sarah won her case (56). A Shropshire feodary of 1284 confirms that Bertram de Burgh held Lee Brockhurst from John de Picheford, and the said John from the Crown. An inquest on John's estates in the following year confirms that Bertram held Lee from him by half a knight's fee. A tenure roll of later in the year indicates that the mesne lordship was now held by Nicholas de Picheford.

In 1284 Bertram appeared at Stafford assizes to confirm that Richard Townsend held his land in Cowley lawfully, and to state that Thomas de Cowley had never been possessed of the property; he appealed to the jury. The Sheriff was ordered to summon a jury for Hilary term, but the case appears then to have been postponed to Easter of 1285 when Richard son of Thomas de Cowley served a write of entry against Bertram for a half carucate of land in Cowley. However, Richard withdrew the writ at the assizes, and the case was dropped (57).

By an undated deed Bertram IV (or perhaps Bertram III before his knighting in 1275-6) (22) quitclaimed to his brother William the estate in Aluredston:

To all Christian faithful &c., Bertram de Burgo sends greetings. Know you that I have released to William de Burgo my brother and his heirs all right and claim in that messuage which is called Aluereston Hall with appurtenances and in a plot of land in Halitoun (Haughton) called the Twelve Acres &c. These witnesses, Richard de Cowley, Peter de Joneston, William de Wotton, Joan de Gnosall, William de Legh and others.

In 1286 Michael de Burgo, brother of Bertoline, is dead (58). We have no indication who succeeded to his lands in Ranton. At about this time an agreement was reached between the Abbot of Buildwas and Bertram IV concerning Wilbrighton (22):

It is agreed between the monks, abbot and convent of Buildwas of the one part and Bertram son of Sir Bertram de Burgo of the other to wit that the said monks have granted to the said Bertram and to his heirs that all his approvements made in the parks, marshes &c in the district of Wilbrighton shall so remain for ever &c., These being witnesses, lord William Bagot, lord Roger de Pynelesdon, lord Robert de Knythelegh, lord Philip de Mutton, William de More, Philip Noel and others.

In 1288-9 (59) Elizabeth widow of John Husee of Albrighton sued Bertram de Burgo IV for dower from his annual rent of 24 shillings in Cowley; he did not appear, and the dower was seized into the hands of the King. In 1289 (60) John abbot of Shrewsbury sued Bertram for a messuage and half a virgate of land in Wilbrighton, as the right of his church of Shrewsbury St. Peter. Bertram did not appear, having also previously made default, and the tenement had been taken into the King's hands, and adjudged to the Abbot by Bertram's default; but under the provisions of the Statute of Mortmain execution of the writ had been deferred. A jury was summoned by the Sheriff at Midsummer to enquire into the affair; the jury adjudged that the tenement belonged to the Abbot, and that his predecessor Thomas had possessed it, but that after Thomas's death his successor Henry had alienated it without the assent of the abbey convent. They could find no collusion between Abbot John and Bertram (to transfer the property into mortmain illegally); and so the abbot was to have seisin.

Hamon de Burgo appears as a juror in 1289-90 (61).

In 1290 Bertram IV's mother, Emma, was sued by Reginald son of Milicent de Legh near Billington for 20 acres of land and a quarter acre of wood in Legh; Emma did not appear; and the Sheriff was ordered to seize the tenement, and summon Emma to the Michaelmas assizes. (62)

In 1291-2 the Sheriff of Staffordshire was ordered to apprehend Bertram [IV] for a debt of £21 4s 8d owed to Roger Pride, a Shrewsbury merchant (63). It seems likely that Bertram started to sell off parts of estates at this period to meet his expenses. An undated deed (64) by which Bertram granted his lands in Blumenhall (Blymhill in Staffordshire) and his rights in Wainford Mill to Robert son of Robert Motun probably belongs to this period.

His mother Emma appeared at Stafford in 1292 (65) requiring William Bagot to warrant to her foty acres of land and a moiety of three acres of wood in Legh, which Roger son of Milicent claimed; William did not appear, and the Sheriff was ordered to summon him in Easter term following. The Cowley affair reappeared in the same year. Richard son of Thomas de Cowley sued Bertram for a messuage and a carucate of land in Cowley. He claimed that Thomas de Cowley the father (whose heir he was) had let the tenement to the Broughs for a period of years now expired; but Bertram stated that Thomas had enfeoffed him of the land forever by a charter, which he produced. Richard agreed that the deed was authentic, but pleaded that Thomas had made the enfeoffment under duress, while imprisoned in Newgate. Bertram claimed, on the contrary, that the deed had been executed at Brough, and appealed for the matter to be tried by a jury. Afterwards an agreement was made by which Richard dropped his claim in exchange for two acres in Legh.

Bertram de Burgo IV was dead by 1293, in which year he was succeeded as a county coroner by Bertram de Burgo V his son and heir (66). Bertram V, Emma his grandmother, and William (his uncle?) appear in this receipt of 1294-5 (22):

To all men who shall read these present letters, Ralph de Esteleye sends greeting in the Lord; may you all know that I have received by the hands of lord Robert Bagod from lady Emma de Burgo, Bertram de Burgo, and William de Burgo, 60 marks of silver in part payment of 410 marks in which the lady Emma, Bertram and William are bound to me for the marriage of Rose my wife &c. Given 23 Edward I (20 Nov 1294 to 19 Nov 1295). Seal: on a shield between two roses, a lion rampant.

In 1295 (67) John parson of Weston under Brewood sued William son of William Bagod and Robert his brother for deforcing him from 4 acres of wood and 40 acres of pasture in Wilbrighton which Bertram de Burgh had demised to him for a term, and within which term Bertram had sold the wood and pasture to William and Robert, whereupon they had ejected the parson. William and Robert failed to appear. William was ordered to be attached for Michaelmas session, but it was stated that Robert was a clerk without any lay property. Later it was discovered that he held a benefice within the diocese, so an order was sent to the Bishop of Coventry to produce him at Michaelmas.

In 1300-1 Emma de Burgo widow made a grant to Henry de Burgo her son (22); the details of the grant are not known.

In 1303 (68) Bertram V was sued by William Bagot for a messuage and half a carucate of land in Wilbrighton; Bertram did not appear, and the suit was successively adjourned to Martinmas and Easter following, the lands being seized by the Sheriff. The matter was decided in Trinity term of 1305, when William paid half a mark (3s 4d) for licence to bring the suit to an end by agreement with William son of Bertram de Burgo. The implication is that Bertram de Burgo V died without issue 1303 to 1305, leaving the estates to his younger brother William. William de Burgo in 1305 (69) granted to William Bagod and Eleanor his wife, and to their right heirs, the manors of la Hyde and Patshall, and a messuage and one carucate of land in Wilbrighton.

A deed from the Brough papers suggests that William de Burgo was not Bertram V's brother, but his uncle William. In 1310 William made this grant to Henry de Burgo his brother; William is specifically identified as son of Sir Bertram de Burgo (III) (22):

Thursday after the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle 4 Edward II (3 Dec 1310) Thus it was agreed between William son of Bertram de Burgo knight and Henry his brother, to wit that the said William has given to the said Henry for his life 28 shillings annual rent from the lands and tenements which Roger le Hore of Coppenhall and Robert Ochegrene of the same hold from the said William in villenage in Coppenhall, to be received yearly together with 2s 6d annual rent from the lands which Richard Godfrey holds of the said William in the Ley under Williton &c., These being witnesses, William de Staff', William Tromwyn knights, William de Wolseley, Willian de Wotton, Peter de Joneston and others; Given at Cowley 4 Edward II.

William de Burgo's seal from this deed is recorded as showing his shield, charged with three bucks' heads, no cross patonce. By a lost deed, given at Doddeley in the same year, Henry son of Bertram de Burgo granted something unknown to William his brother.

Also in the same year [1310-1311] we find this interesting deed (22):

Know all men present and future that I Bertram son of Bertram son of Bertolin de Burgh knight have granted to Bertram and Henry my sons and their heirs twenty shillings annual rent in the township of La Lye under Wylynton &c. These being witnesses, lord William de Stafford, lord William Tromwyne, lord Robert de Knithelegh, knights, John Giffard de Chilinton, Vivian de Chetowyne, Peter de Jonestan, William de Wotton and others. Given at Cowley 4 Edward II (8 Jul 1310 to 7 July 1311).

The seal is a buck's head. This head only survives in a 16th century transcript, and it is clear that the date has been mistranscribed. No Bertram de Burgh is found in any other records later than 1303. The witnesses are much the same as those in the previous deed..., and both probably belong not to 4 Edward II, but to 4 Edward I, 1276. Sir Bertram de Burgo was alive and knighted from 1276 to 1282.

This deed indicates that Sir Bertram de Burgo (III) was grandson of Bertoline de Burgo, and not his son as previously supposed; Bertram III's father being a Bertram de Burgo who presumably died before Bertoline. The succession to the Brough estates runs:

1. Philip fitz Bishop alias de Burgo: married Alice de Picheford: died about 1205: succeeded by his son

2. Bertram de Burgo I: married Elisand: died about 1215: succeeded by his son

3. Bertram de Burgo II: died about 1230 without issue (born about 1200): succeeded by his kinsman

4. Bertoline de Burgo, son of Hamon de Plardiwick alias de Burgo, son of Hamon de Burgo probably brother of Philip fitz Bishop: died about 1252: succeeded by his grandson (son of his son Bertram)

5. Bertram de Burgo III: married Emma: knighted about 1275: died about 1281: succeeded by his son

6. Bertram de Burgo IV: died about 1292; succeeded by his son

7. Bertram de Burgo V: died about 1303, without issue?: succeeded by his son, brother or uncle

8. William de Burgo[:] known to have been son of Bertram de Burgo, and perhaps the William son of Bertram III referred to in grants of around 1276; supposed by Sir William Dugdale (70) to have been son of Bertram IV

There is a dead of 1311 which suggests that William de Burgo was son, rather than grandson, of Sir Bertram de Burgo (III) (22):

To all to whom this present writing may come Adam son of Richard Collinge of Rugeley and John Tevery of Aston send greetings in the Lord. Know that we have released to William son of Bertram de Burgo knight and to his heirs all our right in all lands tenements and messuages with appurtenances which were once of Master Richard Tevery senior whose heirs we are in Little Olney &c. These witnesses, Adam de Burgo, Richard de Couleye, Peter de Janeston, William de Wotton, Roger Assheley and others, given 5 Edward II (8 Jul 1311-7 Jul 1312).

But again there is doubt whether the deed does not rightly belong to 5 Edward I, i.e. 1277.

This deed introduces us to Adam de Burgo, previously unknown; moreover another deed, of 13 June 1311 (71) is witnessed by William de Burgo, Richard lord of Cowley, Peter de Joneston, William Cote of Knightley, and a Robert de Burgo.

In 1313 in a grant (in trust) by William and Eleanor Bagot to Richard de Dunmow chaplain (72) of the lands recently wrested from the Broughs, the reversion is reserved to William de Burgo. In 1317 William occurs as a witness to a grant of land in Gunstone (73). Gunstone lines to the south of Brewood....

In 1320-1, William de Burgo and Adam de Burgo witnessed a release by John son of Richard lord of Acton at Acton (21), and in 1321-2 they both witness a grant by Richard lord of Cowley (21). In 1322-3 William de Burgo is mentioned as an executor of the will of John de Sumery (74).

Clement de Wolverhampton sued William de Burgo and Joan his wife at the Easter assizes in 1324 (75) for land in Burgh, Cowley and Aluredston; William and Joan paid twenty shillings for a licence to come to a settlement with him. The details are enrolled in the Pedes Finium of that year (76), and it was evidently a grant and regrant of the premises by Clement, who was a clerk, to help affirm William and Joan's title to their property. Their land amounted to three messuages, a mill, 3½ carucates of land, 6 acres of meadow, 6 acres of moor, and 6 marks (£4) of rent in Brough, Cowley and Aluredston.

William had let his land in Cowley to his brother Henry for life, but by 1326 William considered that Henry had so misused the bequest that William started proceedings against him in the county court for waste and destruction of his inheritance (77); the case dragged on inconclusively for the next two years (78,79).

Curiously enough, William de Burgo does not appear on the lay subsidy roll for Ranton of 1327, nor that of 1332. On both occasions the name given is an otherwise unknown Hilary de Burgo (80). Henry de Burgo is listed in 1327 at Beffcote, a hamlet just to the east of Wilbrighton.

Adam de Burgo was among the crowd brought to court in 1328 for the killing of William's mesne lord, John de Picheford. John's widow Felicia brought the case (81); Adam and the others were arrested (82) and the case was brought before the King, but because Felicia failed to appear and prosecute the case was dropped.

The Brough papers included a release of 1329 from Hugh son of master Andrew de Ashbourne to William de Burgo and Joan his wife of all his right in Little Olney in Gnosall liberty (47). William died about 1330; a lost deed of Joan his widow is dated 1331 (47). The lay subsidy of 1332 lists Hilary de Burgo at Ranton as before but Joan de Burgo at Cowley. Her son William appears to have been eldest son and heir.

In 1331 another member of the family emerges; Richard de Brough was a juror at Penkridge (83), and was the author of this receipt (47):

To all those who may see or hear this letter, Mr. Richard de Burgh sends gretting: know that I have received from John de Burgh 44s 6d in part of those monies which he owes me; the which 44s 6d I the said Richard de Burgh hold myself fully to have been paid &c In witness whereof I have put my seal to this letter of acquittance. Given at Burgh Tuesday next before the Feast of Saint Boniface 5 Edward III (4 June 1331).

Richard is recorded in December 1337 and March 1337/8, as Richard de Burgh of Haughton (84,85).; he is described as tenant for life of Haughton manor in July 1340, but has not been found in later records. Clearly he was closely related to William and Joan but the relationship has not been discovered.

Roger a son of William and Joan is mentioned in the entail of property in Blimhill belonging to Roger son of Roger de Picheford and Eleanor his wife. It is possible that Roger was a godson (86).

Adam de Burgh, who is represented in some pedigrees as a son of William de Burgh (87), is also referred to at this period. His son Thomas was among a group accused by the Abbot of St. Ebrulf for forcibly removing corn, barley, beans, peas and oats from his lands at Great Onn to the value of £20. The defendants appealed to a jury summoned to Michaelmas 1333, and the jury found in their favour. (88) Adam himself was accused of stealing goods worth £100 of John de Stafford from Great Sandon in 1336. Adam failed to appear and the Sheriff stated that he had no property by which he could be bound over; his arrest was ordered (89).

A Hamon de Burgh is also found at this period, as a juror in 1337 (90).

William (II), son of William and Joan, granted all his inheritance to his mother in 1337; land in Brough, Gnosall, Cowley, Aluredston, Ranton, Bradley and Great Onn (47). Humfrey Hastangs, Archdeacon of Coventry, granted William six acres of land in Cowley in 1339 (47). Joan granted her younger son Adam a plot of land in Coton in Cowley fee in 1342 (91). Seven years later Joan settled the bulk of the estates of William II, prior to his marriage with Elizabeth daughter of lord John de Weston (47):

Know present and future that I Joan relict of William de Burgh have given to William son of Willian de Burgh and to Elizabeth daughter of John de Weston knight my messuage and all my lands and tenements which I have in Aluredston and in Haughton and a moiety of all the lands and tenements of Little Olney in Gnosall Fee &c to hold to the said William and Elizabeth and to the heirs of their bodies &c. These witnesses, Thomas lord of Weston next to Brewood, Robert lord of Knightley, Robert de Cowley and others, Given at Aluredston 23 Edward III.

Another dead from the same source, dated 1349, gives us a glimpse of a collateral branch of the Brough family holding land at Brough, and presumably cousins of William de Burgh II:

Know present and future that I Alice daughter of John del Burgh have given to lord Thomas del Burgh chaplain all landa and tenements which were of John son of Hamon del Burgh my father in Over Burgh amd the Nether Burgh in the parish of Bradley &c Given 1349 23 Edward III.

This Thomas de Burgh makes a grant in 1354, (91) perhaps having renounced his priesthood:

Know present and future that I Thomas del Bourgh have given to William de Wotton of Cowley a cottage with appurtenances in Cowley which is called the Parrok &c saving however to me and my heirs two appearances a year at my court of Cowley whenever reasonably forewarned, and heriots as they shall fall due &c Given at Cowley 28 Edward III.

Thomas is acting as lord of the manor of Cowley, which he can only have received through Joan de Burgh; again this raises a doubt whether he could be Thomas the chaplain. Perhaps this Thomas was a younger son of William and Joan.

In 1366 Thomas made a further grant (now lost) (47). In 1369 (92) he granted his fishpond at Gosmer (Goosemoor) in Cowley, Walton and Onn to Robert son of Roger de Knightley. In 1372 Thomas granted a cottage in Cowley to John de Highefeld of Stafford and to Agnes his wife for their lives (47). Two years later we have Thomas de Burgh and Elizabeth his wife sued (93) by Agnes de Bromshulf for a messuage, two carucates and ten acres of land, four acres of meadow and four acres of wood in Chartley, Kingston and Gratwich; the suit was successively adjourned to 1375. Thomas is last found in 1381 (94), accused by Richard de Bramshall of forcibly entering his fields and houses at Bramshall, Kingston and Gratwich (near Uttoxeter) on Monday September 2nd 1370, and cutting down three hundred oak trees, a hundred ashes, forty elms, a hundred birches, and a hundred hazels, and seizing clothes of linen and woollen, vessels of brass and wood, and 40 marks of money (£26 13s 4d); causing in all £100 worth of damage.

Peter de Burgh, otherwise unknown is recorded in 1368 (95); he lived at Sandon. He and his son John were sued by Nicholas de Stafford for stealing his goods (worth £20), and abducting his native William de Hulle, from Throwley.

John de Burgh, perhaps another son of William and Joan, also appears at this period. He certainly held part or all of the ancestral estate at Brough itself, for he was licensed to have an oratory there for two years from 18 Feb 1370/1 (96). He is mentioned as a juror in 1376 (97), and again in 1379 (98). He witnesses a grant by John son of Roger de Knightley of lands in Kinghtley in 1382-3 (99). In 1383 (100) John appears again as a juror, but has not been found later.

William de Burgh II made a lost grant in 1372 (91), and is last recorded in 1393-4 when he witnessed a grant of land in Cowley by Richard son of Thomas de Cowley and Alice his wife (21). With his death the main Brough line came to an end. Already by 1382 it was evident that he would die without issue, for (101) we find a reference to John de Knyghteley and Elizabeth his wife, "cousin and heir of William de Burgh".

The takeover by the Knightley family was made complete by the purchase, for 100 marks of silver, of the Over Brough estate (a messuage, a virgate of land, 4 acres of meadow, 4 acres of wood) (102) from a certain Elias de Burgh and Alice his wife. Elias is shown in a 16th century pedigree (103) as a brother of Elizabeth Knightley's grandfather William de Burgh.

The earliest surviving description of the manner by which the Knightley family inherited the Brough property is given in 1409 (104):


The record of the suit of Oliver de Bataille and Katherine his wife, against John de Knighteley and Elizabeth his wife, respecting a messuage and forty acres of land in Wilbrighton, and in which judgment had been delivered in Banco in favour of Oliver and Katherine in 8 Richard II (1384-5), was brought into Court by writ of error. The record shows that John de Knyghteley and Elizabeth claimed under a fine levied by William Bagot and Eleanor his wife in the reign of Edward II (1307-27), by which the tenement in question together with other lands, had been settled on William and Eleanor and the heirs of his body, and failing such, to remaun to Archibald, the son of Eleanor, and the heirs of his body, and failing such, to William Burgh and his heirs, and they stated that William and Eleanor and Archibald had all died without issue, and likewise William de Burgh had died, and John and Elizabeth had entered in right of Elizabeth, who was daughter and heir of Adam, son of the said William de Burgh. Oliver and Katherine admitted the validity of the fine, but stated that Archibald had held the tenements in fee tail after the death of William Bagot and Eleanor, and having been a rebel to king Edward II (&c &c).

This identifies Elizabeth's grandfather William de Burgh with our William de Burgo I, who died about 1330. It shows Adam de Burgo to have been his next eldest son after William II; and Adam apparently left an only daughter Elizabeth, who married John de Knightley. The Elias attributed to the family as a brother of William (103), could not have been Elias husband of Alice, but might have been his father or grandfather.

The Knightleys also inherited Cowley manor from Elizabeth de Burgh; they claimed that this was by the marriage of William de Burgh I (husband of Joan) with a Cowley heiress (91):

Let it be remembered from the evidences and deeds of the manor of Burgh in Staffordshire that Mr. Bertram de Burgh gave his manor with the appurtenances called Burgh to his son Bertram and to the heirs issuing from his body, by force of which grant the said Bertram the son was seised of the said manor as of fee tail and from the said Bertram the son the right descends to William his son and heir who married Eleanor daughter and heir of Mr John de Couleye son of Mr Robert de Couley steward of the town of Stafford, and from the said William de Burgh son of Bertram the right descended to Adam his son who married Alditha daughter of Mr. William de Harecurt and from the said Adam son of William de Burghe the right descended to Elizabeth as daughter and heir female (given in marriage to Mr. John de Knyghteleye) and the said Mr. John Knighteleye entered into all the inheritance as in right of the said Elizabeth his wife and was in peaceable possession for all his life &c., and the said Mr. Knighteleye and Elizabeth his wife bring down the right to Richard de Knighteley and from the said Richard to Richard de K his son, of Fallesley in Northamptonshire, father to Mr. Richard de Knighteley, who now seeks (&c).

The death of William de Burgh II, and the purchase of Over Brough from Elias de Burgh [I] in 1393 brings to an end the Brough family connection with Ranton parish. An Elias (his son? [Elias de Burgh II]) appears at Broomhall about 10 miles south of Brough, and is found from 1419 to 1425 in the Brewood court rolls (105):

15. Thursday before Simon and Jude 7 Henry V (26 Oct 1419)

Bromehale 4d amercements

Elias de Burgh frankpledge there presents John atte Rook junior for Poundbreach (2d) made upon Elias de Burgh of his cattle impounded by the said Elias: Also he presents Robert Scot (2d) a brewer and sells against the assize. Therefore he is in mercy.

2d amercement

John atte Rook appears against Elias de Burgh frankpledge of Bromehale in a plea of unjustly presenting, saying that he has unjustly presented upon him that he made poundbreach of his cattle impounded by the said frankpledge, which said frankpledge says that he presented upon him justly, and on this places himself upon the Great Inquest, and the said John similarly; which Inquest says that he unjustly presented the presentments upon the said John. Therefore 2d damaged which &c Therefore &c.

Thursday Mark the Evangelist 8 Henry V 25 April 1420

Bromhale 6d amercements

Elias de Burgh frankpledge there presents Robert Skot (2d) one brewer; Also he presents that John Whethale (2d) has fished in the lord's own water in the River; and that the said John (2d) has diverted the water out of its true course into a meadow of the said Elias Therefore &c.

The Inquest presents that Elias de Burgh (2d) has inclosed for himself the common road opposite his tenement at Bromhale to the grave damage of the tenants there with a newly-erected gate; and that Isabel (2d) wife of the said Elias has forestalled the servant(s) of Alan Walker, William Broun and Richard Harryes coming along the said road Therefore &c.

16. Saturday Simon and Jude 3 Henry VI 28 October 1424

Brumhal 2d amercement

Elias del Brugh frankpledge there presents Robert Scot (2d) one brewer And sells contrary to the assize Therefore &c.

Monday after close of Easter 16 April 1425

Bromhale 6d amercements

Elias del Burgh frankpledge there presents Elias del Burgh (2d) a brewer; Also he presents Robert Scot (2d) for default of appearance and that (2d) he has not come to warrant his last essoin, Therefore &c.

The Jury presents...and that Robert Scot (16d) and Elias del Burgh hold a field called Netherrudyng fenced in at all times but which used to be common every third year and open to all men in summer time.

Elias de Burgh's widow Isabel is also found in the court rolls in 1453 and 1461:

18. Thursday the Invention of the Cross 3 May 1453

2d amercement

Isabel Burgh places herself in mercy for a trespass made upon William Gough in that in default of reparation of her fence next to a field called the Wheterudyng diverse animals entered the said field and destroyed diverse grain of the said William, to the damage, he says of three shillings, which is assessed by the Court at -

19. Thursday after Lucy the Virgin 17 December 1461

Isabel Burgh in her pure widowhood comes in court and surrenders into the hands of the lord one plot of arable land in Brewood called Jonneslees lying next to Shutgrenelene with its appurtenances to the use of Thomas Bykford the elder to hold to him his heirs and assigns by the rents and services thence formerly due according to the custom of the manor there And he is admitted tenant And gives for fine 20d and does fealty.

The next Brough found at Brewood is Richard Brough in 1494 and 1495:

23. Thursday 9 October 10 Henry VII 1494


Also they present Thomas Alen (6d) for overburdening the common of pasture, Richard Bruggis for similar (6d).

Tuesday after Invention of the Cross 5 May 1495


Also present Thomas Alen (4d) for overburdening the common of pasture, Richard Brugge (4d) for similar.

The last trace of the Brough family at Brewood is in the bede roll of 1532-3, which lists a Richard Brough at Gunstone, his wife Alice, their children Thomas and Maud, and their parents Reyne (Reginald) and John. (106). Thomas Brough, the first of the line recorded at Leek, about 1510, is not listed under Leekfrith, where his son Robert and his family appears. There is no trace of any connection with Leek earlier than c1510.


*Public Record Office

1. *Exchequer TR Domesday; but on permanent display in the British Museum. The description quoted is on f.248 verso, column 2.

2. Ranton Cartulary printed Staffordshire Historical Collections (SHC): f.12

3. History and Antiquities of Glastonbury ed Thomas Hearne, 1722; apprndix.

4. v. History of Cheshire, George Ormerod, i 93.

5. Baronia Anglica Concentrata Sir Thomas Banks pp.108-9

6. British Museum, Huntbache MS ii f.166

7. id. f.54

8. e.g. Visitation of Staffordshire 1583, e.g. B.M. Harley 1570, 1415, 6128; printed S.H.C. iii. "Ex Chartis Philippi Noel de Hilcott in Com. Staff."

9. History of Pirehill Hundred, Walter Chetwynd: peidgree of Noel; pr.S.H.C.

10. e.g. Ranton Cartulary (2).

11. Northamptonshire Record Office, Fawsley li.

12. ib. Finch Hatton 123 (FH 123(), p.284.

13. (2) f.3 and f.5

14. *Pedes Finium s.a.

15. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 1 John (Just Itin)

16. *id. 5 John

17. *id. 8 John

18. *id. 10 John

19. (2)

20. (6)

21. FH 123 p.278

22. id. P.274

23. *Curia Regis s.a., & see History of Little Onn S.H.C. and Antiquities of Shropshire, Eyton xi 362.

24. William Salt Library, Salt 95.

25. Sandon Cartulary, S.H.C.

26. British Museum Harley 5816

27. FH 123 p.284

28. id. P.285

29. *Testa de Nevill

30. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 12 Nov 1253

31. *Inq.p.m. Walkelin de Arderne 39 Henry III

32. *Hundred roll, Cuttlestone, Staffordshire, 39 Henry III

33. *Hundred roll, Bradford, Shropshire, s.a.

34. *Hundred roll, Pimhill, Shropshire, s.a.

35. *Shropshire Pleas 1256

36. S.H.C. 1911 p.428; Bodleian Library (James son of Reginald de Morton to Michael son of William de Morton); *Staffordshire Plea Roll 1268; FH 123 p.274; Bod. Blakeney (extracts from Newport deeds).

37. *Pedes Finium 14 Apr 1258

38. *Inq.p.m. John de Lyndhurst felon 43 Hen III

39. *Staffordshire Plea Roll s.a.

40. *Shropshire Forest Assize s.a.

41. *Regard of Cannock 14 Jan 1261/2

42. *Shropshire Plea Roll; Curia Regis, s.a.

43. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 26 May 1269

44. *id. 6 Oct 1268

45. *id. 19 Apr 1271

46. *Kinver Forest Pleas 30 Sep 55 Henry III

47. FH 123 p.275

48. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 56 Henry III

49. *id. 1 Edward I

50. *id. 3 Edward I

51. *Shropshire Plea Roll 4 Edward I

52. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 6 Edward I

53. Erdeswick p.136

54. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 9-10 Edward I

55. *id. 10 Edward I

56. *id. 11 & 12 Edward I

57. *id. 13 Edward I

58. *Cannock and Kinver Forest Plea Roll 14 Edward I

59. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 16-17 Edward I

60. *id. 17 Edward I

61. *Inq.p.m. Nicholas de Stafford

62. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 18 Edward I

63. *id. 19-20 Edward I

64. Giffard Charter 14

65. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 20 Edward I

66. *id. 21 Edward I

67. *id. 23 Edward I

68. *id. 31 Edward I

69. *Pedes Finium 6 October 1305

70. FH 123 p.277

71. id. P.286

72. *Pedes Finium 29 Apr 1313

73. William Salt Society Collections

74. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 16 Edward II

75. *id. 17 Edward II

76. *Pedes Finium 17 Jun 1324

77. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 19 Edward II

78. *id. 20 Edward II

79. *id. 21 Edward II

80. *E179/177/1 and 2

81. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 1 Edward III

82. *id. 2 Edward III

83. *Inq. at Penkridge 10 Sep 5 Edward III

84. *Inq. at Cannockbury 12 Dec 11 Edward III

85. *Extent of Lapley Priory 13 Mar 12 Edward III

86. *Pedes Finium 18 Nov 1331

87. e.g,. FH 123 p.277, and derivatives

88. *Staffordshire Plea Roll 7 Edward III

89. *id. 10 Edward III

90. *Inq. At Stafford 18 Mar 11 Edward III

91. FH 123 p.276

92. ib. p.289

93. *Staffordshire Plea Roll Trinity 48 Edward III

94. *id. Michaelmas 4 Richard II

95. *id. Michaelmas 42 Edward III

96. Lichfield Joint Record Office B/A/I/5 12 kal Mart 1370/1

97. *Staffordshire Plea Roll Trinity 50 Edward III

98. *id. Hilary 2 Richard II

99. FH 123 p.290

100. *Staffordshire Plea Roll Easter 6 Richard II

101. *id. Michaelmas 6 Richard II

102. *Pedes Finium, a month from Easter 16 Richard II

103. B.M. Harley 2153 p.108a

104. *Coram Rege, Trinity 11 Henry IV

105. Staffordshire Record Office D590/433

106. Stafford Archdeaconry Bede Roll Lichfield J.R.O. B/A/27ii