Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography (/?bwe?n?s '??ri?z/ or /-'a?r?s/;[6] Spanish pronunciation: ['bwenos 'aj?es] (listen)),[7] officially the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography (Spanish: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires Wedding Photography), is the capital and primate city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires Wedding Photography" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre", named after the Madonna of Bonaria in Sardinia, Italy. Buenos Aires Wedding Photography is classified as an alpha global city, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) 2020 ranking.[8]

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

Service options: Online appointments ·

Address: Teodoro García 2600, C1426DMT CABA, Argentina

Hours: Open 24 hours

Phone: +54 11 5045-4355

Website: wfphoto.biz

The city of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography is neither part of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Province nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an autonomous district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Province.[9] The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores; both are now neighborhoods of the city. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name of Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography. Its citizens first elected a Chief of Government in 1996; previously, the Mayor was directly appointed by the President of Argentina.

The Greater Buenos Aires Wedding Photography conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million.[10] It is also the second largest city south of the Tropic of Capricorn. The quality of life in Buenos Aires Wedding Photography was ranked 91st in the world in 2018, being one of the best in Latin America.[11][12] In 2012, it was the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America.[13]

It is known for its preserved eclectic European architecture[14] and rich cultural life.[15] It is a multicultural city that is home to multiple ethnic and religious groups, contributing to its culture as well as to the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country. This is because since the 19th century, the city, and the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together. Thus, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography is considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.[16] Buenos Aires Wedding Photography held the 1st FIBA World Championship in 1950 and 11th FIBA World Championship in 1990, the 1st Pan American Games in 1951, was the site of two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup and one in the 1982 FIVB Men's World Championship. Most recently, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography had a venue in the 2001 FIFA World Youth Championship and in the 2002 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, hosted the 125th IOC Session in 2013, the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics[17] and the 2018 G20 summit.[18]

Etymology Wedding Photography

Main article: Names of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

Our Lady of Buen Aire in front of the National Migration Department

It is recorded under the Aragonese's archives that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari (Sardinia) under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city.[19] The hill was known to them as Bonaira (or Bonaria in Sardinian language), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the castle area), which is adjacent to swampland. During the Cagliari's siege, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville.[19]

In the first foundation of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires Wedding Photography", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography.[20] Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Madonna of Bonaria from Sardinia[21] (which is still to this day the patroness of the Mediterranean island[22]). Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541.[20]

For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But in 1882, after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, Argentine merchant Eduardo Madero ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.[23] A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form that eventually became the city's name, "Buenos Aires Wedding Photography", became commonly used during the 17th century.[24]

The usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires Wedding Photography in Spanish is Bs.As.[25] It is common as well to refer to it as "B.A." or "BA".[26] When referring specifically to the autonomous city, it is very common to colloquially call it "Capital" in Spanish. Since the autonomy obtained in 1994, it has been called "CABA" (per Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography).

History Wedding Photography

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See also: Timeline of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

Timeline of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

Historical affiliations Wedding Photography

 Kingdom of Spain - Habsburg, 1536–1700

 Kingdom of Spain - Bourbon, 1700–1808

 Kingdom of Spain - Bonaparte, 1808–1810

 United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, 1810–1831

 Argentine Confederation, 1831–1852

 State of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, 1852–1861

 Argentina, 1861–present

Colonial times Wedding Photography

Juan de Garay founding Buenos Aires Wedding Photography in 1580. The initial settlement, founded by Pedro de Mendoza, had been abandoned since 1542.

Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.

In 1516, navigator and explorer Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata. His expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre[2] (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of Sardinia) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza. The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, south of the city center.

More attacks by the indigenous people forced the settlers away, and in 1542, the site was thusly abandoned.[27][28] A second (and permanent) settlement was established on 11 June 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires Wedding Photography."[24]

From its earliest days, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography depended primarily on trade. During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville (the only port allowed to trade with the colonies) to Lima, Peru, and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty. Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive. This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese. This also instilled a deep resentment among porteños towards the Spanish authorities.[2]

Sensing these feelings, Charles III of Spain progressively eased the trade restrictions before finally declaring Buenos Aires Wedding Photography an open port in the late 18th century. The capture of Portobelo in Panama by British forces also fueled the need to foster commerce via the Atlantic route, to the detriment of Lima-based trade. One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with Buenos Aires Wedding Photography as the capital. However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution, instead became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.

War of Independence Wedding Photography

See also: Argentine War of Independence

 Wedding Photography

Emeric Essex Vidal, General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros, 1820. In this area now lies the Plaza San Martín.

Impression of the Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Cathedral by Carlos Pellegrini, 1829.

During the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, British forces attacked Buenos Aires Wedding Photography twice. In 1806 the British successfully invaded Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, but an army from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers defeated them. In the brief period of British rule, the viceroy Rafael Sobremonte managed to escape to Córdoba and designated this city as capital. Buenos Aires Wedding Photography became the capital again after its recapture by Argentine forces, but Sobremonte could not resume his duties as viceroy. Santiago de Liniers, chosen as new viceroy, prepared the city against a possible new British attack and repelled a second invasion by Britain in 1807. The militarization generated in society changed the balance of power favorably for the criollos (in contrast to peninsulars), as well as the development of the Peninsular War in Spain.

An attempt by the peninsular merchant Martín de Álzaga to remove Liniers and replace him with a Junta was defeated by the criollo armies. However, by 1810 it would be those same armies who would support a new revolutionary attempt, successfully removing the new viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. This is known as the May Revolution, which is now celebrated as a national holiday. This event started the Argentine War of Independence, and many armies left Buenos Aires Wedding Photography to fight the diverse strongholds of royalist resistance, with varying levels of success. The government was held first by two Juntas of many members, then by two triumvirates, and finally by a unipersonal office, the Supreme Director. Formal independence from Spain was declared in 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán. Buenos Aires Wedding Photography managed to endure the whole Spanish American wars of independence without falling again under royalist rule.

Historically, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography has been Argentina's main venue of liberal, free-trading, and foreign ideas. In contrast, many of the provinces, especially those to the city's northwest, advocated a more nationalistic and Catholic approach to political and social issues. In fact, much of the internal tension in Argentina's history, starting with the centralist-federalist conflicts of the 19th century, can be traced back to these contrasting views. In the months immediately following said "May Revolution", Buenos Aires Wedding Photography sent a number of military envoys to the provinces with the intention of obtaining their approval. Instead, the enterprise fueled tensions between the capital and the provinces; many of these missions ended in violent clashes.

In the 19th century the city was blockaded twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by an Anglo-French expedition from 1845 to 1848. Both blockades failed to bring the Argentine government to the negotiating table, and the foreign powers eventually desisted from their demands.

19th and 20th century Wedding Photography

View of the Avenida de Mayo in 1915

During most of the 19th century, the political status of the city remained a sensitive subject. It was already the capital of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Province, and between 1853 and 1860 it was the capital of the seceded State of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography. The issue was fought out more than once on the battlefield, until the matter was finally settled in 1880 when the city was federalized and became the seat of government, with its mayor appointed by the president. The Casa Rosada became the seat of the president.[24]

Health conditions in poor areas were appalling, with high rates of tuberculosis. Contemporaneous public health physicians and politicians typically blamed both the poor themselves and their ramshackle tenement houses (conventillos) for the spread of the dreaded disease. People ignored public-health campaigns to limit the spread of contagious diseases, such as the prohibition of spitting on the streets, the strict guidelines to care for infants and young children, and quarantines that separated families from ill loved ones.[29]

In addition to the wealth generated by customs duties and Argentine foreign trade in general, as well as the existence of fertile pampas, railroad development in the second half of the 19th century increased the economic power of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography as raw materials flowed into its factories. A leading destination for immigrants from Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, from 1880 to 1930, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography became a multicultural city that ranked itself alongside the major European capitals. During this time, the Colón Theater became one of the world's top opera venues, and the city became the regional capital of radio, television, cinema, and theater. The city's main avenues were built during those years, and the dawn of the 20th century saw the construction of South America's tallest buildings and its first underground system. A second construction boom, from 1945 to 1980, reshaped downtown and much of the city.

Construction of the Obelisk of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography on the 9 de Julio Avenue, 1936.

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography also attracted migrants from Argentina's provinces and neighboring countries. Shanty towns (villas miseria) started growing around the city's industrial areas during the 1930s, leading to pervasive social problems and social contrasts with the largely upwardly-mobile Buenos Aires Wedding Photography population. These laborers became the political base of Peronism, which emerged in Buenos Aires Wedding Photography during the pivotal demonstration of 17 October 1945, at the Plaza de Mayo.[30] Industrial workers of the Greater Buenos Aires Wedding Photography industrial belt have been Peronism's main support base ever since, and Plaza de Mayo became the site for demonstrations and many of the country's political events; on 16 June 1955, however, a splinter faction of the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo area, killing 364 civilians (see Bombing of Plaza de Mayo). This was the only time the city was attacked from the air, and the event was followed by a military uprising which deposed President Perón, three months later (see Revolución Libertadora).

 Wedding Photography

In the 1970s the city suffered from the fighting between left-wing revolutionary movements (Montoneros, ERP and F.A.R.) and the right-wing paramilitary group Triple A, supported by Isabel Perón, who became president of Argentina in 1974 after Juan Perón's death.

The March 1976 coup, led by General Jorge Videla, only escalated this conflict; the "Dirty War" resulted in 30,000 desaparecidos (people kidnapped and killed by the military during the years of the junta).[31] The silent marches of their mothers (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo) are a well-known image of Argentines' suffering during those times. The dictatorship's appointed mayor, Osvaldo Cacciatore, also drew up plans for a network of freeways intended to relieve the city's acute traffic gridlock. The plan, however, called for a seemingly indiscriminate razing of residential areas and, though only three of the eight planned were put up at the time, they were mostly obtrusive raised freeways that continue to blight a number of formerly comfortable neighborhoods to this day.

9 de Julio Avenue, 1986.  Wedding Photography

The city was visited by Pope John Paul II twice, firstly in 1982 and again in 1987; on these occasions gathered some of the largest crowds in the city's history. The return of democracy in 1983 coincided with a cultural revival, and the 1990s saw an economic revival, particularly in the construction and financial sectors.

On 17 March 1992, a bomb exploded in the Israeli Embassy, killing 29 and injuring 242. Another explosion, on 18 July 1994, destroyed a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more, these incidents marked the beginning of Middle Eastern terrorism to South America. Following a 1993 agreement, the Argentine Constitution was amended to give Buenos Aires Wedding Photography autonomy and rescinding, among other things, the president's right to appoint the city's mayor (as had been the case since 1880). On 30 June 1996, voters in Buenos Aires Wedding Photography chose their first elected mayor, Jefe de Gobierno.

21st century Wedding Photography

Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies, foreign subsidiaries, and diplomatic offices. It is located in the Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Central Business District.

In 1996, following the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, the city held its first mayoral elections under the new statutes, with the mayor's title formally changed to "Head of Government". The winner was Fernando de la Rúa, who would later become President of Argentina from 1999 to 2001.

De la Rúa's successor, Aníbal Ibarra, won two popular elections, but was impeached (and ultimately deposed on 6 March 2006) as a result of the fire at the República Cromagnon nightclub. In the meantime, Jorge Telerman, who had been the acting mayor, was invested with the office. In the 2007 elections, Mauricio Macri of the Republican Proposal (PRO) party won the second-round of voting over Daniel Filmus of the Frente para la Victoria (FPV) party, taking office on 9 December 2007. In 2011, the elections went to a second round with 60.96 percent of the vote for PRO, compared to 39.04 percent for FPV, thus ensuring Macri's reelection as mayor of the city with María Eugenia Vidal as deputy mayor.[32]

PRO is established in the most affluent area of the city and in those over fifty years of age.[33]

The 2015 elections were the first to use an electronic voting system in the city, similar to the one used in Salta Province.[34] In these elections held on 5 July 2015, Macri stepped down as mayor and pursue his presidential bid and Horacio Rodríguez Larreta took his place as the mayoral candidate for PRO. In the first round of voting, FPV's Mariano Recalde obtained 21.78% of the vote, while Martín Lousteau of the ECO party obtained 25.59% and Larreta obtained 45.55%, meaning that the elections went to a second round since PRO was unable to secure the majority required for victory.[35] The second round was held on 19 July 2015 and Larreta obtained 51.6% of the vote, followed closely by Lousteau with 48.4%, thus, PRO won the elections for a third term with Larreta as mayor and Diego Santilli as deputy. In these elections, PRO was stronger in wealthier northern Buenos Aires Wedding Photography, while ECO was stronger in the southern, poorer neighborhoods of the city.[36][37]

Geography Wedding Photography

Satellite view of the Greater Buenos Aires Wedding Photography area, and the Río de la Plata.

The city of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography lies in the pampa region, with the exception of some areas such as the Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Ecological Reserve, the Boca Juniors (football club)'s "sports city", Jorge Newbery Airport, the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself; these were all built on reclaimed land along the coasts of the Rio de la Plata (the world's widest river).[38][39][40]

The region was formerly crossed by different streams and lagoons, some of which were refilled and others tubed. Among the most important streams are the Maldonado, Vega, Medrano, Cildañez, and White. In 1908, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure, many streams were channeled and rectified; furthermore, starting in 1919, most streams were enclosed. Most notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954; it currently runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue.

Parks Wedding Photography

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Botanical Garden

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography has over 250 parks and green spaces, the largest concentration of which are on the city's eastern side in the neighborhoods of Puerto Madero, Recoleta, Palermo, and Belgrano. Some of the most important are:

Parque Tres de Febrero was designed by urbanist Jordán Czeslaw Wysocki and architect Julio Dormal. The park was inaugurated on 11 November 1875. The subsequent dramatic economic growth of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography helped to lead to its transfer to the municipal domain in 1888, whereby French Argentine urbanist Carlos Thays was commissioned to expand and further beautify the park, between 1892 and 1912. Thays designed the Zoological Gardens, the Botanical Gardens, the adjoining Plaza Italia and the Rose Garden.

Botanical Gardens, designed by French architect and landscape designer Carlos Thays, the garden was inaugurated on 7 September 1898. Thays and his family lived in an English style mansion, located within the gardens, between 1892 and 1898, when he served as director of parks and walks in the city. The mansion, built in 1881, is currently the main building of the complex.

Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Japanese Gardens Is the largest of its type in the world, outside Japan. Completed in 1967, the gardens were inaugurated on the occasion of a State visit to Argentina by Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan.

Plaza de Mayo Since being the scene of May Revolution of 1810 that led to Argentinian independence, the plaza has been a hub of political life in Argentina.

Plaza San Martín is a park located in the city's neighborhood of Retiro. Situated at the northern end of pedestrianized Florida Street, the park is bounded by Libertador Ave. (N), Maipú St. (W), Santa Fe Avenue (S), and Leandro Alem Av. (E).

Climate Wedding Photography

Main article: Climate of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography

See also: Climate of Argentina and Climatic regions of Argentina

Under the Köppen climate classification, Buenos Aires Wedding Photography has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with four distinct seasons.[41][42] As a result of maritime influences from the adjoining Atlantic Ocean,[43] the climate is temperate with extreme temperatures being rare.[44] Because the city is located in an area where the Pampero and Sudestada winds pass by,[45] the weather is variable due to these contrasting air masses.[46]

Heavy rain and thunderstorm in Plaza San Martin. Thunderstorms are usual during the summer.

Summers are hot and humid.[44] The warmest month is January, with a daily average of 24.9 °C (76.8 °F).[47] Heat waves are common during summers.[48] However, most heat waves are of short duration (less than a week) and are followed by the passage of the cold, dry Pampero wind which brings violent and intense thunderstorms followed by cooler temperatures.[46][49] The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (110 °F) on 29 January 1957.[50] In January 2022, a heatwave caused power grid failure in parts of Buenos Aires Wedding Photography metropolitan area affecting more than 700,000 households.[51]

Winters are cool with mild temperatures during the day and chilly nights.[44] Highs during the season average 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) while lows average 8.1 °C (46.6 °F).[52] Relative humidity averages in the upper 70s%, which means the city is noted for moderate-to-heavy fogs during autumn and winter.[53] July is the coolest month, with an average temperature of 11.0 °C (51.8 °F).[47] Cold spells originating from Antarctica occur almost every year, and can persist for several days.[52] Occasionally, warm air masses from the north bring warmer temperatures.[54] The lowest temperature ever recorded in central Buenos Aires Wedding Photography (Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Central Observatory) was -5.4 °C (22 °F) on 9 July 1918.[50] Snow is very rare in the city: the last snowfall occurred on 9 July 2007 when, during the coldest winter in Argentina in almost 30 years, severe snowfalls and blizzards hit the country. It was the first major snowfall in the city in 89 years.[55][56]

Spring and autumn are characterized by changeable weather conditions.[57] Cold air from the south can bring cooler temperatures while hot humid air from the north brings hot temperatures.[46]

The city receives 1,236.3 mm (49 in) of precipitation per year.[47] Because of its geomorphology along with an inadequate drainage network, the city is highly vulnerable to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.[58][59][60][61]

Climate data for Buenos Aires Wedding Photography Central Observatory, located in Agronomía (1981–2010, extremes 1906-present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 43.3

(109.9) 38.7

(101.7) 37.9

(100.2) 36.0

(96.8) 31.6

(88.9) 28.5

(83.3) 30.2

(86.4) 34.4

(93.9) 35.3

(95.5) 36.3

(97.3) 36.8

(98.2) 40.5

(104.9) 43.3


Average high °C (°F) 30.1

(86.2) 28.7

(83.7) 26.8

(80.2) 22.9

(73.2) 19.3

(66.7) 16.0

(60.8) 15.3

(59.5) 17.7

(63.9) 19.3

(66.7) 22.7

(72.9) 25.6

(78.1) 28.5

(83.3) 22.7


Daily mean °C (°F) 24.9

(76.8) 23.6

(74.5) 21.9

(71.4) 17.9

(64.2) 14.6

(58.3) 11.6

(52.9) 11.0

(51.8) 12.8

(55.0) 14.6

(58.3) 17.9

(64.2) 20.6

(69.1) 23.3

(73.9) 17.9


Average low °C (°F) 20.1

(68.2) 19.2

(66.6) 17.7

(63.9) 13.8

(56.8) 10.7

(51.3) 8.1

(46.6) 7.4

(45.3) 8.8

(47.8) 10.3

(50.5) 13.3

(55.9) 15.9

(60.6) 18.4

(65.1) 13.6


Record low °C (°F) 5.9

(42.6) 4.2

(39.6) 2.8

(37.0) -2.3

(27.9) -4

(25) -5.3

(22.5) -5.4

(22.3) -4

(25) -2.4

(27.7) -2

(28) 1.6

(34.9) 3.7

(38.7) -5.4


Average precipitation mm (inches) 138.8

(5.46) 127.1

(5.00) 140.1

(5.52) 119.0

(4.69) 92.3

(3.63) 58.8

(2.31) 60.6

(2.39) 64.2

(2.53) 72.0

(2.83) 127.2

(5.01) 117.3

(4.62) 118.9

(4.68) 1,236.3


Average precipitation days (= 0.1 mm) 9.0 8.0 8.8 9.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 6.8 7.4 10.2 9.8 9.2 99.7

Average relative humidity (%) 64.7 69.7 72.6 76.3 77.5 78.7 77.4 73.2 70.1 69.1 66.7 63.6 71.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 240.8 229.0 220.0 173.6 132.0 142.6 173.6 189.0 227.0 252.0 266.6 2,525.2

Average ultraviolet index 12 11 9 6 3 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 7

Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[47][62]

Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990),[63][note 1] Weather Atlas (UV)[64]