The Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T) consortium is an open, community-based effort to generate the first complete assembly of a human genome.

Release of the first human genome assembly was a landmark achievement, and after nearly two decades of improvements, the current human reference genome (GRCh38) is the most accurate and complete vertebrate genome ever produced. However, no one chromosome has yet been finished end to end, and hundreds of gaps persist across the genome. 

These unresolved regions include segmental duplications, ribosomal rRNA gene arrays, and satellite arrays that harbor unexplored variation of unknown consequence. 

We aim to finish these remaining regions and generate the first truly complete assembly of a human genome.  The ultimate goal of this effort is to drive technology to dramatically increase the throughput of complete, high quality telomere-to-telomere assemblies from diploid human genomes.

T2T has published a full reference of the notoriously difficult-to-sequence Y chromosome- this completes the T2T set! Read more

The human genome is complete! Hear about what this accomplishment means from T2T Consortium co-lead Karen Miga.

Watch the NHGRI's animation on why it took so long to fully sequence the human genome.

Hear from the UCSC researchers doing the challenging computational work that will finally create a diversified human reference genome. 

Watch the NHGRI's animation explaining the Human Pangenome Project, learn how the T2T project fits into this ambitious initiative.