Jawāmiʿ al-Sharīʿa

As found in Tuḥaf al-ʿUqūl of Ibn Shuʿba al-Ḥarrānī


روي أن المأمون بعث الفضل بن سهل ذا الرياستين إلى الرضا عليه السلام فقال له: إني أحب أن تجمع لي من الحلال والحرام والفرائض والسنن، فإنك حجة الله على خلقه ومعدن العلم. فدعا الرضا عليه السلام بدواة وقرطاس، وقال عليه السلام للفضل: اكتب:


It is narrated that al-Ma’mūn sent al-Faḍl b. Sahl, Dhū al-Riyāsatayn (possessor of two leading positions) to al-Riḍā عليه السلام and he said to him: I would like for to you summarize for me the lawful and the forbidden (al-ḥalāl wa al-ḥarām), and the obligations (al-farā’iḍ) and the traditions (al-sunan), for you are the Proof of God upon His creation and the repository of knowledge. So al-Riḍā عليه السلام called for an inkwell and paper, and he عليه السلام said to al-Faḍl: Write:


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم حسبنا شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله، أحدا صمدا، لم يتخذ صاحبة ولا ولدا، قيوما، سميعا، بصيرا، قويا، قائما باقيا، نورا، عالما لا يجهل، قادرا لا يعجز، غنيا لا يحتاج عدلا لا يجور، خلق كل شئ، ليس كمثله شئ، لا شبه له ولا ضد ولا ند ولا كفو.


By the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. Enough for us is the testimony that there is no god but God, unique, absolute; He did not take a spouse, or a child, self-subsisting, all-hearing, all-seeing, all-powerful, self-existing, everlasting, light, all-knowing not ignorant, able, not incapable, needless, not needy, just, not oppressing. He created everything. There is nothing like unto Him. He has no likeness, no opposite, no peer, and no equal.


وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله وأمينه وصفوته من خلقه، سيد المرسلين وخاتم النبيين وأفضل العالمين، لا نبي بعده ولا تبديل لملته ولا تغيير. وأن جميع ما جاء به محمد صلى الله عليه واله أنه هو الحق المبين، نصدق به وبجميع من مضى قبله من رسل الله وأنبيائه وحججه.


And that Muḥammad is His servant, His messenger, His trustee and His select from His creation – master of those sent, seal of the prophets, and the best of the worlds. There is no prophet after him, no replacement of his creed and no alteration. And that all that Muḥammad صلى الله عليه واله brought, that it is the clear truth. We believe in him and in all of those who passed prior to him from the messengers of God, His prophets and His proofs (ḥujaj).


ونصدق بكتابه الصادق " لا يأتيه الباطل من بين يديه ولا من خلفه تنزيل من حكيم حميد ". وأنه [ كتابه ] المهيمن على الكتب كلها. وأنه حق من فاتحته إلى خاتمته. نؤمن بمحكمه ومتشابهه. وخاصه وعامه. ووعده ووعيده. وناسخه ومنسوخه وأخباره لا يقدر واحد من المخلوقين أن يأتي بمثله.


We believe in His truthful book - “falsehood does not come to it from before it nor from behind it; a revelation from one wise, praised” (41:42) That it [His book] is dominant over all of the books. That it is the truth from its opening to its conclusion. We believe in its muḥkam (unequivocal, whose import is obvious) and its mutashābih (allegorical, ambiguous), its specific and its general, its promise and its threat, its abrogating (verses) and its abrogated, and its reports. None of the created beings is able to bring its like.


وأن الدليل والحجة من بعده على المؤمنين و القائم بأمور المسلمين، والناطق عن القرآن والعالم بأحكامه، أخوه وخليفته ووصيه والذي كان منه بمنزلة هارون من موسى، علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام أمير المؤمنين وإمام المتقين وقائد الغر المحجلين، يعسوب المؤمنين وأفضل الوصيين بعد النبيين. وبعده الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام، واحدا بعد واحد إلى يومنا هذا، عترة الرسول وأعلمهم بالكتاب والسنة وأعدلهم بالقضية وأولاهم بالامامة في كل عصر وزمان وأنهم العروة الوثقى وأئمة الهدى والحجة على أهل الدنيا حتى يرث الله الارض ومن عليها وهو خير الوارثين. وأن كل من خالفهم ضال مضل، تارك للحق والهدى. وأنهم المعبرون عن القرآن، الناطقون عن الرسول بالبيان، من مات لا يعرفهم ولا يتولاهم بأسمائهم وأسماء آبائهم مات ميتة جاهلية.


And that the evidence and the proof after him upon the believers, the one in charge of the affairs of the Muslims, the speaker about the Qur’an and the knower of its rules, is his brother, his successor, his legatee and the one who was to him of the station of Aaron to Moses, ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālibعليه السلام the Commander of the Believers, the Imām of the god-fearing, the leader of those having whiteness of the parts of wuḍū, the drone of the believers, and the best of the legatees after the prophets. After him (are) al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn عليهما السلام one after the other until this day of ours, the progeny of the Messenger, the most knowledgeable of them of the Book and the Sunna, the most just of them in law, and the most suited of them to Imamate in every age and time. And that they are the firmest handle, the Imams of guidance, the Proof upon the people of the world, until God inherits the Earth and whoever is upon it, and He is the best of the inheritors. And that each of their antagonists is misguided and misguiding, the abandoner of truth and guidance. And that they are ones who give expression to the Qur’an, the spokespersons of the Messenger through elucidation. Whoever dies and does not recognize them and does not give loyalty to them, by their names and the names of their fathers, dies the death of Ignorance (al-jāhiliyya).


وأن من دينهم الورع والعفة والصدق والصلاح والاجتهاد وأداء الامانة إلى البر والفاجر وطول السجود والقيام بالليل واجتناب المحارم وانتظار الفرج بالصبر وحسن الصحبة وحسن الجوار وبذل المعروف وكف الاذى وبسط الوجه والنصيحة والرحمة للمؤمنين.


And that from their religion is piety, chastity, truthfulness, righteousness, diligence, the fulfillment of trusts to the honest and the corrupt (alike), prolonging of prostration, rising (i.e. vigil) by night, avoidance of the forbidden, waiting for the relief with patience, goodness of companionship, good neighborly relations, exertion in the good, refraining from harm, and delight of the face and advice and mercy for the believers.


والوضوء كما أمر الله في كتابه غسل الوجه واليدين ومسح الرأس والرجلين واحد فريضة واثنان إسباغ ومن زاد أثم ولم يوجر ولا ينقض الوضوء إلا الريح والبول والغائط والنوم والجنابة. ومن مسح على الخفين فقد خالف الله ورسوله وكتابه ولم يجز عنه وضوء‌ه وذلك أن عليا عليه السلام خالف القوم في المسح على الخفين. فقال له عمر: رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه واله يمسح. فقال علي عليه السلام: قبل نزول سورة المائدة أو بعدها؟ قال لا أدري. قال علي عليه السلام: " لكني أدري أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله لم يمسح على خفيه مذ نزلت سورة المائدة ".


The wuḍū is as God commanded in His book: washing of the face and the arms, and wiping of the head and the feet – once as an obligation, and twice as a thorough performance. Whoever adds (to that) has sinned and is not rewarded. Nothing breaks the wuḍū but flatulence, urination, defecation, sleep and janāba. Whoever wipes upon the khuffs has opposed God and His Messenger and His Book, and his wuḍū has not sufficed for him. And that is because ʿAlī عليه السلام opposed the people regarding the wiping upon the khuffs. ʿUmar said to him: I saw the Prophet صلى الله عليه واله wiping. So ʿAlī عليه السلام said: Prior to the revelation of sūra al-Mā’ida or after it? He said: I don’t know. ʿAlī عليه السلام said: But I know that the Messenger of God صلى الله عليه واله did not wipe upon his khuffs since sūra al-Mā’ida was revealed.


والاغتسال من الجنابة والاحتلام والحيض، وغسل من غسل الميت فرض. والغسل يوم الجمعة. والعيدين ودخول مكة والمدينة. وغسل الزيارة. وغسل الاحرام. ويوم عرفة. و أول ليلة من شهر رمضان. وليلة تسع عشرة منه. وإحدى وعشرين. وثلاث وعشرين منه سنة.


Ghusl of janāba, (of) nocturnal emission, and menstruation, and the ghusl of someone who gives ghusl to the deceased are obligatory (farḍ). The ghusl of the day of Jumʿa, of the two ʿĪds, of entrance to Mecca and Medina, the ghusl of ziyāra, the ghusl of iḥrām, the ghusl of the day of ʿArafa, of the first night of the month of Ramaḍān, of its nineteenth night, of the twenty first, and of its twenty third are sunna.


وصلاة الفريضة: الظهر أربع ركعات. والعصر أربع ركعات. والمغرب ثلاث ركعات. والعشاء الآخرة أربع ركعات. والفجر ركعتان، فذلك سبع عشرة ركعة والسنة أربع وثلاثون ركعة: منها ثمان قبل الظهر، وثمان بعدها، وأربع بعد المغرب، وركعتان من جلوس بعد العشاء الآخرة - تعد بواحدة - وثمان في السحر، والوتر ثلاث ركعات وركعتان بعد الوتر. والصلاة في أول الاوقات. وفضل الجماعة على الفرد كل ركعة بألفي ركعة. ولا تصل خلف فاجر. ولا تقتدي إلا بأهل الولاية. ولا تصل في جلود الميتة. ولا جلود السابع. والتقصير في أربع فراسخ، بريد ذاهبا وبريد جائيا، اثنا عشر ميلا. وإذا قصرت أفطرت. والقنوت في أربع صلوات، في الغداة والمغرب والعتمة ويوم الجمعة وصلاة الظهر وكل القنوت قبل الركوع و بعد القراء‌ة. والصلاة على الميت خمس تكبيرات وليس في صلاة الجنائز تسليم لان التسليم في الركوع والسجود وليس لصلاة الجنازة ركوع ولا سجود ويربع قبر الميت ولا يسنم والجهر ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم في الصلاة مع فاتحة الكتاب.


The obligatory prayer(s) are: ẓuhr – four rakʿa, ʿaṣr – four rakʿa, maghrib – three rakʿa, the final ʿishā – four rakʿa, and fajr – two rakʿa. So that is seventeen rakʿa. The sunna is thirty four rakʿa: of them eight are before ẓuhr, eight are after it, four are after maghrib, two rakʿa while sitting after the final ʿishā – counting as one – and eight are in the early morning, the witr – three rakʿa, and two rakʿa after the witr. Prayer is (preferable) at the onset of the times. The superiority of congregational prayer over individual prayer is two thousand rakʿa for every rakʿa. Do not pray behind a transgressor, and do not follow but the people of walāya. Do not pray in the hides of the dead animal, or the hides of the predatory animal. Shortening (i.e. of prayers) is in four farāsikh – a barīd (distance traversed by the vehicle or animal being ridden) going and a barīd coming (back) – twelve miles. When you shorten, you break your fast. The qunūt is in four prayers: in the morning (i.e. fajr), maghrib, the darkening (i.e. ʿishā), the day of Jumʿa, and the prayer of ẓuhr. Every qunūt is prior to the rukūʿ and after the recitation (al-qirā’a). The prayer upon the deceased is (with) five takbirāt, and there is no taslīm in the prayer of the deceased, for the taslīm is in the rukūʿ and sujūd, and there is neither rukūʿ nor sujūd in the funeral prayer. The grave of the deceased is squared and not raised. Audible recitation (al-jahr) with bismillāhi ‘r-raḥmāni ‘r-raḥīm is in the prayer with the Fātiḥa of the Book.


والزكاة المفروضة من كل مائتي درهم خمسة دراهم ولا تجب في ما دون ذلك وفيما زاد في كل أربعين درهما درهم ولا تجب فيما دون الاربعينات شئ ولا تجب حتى يحول الحول. ولا تعطى إلا أهل الولاية والمعرفة. وفي كل عشرين دينارا نصف دينار. و الخمس من جميع المال مرة واحدة والعشر من الحنطة والشعير والتمر والزبيب. وكل شئ يخرج من الارض من الحبوب إذا بلغت خمسة أوسق ففيه العشر إن كان يسقى سيحا. وإن كان يسقى بالدوالي ففيه نصف العشر للمعسر والموسر. وتخرج من الحبوب القبضة والقبضتان، لان الله لا يكلف نفسا إلا وسعها ولا يكلف العبد فوق طاقته. والوسق ستون صاعا والصاع ستة أرطال وهو أربعة أمداد والمد رطلان وربع برطل العراقي وقال الصادق عليه السلام: هو تسعة أرطال بالعراقي وستة أرطال بالمدني.


The mandated zakāt is five dirhams in every two hundred dirhams, and it is not obligatory in what is less than that. And in what is increased (from that) is a dirham in every forty dirhams, and nothing is obligatory in what is less than the forties (meaning it would still be one dirham if the amount over two hundred was anywhere between forty and seventy nine). It is not obligatory until the year has elapsed. Do not give but (to) the people of walāya and maʿrifa. For every twenty dīnārs it is half a dīnār. The fifth (al-khums) is once from all of the wealth, and the tenth is from wheat and barley and dates and raisins. When anything that comes out from the earth, of the grains, reaches five awsāq, then in it is the tenth if it is irrigated by running water (e.g. rivers). And if it is irrigated by a water-wheel then in it is the fifth (lit. half of the tenth) for the insolvent and the well-to-do (alike). A handful and two handfuls are taken out from the grains, for God does not task a soul but to its ability and He does not task a servant above his capability. The wasq is sixty ṣāʿ and the ṣāʿ is six arṭāl (pl. of riṭl/raṭl) and it is four amdād (pl. of mudd). The mudd is two rotls and a quarter, by the Iraqi rotl. al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: It is nine Iraqi arṭāl and six Medinan arṭāl.


وزكاة الفطر فريضة على رأس كل صغير أو كبير، حر أو عبد من الحنطة نصف صاع. ومن التمر والزبيب صاع. ولا يجوز أن تعطى غير أهل الولاية، لانها فريضة.


The zakat of fiṭr is an obligation (farīḍa) upon every head, (whether) young or old, (or) free or slave – from wheat, half a ṣāʿ and from dates and raisins, a ṣāʿ. It is not permissible to give (it) to other than the people of walāya, for it is an obligation.


وأكثر الحيض عشرة أيام وأقله ثلاثة أيام. والمستحاضة تغتسل وتصلي. و الحائض تترك الصلاة ولا تقضي، وتترك الصيام وتقضيه.


The maximum (limit) of menstruation (al-ḥayḍ) is ten days and its minimum (limit) is three days. The mustaḥāḍa (the women undergoing irregular bleeding) does ghusl and prays. The menstruating woman leaves off prayer and she does not do qaḍā (of it later), and she leaves off fasting and does do qaḍā of it.


ويصام شهر رمضان لرؤيته ويفطر لرؤيته. ولا يجوز التراويح في جماعة و صوم ثلاثة أيام في كل شهر سنة من كل عشرة أيام يوم خميس من العشر الاول. والاربعاء من العشر الاوسط. والخميس من العشر الآخر. وصوم شعبان حسن وهو سنة وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: " شعبان شهري وشهر رمضان شهر الله " وإن قضيت فائت شهر رمضان متفرقا أجزء‌ك.


The month of Ramaḍān is fasted by its (i.e. the new crescent’s) sighting, and (its fast) is broken by its sighting (i.e. ʿĪd is celebrated by its sighting). The tarāwīḥ is not permissible in a congregation (jamāʿa). The fast of three days in every month is a sunna – a day in every ten days – the fifth (day) of the first ten, the fourth (day) from the middle ten, and the fifth (day) from the last ten. The fasting of Shaʿbān is good, and it is sunna. The Messenger of God صلى الله عليه واله said: Shaʿbān is my month and the month of Ramaḍān is the month of God. If you do the qaḍā of the missed (fasts) of the month of Ramaḍān separately it is better for you (lit. more sufficing of you) (i.e. not in the days of these recommended fasts).


وحج البيت من استطاع إليه سبيلا والسبيل زاد وراحلة. ولا يجوز الحج إلا متمتعا ولا يجوز الافراد والقران الذي تعمله العامة. والاحرام دون الميقات لا يجوز. قال الله: " وأتموا الحج والعمرة لله " ولا يجوز في النسك الخصي، لانه ناقص ويجوز الموجوء.


The ḥajj of the House is (an obligation on) whoever is able to (find) a way to it, and the way is provision and a riding camel. The ḥajj is not permitted but as tamattuʿ (joined with ʿumra) and the ifrād and the qirān that the ʿĀmma know are not permitted. The iḥrām apart from (donning at) the mīqāt is not permitted. God said, “And complete the ḥajj and the ʿumra for God” (2:196). The castrate (i.e. as the sacrificial animal) is not permitted in the rite, for it is deficient. The mawjū’ (an animal whose testicles have been bruised to have the same effect as castration) is permitted.


والجهاد مع إمام عادل. ومن قاتل فقتل دون ماله ورحله ونفسه فهو شهيد ولا يحل قتل أحد من الكفار في دار التقية إلا قاتل أو باغ وذلك اذا لم تحذر على نفسك ولا أكل أموال الناس من المخالفين وغيرهم. والتقية في دار التقية واجبة. ولا حنث على من حلف تقية يدفع بها ظلما عن نفسه.


Jihād is with a just Imam. Whoever fights and is slain in defense of his property, his baggage (or: saddle) and his self, he is a martyr. And it is not allowed to kill (any) one of the unbelievers (al-kuffār) in the realm of taqiyya except for a murderer or an aggressor and that is when you had not been fearful for your own life, and (it is) not (allowed) to consume the properties of the people from the opponents and those beside them. And taqiyya in the realm of taqiyya is obligatory. And there is no perjury upon the one who would takes an oath in taqiyya, to repel oppression from himself thereby.


والطلاق بالسنة على ماذكر الله عزوجل وسنة نبيه صلى الله عليه واله ولا يكون طلاق بغير سنة وكل طلاق يخالف لكتاب فليس بطلاق وكل نكاح يخالف السنة فليس بنكاح. ولا تجمع بين أكثر من أربع حرائر. وإذا طلقت المرأة ثلاث مرات للسنة لم تحل له حتى تنكح زوجا غيره. وقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: " اتقوا المطلقات ثلاثا فإنهن ذوات أزواج ".


Divorce by the sunna is (only valid) as per what God عزوجل mentioned and the Sunna of His prophet صلى الله عليه واله. Divorce is not (valid) through other than the Sunna. Every divorce that opposes the Book is not a divorce. Every marriage that opposes the Sunna is not a marriage. More than four freewomen are not combined. When the wife is divorced three times for (i.e. by) the Sunna, she is not allowed for him until she marries a husband other than him. The Commander of the Believers عليه السلام said: Beware the thrice divorced women for verily they are married.


والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه واله في كل المواطن عند الرياح والعطاس وغير ذلك.


The benediction upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه واله is in every place: with winds, sneezing, and other than that.


وحب أولياء الله وأوليائهم وبغض أعدائه والبراء‌ة منهم ومن أئمتهم.


Love of the awliyā (pl. of walī) of God and their awliyā, and hatred of His enemies and disassociation (al-barā’a) from them and from their Imams.


وبر الوالدين، وإن كانا مشركين فلا تطعهما وصاحبهما في الدنيا معروفا لان الله يقول: " اشكر لي ولوالديك إلي المصير * وإن جاهداك على أن تشرك بي ما ليس لك به علم فلا تطعهما " قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: " ما صاموا لهم ولا صلوا ولكن أمروهم بمعصية الله فأطاعوهم، ثم قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله يقول: من أطاع مخلوقا في غير طاعة الله عزوجل فقد كفر واتخذ إلها من دون الله ".


Goodness towards parents. If they are mushriks, do not obey them. Befriend them in the world in a good manner, for God says “Give thanks to Me and to your parents; to Me is the homecoming. But if they strive with you to make you associate with Me that whereof you have no knowledge, then do not obey them” (31:14-15). The Commander of the Believers عليه السلام said: They do not fast for them nor do they pray to them rather they commanded them to the disobedience of God and they obeyed them. Then he said: I heard the Messenger of God صلى الله عليه واله say: Whoever obeys a creation in disobedience to God عزوجل has disbelieved and taken a god apart from God.


وذكاة الجنين ذكاة امه.


The legal slaughter of the fetus is the legal slaughter of its mother.


وذنوب الانبياء صغار موهوبة لهم بالنبوة.


The minor sins of the prophets are granted to them due to prophethood.


والفرائض على ما أمر الله لا عول فيها ولا يرث مع الوالدين والولد أحد إلا الزوج والمرأة. وذو السهم أحق ممن لا سهم له وليست العصبة من دين الله.


The apportioned inheritances (al-farā’iḍ) are as per what God commanded, there is no reduction (ʿawl) it, and none inherits along with the parents and the child except for the husband and the wife. The owner of the share has a greater right than one who has no share. And residuaries (al-ʿaṣaba) is not from the religion of God.


والعقيقة عن المولود الذكر والانثى يوم السابع. ويحلق رأسه يوم السابع. ويسمى يوم السابع. ويتصدق بوزن شعره ذهبا أو فضة يوم السابع.


The ʿaqīqa for the newborn, male and female, is on the seventh day. (The newborn’s) head is shaven on the seventh day. (The newborn) is named on the seventh day. And charity is given by the weight of (the (the newborn’s) hair in gold or silver on the seventh day.


وأن أفعال العباد مخلوقة خلق تقدير، لا خلق تكوين. ولا تقل بالجبر ولا بالتفويض، ولا يأخذ الله عزوجل البرئ بجرم السقيم، ولا يعذب الله الابناء والاطفال بذنوب الآباء وإنه قال: " ولا تزر وازرة وزر اخرى ". " وأن ليس للانسان إلا ما سعى " والله يغفر ولا يظلم. ولا يفرض الله على العباد طاعة من يعلم أنه يظلمهم و يغويهم. ولا يختار لرسالته ويصطفي من عباده من يعلم أنه يكفر ويعبد الشيطان من دونه.


And that the acts of the servants are created – a creation of measure (khalq taqdīr), not a creation of bringing into being (khalq takwīn). Do not profess compulsion (al-jabr) or delegation (al-tafwīḍ). God عزوجل does not bring the innocent to account for the offense of the sick (at heart), and God does not punish the sons and the children for the sins of the fathers. Verily He said, “And no bearer shall bear the burden of another” (6:164 et al), “And that man shall not have save what he strives for” (53:40). God forgives and does not wrong. God does not oblige obedience upon the servants towards one who He knows will oppress them and lead them astray. He does not choose for His message or select from His servants one who He knows will commit kufr and worship Shayṭān apart from Him.


وأن الاسلام غير الايمان. وكل مؤمن مسلم وليس كل مسلم مؤمنا. لا يسرق السارق حين يسرق وهو مؤمن. ولا يشرب الشارب حين يشرب الخمر وهو مؤمن ولا يقتل النفس التي حرم الله بغير الحق وهو مؤمن. وأصحاب الحدود لا بمؤمنين ولا بكافرين. وأن الله لا يدخل النار مؤمنا وقد وعده الجنة والخلود فيها ومن وجبت له النار بنفاق أو فسق أو كبيرة من الكبائر لم يبعث مع المؤمنين ولا منهم. ولا تحيط جهنم إلا بالكافرين. وكل إثم دخل صاحبه بلزومه النار فهو فاسق. ومن أشرك، أو كفر، أو نافق، أو أتى كبيرة من الكبائر. والشفاعة جائزة للمستشفعين. والامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر باللسان واجب.


And that Islām is different from Imān. Every believer (mu’min) is a Muslim but not every Muslim is a believer. The thief does not steal while he steals and (yet) remain a believer. The drunkard does not drink while he is drinking wine and (yet) remain a believer. One does not kill the soul which God has forbidden unjustly and (still) be a believer. The people of the ḥudūd (corporeal punishments for certain crimes) are neither believers nor unbelievers (kāfirīn). And that God will not make a believer enter into the Fire while He has promised him the Garden and immortality in it. For whomsoever the Fire has been made obligatory due to hypocrisy or corruption or a great sin from the greater sins is neither raised with the believers nor is from among them. Hell will not encompass but the unbelievers. Every sin which necessitates its master to be made to enter the Fire then he (the one who commits is) a fāsiq – whoever commits shirk or kufr or commits hypocrisy or comes with a great sin from the greater sins. Intercession is a reward for the ones seeking intercession. Commanding to the good and prohibiting evil by the tongue is obligatory.


والايمان أداء الفرائض واجتناب المحارم. والايمان هو معرفة بالقلب وإقرار باللسان وعمل بالاركان.


Faith (al-imān) is the fulfillment of the obligations and avoidance of the prohibitions. And faith is recognition by the heart, affirmation by the tongue, and action as per the basic principles.


والتكبير في الاضحى خلف عشر صلوات يبتدأ من صلاة الظهر من يوم النحر وفي الفطر في خمس صلوات يبتدأ بصلاة المغرب من ليلة الفطر.


Takbīr in the (ʿĪd of) al-Aḍḥā follows after ten prayers, beginning from the prayer of ẓuhr of the day of the slaughtering (yawm al-naḥr), and in the (ʿĪd of) al-Fiṭr after five prayers beginning with the prayer of maghrib from the eve of al-Fiṭr.


والنفساء تقعد عشرين يوما لا أكثر منها فإن طهرت قبل ذلك صلت وإلا فإلى عشرين يوما، ثم تغتسل وتصلي وتعمل عمل المستحاضة.


The nafsā’ (women undergoing nifās, i.e. post-partum bleeding, lochia) sits (i.e. refrains from prayer) for twenty days, no more than it. So if she becomes pure prior to that she prays, otherwise (she observes) upto twenty days. Then she does ghusl and prays and acts with the act of the mustaḥāḍa.


ويؤمن بعذاب القبر ومنكر ونكير. والبعث بعد الموت. والحساب. والميزان والصراط. والبراء‌ة من أئمة الضلال وأتباعهم. والموالات لاولياء الله وتحريم الخمر قليلها وكثيرها. وكل مسكر خمر. وكل ما أسكر كثيره فقليله حرام. والمضطر لا يشرب الخمر فإنها تقتله. وتحريم كل ذي ناب من السباع وكل ذي مخلب من الطير. وتحريم الطحال فإنه دم. والجري والطافي والمارماهي والزمير وكل شئ لا يكون له قشور. ومن الطير ما لا تكون له قانصة ومن البيض كل ما اختلف طرفاه فحلال أكله وما استوى طرفاه فحرام أكله.


The punishment of the grave is believed in, and Munkar and Nakīr, the resurrection after death, the accounting, the scales and the bridge, disassociation (al-barā’a) from the Imams of misguidance and their followers, loyalty (walāya) to the awliyā of God, the forbiddance of wine (al-khamr), whether a little of it or a lot, and every intoxicant is khamr and all whose excess intoxicates, then a little of it (also) is forbidden, and the one who is in a state of necessity (compelled) should not drink wine (either), for it will kill him, and the forbiddance of every possessor of fang from the predators and every possessor of talon from the birds, the forbiddance of the spleen for it is blood, and the catfish, the floater (i.e. a dead fish floating on water), the moray eel, the zimmīr, and everything that does not have scales, from the birds those which do not have a gizzard. And from the eggs all of whose ends vary, then its eating is lawful and all of whose ends are even, then its eating is forbidden.


واجتناب الكبائر، وهي قتل النفس التي حرم الله، وشرب الخمر. وعقوق الوالدين. والفرار من الزحف. وأكل مال اليتامى ظلما. وأكل الميتة، والدم، ولحم الخنزير، وما اهل به لغير الله من غير ضرورة به. وأكل الربا والسحت بعد البينة. والميسر. والبخس في الميزان والمكيال. وقذف المحصنات. والزنا. واللواط. والشهادات الزور. واليأس من روح الله. والامن من مكر الله. والقنوط من رحمة الله. ومعاونة الظالمين والركون إليهم. واليمين الغموس. وحبس الحقوق من غير عسر. والكبر. والكفر. والاسراف. والتبذير. والخيانة وكتمان الشهادة والملاهي التي تصد عن ذكر الله مثل الغناء وضرب الاوتار. والاصرار على الصغاير من الذنوب


And avoidance of the major sins, and they are: killing the soul which God has forbidden, drinking wine, filial impiety, fleeing from the advance of the army, consuming the property of orphans unjustly, eating the dead animal (al-mayta), blood, flesh of swine, and whatever has been consecrated in the name of other than God unnecessarily, consuming usury and ill-gotten gains after the evidence, gambling, lowering in the scale and measure (i.e. cheating), slandering the chaste women, fornication, homosexual sodomy, perjury, despairing of (receiving) the comfort of God, security from the stratagem of God, despondency from the mercy of God, aiding the oppressors and relying on them, the false oath, the repression of rights despite being in ease, arrogance, kufr, wastefulness, extravagance, cheating/betrayal, concealment of testimony, the amusements that indispose one from the remembrance of God such as singing (al-ghinā) and the striking of chords/strings (guitars etc.), and persistence on the minor sins.


فهذا اصول الدين. والحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله على نبيه وآله وسلم تسليما.


So these are the roots of religion. Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, and may God send benedictions upon His Prophet and his family, and salute (him) with a salutation (of peace).