غياث سلطان الورى

Ghiyāth Sulṭān al-Warā

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ


By the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful


(قبس من) (كتاب غياث سلطان الورى لسكان الثرى) (على ترتيبنا) للسيد السند السعيد رضي الدين أبي القاسم على بن موسى بن جعفر بن طاوس الحسني.


An ember (qabas) from the book Ghiyāth Sulṭān al-Warā li-Sukkān al-Thurā, upon our ordering, by al-Sayyid al-Sanad al-Sāʿid Raḍī al-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim ʿAlī b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar b. Ṭāwūs al-Ḥasanī.


قال الفقيه الكبير المقدم الشهيد السعيد أبي عبد الله محمد بن مكي العاملي في كتابه (ذكري الشيعة): و لنذكر هنا أحاديث من هذا الباب منها السيد السعيد رضي الدين أبو القاسم علي بن طاوس الحسني طيب الله سره في كتابه المسمى: (غياث سلطان الورى لسكان الثرى) و قصد به بيان قضاء الصلاة عن الأموات.


al-Faqīh al-Kabīr al-Muqaddim al-Shahīd al-Saʿīd Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥammad b. Makkī al-ʿĀmulī said in his book Dhukrā al-Shīʿa: And we are to mention ḥadīths here from this chapter which al-Sayyid al-Saʿīd Raḍī al-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim ʿAlī b. Ṭāwūs al-Ḥasanī طيب الله سره included in his book named Ghiyāth Sulṭān al-Warā li-Sukkān al-Thurā, having intended by it the elucidation of the qaḍā of the prayer for the deceased.


[في بيان الروايات التي يدل في جواز قضاء الصلاة عن الأموات]


In elucidation of the narrations which indicate the permissibility of qaḍā of the prayer for the deceased

(Translator's note: the expression rendered here and below as prayer “for” the deceased, is literally prayer “from” the deceased, though the meaning of it is to pray on behalf of them, fulfilling for them their qaḍā prayers leftover from their lifetime. Likewise for the doing of the other acts listed in the narrations.)


قال في كتاب فرج المهموم: ص 42 (قد ذكرنا في (كتاب غياث سلطان الورى لسكان الثرى) صحة العمل بأخبار الآحاد، و أوضحنا العمل به في سائر البلاد و بين كافة العباد.)


He said in the book Faraj al-Mafhūm, page 42: We have mentioned in the book Ghiyāth Sulṭān al-Warā li-Sukkān al-Thurā the soundness of acting by the solitary narrations (akhbār al-āḥād), and we have clarified acting by it in Sā’ir al-Bilād wa Bayn Kāfat al-ʿIbād.


1 ما رواه الصدوق في كتاب من لا يحضره الفقيه و قد ضمن صحة ما اشتمل عليه، و أنه حجة بينه و بين ربه-: أن الصادق (عليه السلام) سأله عمر بن يزيد: أ يصلى عن الميت؟ فقال: نعم، حتى أنه ليكون في ضيق فيوسع (الله) عليه ذلك الضيق، ثم يؤتى فيقال له:- خفف عنك هذا الضيق بصلاة فلان أخيك عنك. و- رواه الشيخ أبو جعفر الطوسي بإسناده إلى محمد بن عمر بن يزيد، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله (عليه السلام): (و ذكر مثله).


1 – What al-Ṣadūq narrated in the book Man La Yaḥḍuruhu al-Faqīh, and he had guaranteed the soundness of what he included in it, and that it was a proof (ḥujja) between him and his Lord:

That ʿUmar b. Yazīd asked al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام: Does one pray for the deceased? He said: Yes, insomuch that were he to be in distress, God would render him free of that distress. Then he would be come unto and it would said to him: This distress has been lightened from you by the prayer of your brother so-and-so for you.


2 ما رواه علي بن جعفر في مسائله عن أخيه موسى (عليه السلام) قال: حدثني أخي موسى بن جعفر قال: سألت أبي: جعفر بن محمد (عليه السلام) عن الرجل هل يصلح له أن يصلي أو يصوم عن بعض موتاه؟ قال: نعم، فيصلي ما أحب، و يجعل ذلك للميت، فهو للميت إذا جعل ذلك له. من مسائله أيضا عن أخيه موسى (عليه السلام): (مثله).


2 – What ʿAlī b. Jaʿfar narrated in his Masā’il from his brother Mūsā عليه السلام. He said: My brother Mūsā b. Jaʿfar narrated to me. He said:

I asked my father Jaʿfar b. Muḥammad عليه السلام about whether it is appropriate for the man to pray or fast for one of his deceased?

He said: Yes, he prays whatever he likes and renders it for that deceased (person), so it is for the deceased when he rendered that for him.

Also from his Masā’il from his brother Mūsā عليه السلام likewise.


3 ما رواه الشيخ أبو جعفر الطوسي بإسناده إلى عمار بن موسى الساباطي من كتاب أصله المروي عن الصادق (عليه السلام): في الرجل يكون عليه صلاة أو يكون عليه صوم، هل يجوز له أن يقضيه رجل غير، عارف؟ قال: لا يقضيه إلا مسلم عارف.


3 – What the Shaykh Abū Jaʿfar al-Ṭūsī narrated by his isnad to ʿAmmār b. Mūsā al-Sābāṭī from his Aṣl book narrated from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام:

Regarding the man upon whom there is a prayer or upon whom there is a fast, is it permissible for non-ʿārif (i.e. non-Shiʿa) man to do its qaḍā for him? He said: None but an ʿārif Muslim does its qaḍā.


4 ما رواه الشيخ أيضا، بإسناده إلى محمد بن أبي عمير، عن رجاله عن الصادق (عليه السلام): في الرجل يموت و عليه صلاة، أو صيام؟ قال: يقضيه أولى الناس به. و رواه الشيخ محمد بن يعقوب الكليني في الكافي بإسناده إلى ابن أبي عمير عن حفص بن البختري، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام) [قال:]. و روي هذا الحديث بعينه عن حفص بطريق آخر إلى كتابه الذي هو من الأصول.


4 – What the Shaykh also narrated by his isnād to Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUmayr from his rijāl from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام:

Regarding the man who dies while there is a prayer upon him or a fast? He said: The worthiest of the people to him does its qaḍā.

And the Shaykh Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-Kulaynī narrated it in al-Kāfī by his isnad to Ibn Abī ʿUmayr from Ḥafṣ b. al-Bakhtarī from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام. He said: And he narrated this selfsame hadith by another route to his book that is from the Uṣūl (pl. of Aṣl).


5 ما روي في أصل هشام بن سالم [و هو] من رجال الصادق و الكاظم (عليهما السلام) و يروي عنه ابن أبي عمير، قال هشام في كتابه و عنه (عليه السلام) قال: قلت: يصل إلى الميت الدعاء و الصدقة و الصلاة و نحو هذا؟ قال: نعم. قلت: أو يعلم من صنع ذلك به؟ قال: نعم. ثم قال: يكون مسخوطا عليه فيرضى عنه.


5 – What is narrated in the Aṣl of Hishām b. Sālim, and he is from the rijāl of al-Ṣādiq and al-Kāẓim عليهما السلام, and Ibn Abī ʿUmayr narrated from him. Hishām said in his book: And from him عليه السلام, he said: I said:

Does the supplication, the charity, the prayer and what is similar to this reach the deceased? He said: Yes.

I said: And does he know who did that with him? He said: Yes.

Then he said: He (could) be displeased with him and he would (then) be pleased with him.


6 ما رواه علي بن أبي حمزة في أصله و هو من رجال الصادق و الكاظم (عليهما السلام) قال: و سألته عن الرجل يحج و يعتمر و يصلى و يصوم و يتصدق عن والديه و ذوي قرابته؟ قال: لا بأس به، يؤجر فيما يصنع، و له أجر آخر بصلته قرابته. قلت: و إن كان لا يرى ما أرى، و هو ناصب؟ قال: يخفف عنه بعض ما هو فيه. أقول: و هذا أيضا ذكره ابن بابويه في كتابه.


6 – What ʿAlī b. Abī Ḥamza narrated in his Aṣl, and he is from the rijāl of al-Ṣādiq and al-Kaẓimعليهما السلام. He said:

And I asked him about the man who does ḥajj and does ʿumra and prays and fasts and gives charity for his parents and his relatives. He said: There is no harm with it. He is rewarded in what he does, and he has another reward due to his (maintaining of the) bond of his kinship.


7 ما رواه الحسين بن الحسن العلوي الكوكبي في كتاب (المنسك) بإسناده إلى علي بن أبي حمزة قال: قلت لأبي إبراهيم (عليه السلام): أحج و أصلي و أتصدق عن الأحياء و الأموات من قرابتي و أصحابي؟ قال: نعم، صدق عنه، و صل عنه، و لك أجر آخر بصلتك إياه.


7 – And what al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḥasan al-ʿAlawī al-Kawkabī narrated in the book al-Mansak by his isnād from ʿAlī b. Abī Ḥamza. He said:

I said to Abū Ibrāhīm عليه السلام: Do I do ḥajj and pray and give charity for the living and the deceased from my relations and my companions?

He said: Yes, give charity for him, and pray for him, and you have another reward by your (maintaining of the) bond to him.


8 ما رواه الحسن بن محبوب في كتاب المشيخة عن الصادق (عليه السلام) إنه قال يدخل على الميت في قبره الصلاة و الصوم و الحج و الصدقة و البر و الدعاء. قال: و يكتب أجره للذي يفعله و للميت. و رواه محمد بن أبي عمير بطريق آخر عن الإمام (عليه السلام): (مثله). و رواه إسحاق بن عمار قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول: (و ذكر مثله).


8 – What al-Ḥasan b. Maḥbūb narrated in the book al-Mashīkha from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام that he said:

The prayer, the fast, the ḥajj, the charity, beneficence, and the supplication enter upon the deceased in his grave.

He said: And its reward is written for the one who does it and for the deceased.

And Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUmayr narrated it by another route from the Imām عليه السلام likewise.

And Isḥāq b. ʿAmmār narrated it. He said: I heard Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام saying, and he mentioned it likewise.


9 روى ابن بابويه عن الصادق (عليه السلام) (قال) يدخل على الميت في قبره الصلاة و الصوم و الحج و الصدقة و العتق.


9 –Ibn Bābuwayh narrated from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام. He said:

The prayer, the fast, the ḥajj, the charity, and the emancipation (of a slave) enter upon the deceased in his grave.


10 ما رواه عمر بن محمد بن يزيد قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): إن الصلاة و الصوم [و الصدقة] و الحج و العمرة و كل عمل صالح ينفع الميت حتى أن الميت ليكون في ضيق فيوسع عليه، و يقال: إن هذا بعمل ابنك فلان و بعمل أخيك فلان أخوه في الدين. و رواه حماد بن عثمان في كتابه قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): (و ذكر مثله).


10 – What ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. Yazīd narrated. He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said:

Indeed the prayer, the fast, the charity, the ḥajj, the ʿumra, and every righteous deed benefit the deceased, even that the deceased be in distress and he be rendered free of it. And it is said: This is by the act of your son so-and-so, and by the act of your brother so-and-so in the religion.

And Ḥammād b. ʿUthmān narrated it in his book. He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said, and he mentioned it likewise.


11 ما رواه علي بن يقطين و كان عظيم عند أبي الحسن موسى (عليه السلام) له كتاب المسائل عنه قال: و عن الرجل يتصدق عن الميت و يصوم و يعتق و يصلي؟ قال: كل ذلك حسن يدخل منفعته على الميت.


11 – What ʿAlī b. Yaqṭīn narrated, and he was esteemed great by Abū al-Ḥasan Mūsā عليه السلام, he had a book of the questions (kitāb al-masā’il) from him. He said:

And about the man who gives charity for the deceased, and fasts, emancipates (a slave), and prays? He said: All of that is good, its benefit enters upon the deceased.


12 ما رواه علي بن إسماعيل الميثمي في أصل كتابه قال: حدثني كردين قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله (عليه السلام): الصدقة و الحج و الصوم يلحق بالميت؟ قال نعم: قال: فقال: هذا القاضي القاضي خلفي و هو لا يرى ذلك. قال: قلت: و ما أنا و ذا، فوالله لو أمرتني أن أضرب عنقه لضربت عنقه. قال: فضحك. قال: و سألت أبا الحسن (عليه السلام) عن الصلاة على الميت أ تلحق به؟ قال: نعم. قال: و سألت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) قلت: إني لم أتصدق بصدقة منذ ماتت أمي إلا عنها. قال: نعم. قلت: أ فترى غير ذلك؟ قال: نعم، نصف عنك و نصف عنها. قلت: أ يلحق بها؟ قال: نعم.


12 – What ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl al-Mīthamī narrated in his Aṣl book. He said: Kirdīn narrated to me. He said:

I said to Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام: The charity, the ḥajj, and the fast attach to the deceased? He said: Yes. He said: So he said: This judge, the judge behind me, he does not regard that (to be so).

He said: I said: And what do I have to do with that one. So by God, were you to command me to strike his neck, I would strike his neck.

He said: So he laughed.

He said: And I asked Abū al-Ḥasan عليه السلام about prayer for the deceased, does it attach to him? He said: Yes.

He said: And I asked Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام, I said: I have not given (any) charity since my mother died save (that it be) for her.

He said: Yes.

I said: Do you regard (that I should do) other than that? He said: Yes, half for you, and half for her.

I said: Does it attach to her? He said: Yes.


و رواه أبان بن عثمان، عن علي بن مسمع قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله (عليه السلام): إن أمي هلكت و لم أتصدق بصدقه كما تقدم إلى قوله أ فيلحق ذلك بها؟ قال: نعم. قلت: و الحج؟ قال: نعم. قلت: و الصلاة؟ قال: نعم. [قال]: ثم سألت أبا الحسن (عليه السلام) بعد ذلك عن الصوم؟ فقال: نعم.


And Abān b. ʿUthmān narrated it from ʿAlī b. Mismaʿ. He said:

I said to Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام: My mother has passed away, and I have not given (any) charity – as has preceded up to his saying: So does that attach to her? He said: Yes.

I said: And the ḥajj? He said: Yes.

I said: And the prayer? He said: Yes.

He said: Then I asked Abū al-Ḥasan عليه السلام after that about the fast. So he said: Yes.


13 ما رواه عبد الله بن جندب قال: كتبت إلى أبي الحسن (عليه السلام) أسأله عن الرجل يريد أن يجعل أعماله من الصلاة و البر و الخير أثلاثا: ثلثا له، و ثلثين لأبويه؟ أو يفردهما من أعماله بشيء مما يتطوع به، و إن كان أحدهما حيا و الآخر ميتا؟ فكتب إلي: أما الميت فحسن جائز، و أما الحي فلا، إلا البر و الصلة. و رواه محمد بن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري أنه كتب إلى الكاظم (عليه السلام) مثله و أجابه بمثله.


13 – What ʿAbdullāh b. Jundab narrated. He said:

I wrote to Abū al-Ḥasan عليه السلام asking him about the man who wants to render his acts from the prayer, beneficence, and goodness in thirds: a third for him, and two thirds for his parents. Or, he assigns them both something from his acts of what he voluntarily does. And, if one of them is alive and other is deceased.

So he wrote to me: As to the deceased, then (it is) good, permissible, and as to the living, then no, except for beneficence and (maintaining the kinship) bond.

And Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāh b. Jaʿfar al-Ḥimyarī narrated it that he wrote to al-Kaẓim عليه السلام likewise and he answered him likewise.


14 ما رواه الكليني بإسناده إلى محمد بن مروان قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): ما يمنع الرجل منكم أن يبر والديه، حيين و ميتين: يصلي عنهما و يتصدق عنهما و يحج عنهما و يصوم عنهما، فيكون الذي صنع لهما، و له مثل ذلك فيزيده الله ببره. و صلته خيرا كثيرا.


14 – What al-Kulaynī narrated by his isnad to Muḥammad b. Marwān. He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said:

What prevents the man from you to do good for his parents, alive and dead: praying for them, giving charity for them, doing ḥajj for them, and fasting for them. That which one did would be for them, and he would have the like of that, and God would increase him with much good by his beneficence and his (maintaining of the kinship) bond.


15 عن عبد الله بن سنان عن الصادق (عليه السلام) قال: الصلاة التي حصل وقتها قبل أن يموت الميت يقضي عنه أولى الناس به.


15 – From ʿAbdullāh b. Sinān from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام. He said:

The worthiest of the people to the deceased does qaḍā for him of the prayer whose time he came by prior to dying.


ثم ذكر ره عشرة أحاديث تدل بطريق العموم:

1- ما رواه عبد الله بن أبي يعفور عن الصادق (عليه السلام) قال:

يقضى عن الميت الحج و الصوم و العتق، و فعاله الحسن.

2- و روى يونس، عن العلاء بن رزين، عن عبد الله بن أبي يعفور، عن الصادق (عليه السلام) (مثله).

3 ما رواه صفوان بن يحيى. و كان من خواص الرضا و الجواد (عليهما السلام).

4- و روى عن أربعين رجلا من أصحاب الصادق.

5- و رواه محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام).

6 و رواه العلاء بن رزين، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام).

7 و رواه العلاء بن رزين في كتابه، و هو أحد رجال الصادق (عليه السلام).

8 و رواه البزنطي ره و كان من رجال الرضا (عليه السلام).

9- و ذكره صاحب الفاخر مما أجمع عليه، و صح من قول الأئمة (عليهم السلام).


Then he ره mentioned hadiths indicating (the evidence of this) by general routes:

1 – What ʿAbdullāh b. Abī Yaʿfūr narrated from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام. He said:

One does qaḍā of the ḥajj, the fast, and the emancipation (of a slave) for the deceased, and his good deeds.

2 – And Yūnus narrated from al-ʿAla b. Razin from ʿAbdullāh b. Abī Yaʿfūr from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام likewise.

3 – What Ṣafwān b. Yaḥyā narrated, and he was from the khawāṣṣ (close companions) of al-Riḍā and al-Jawād عليهما السلام.

4 – And what was narrated from forty men from the companions of al-Ṣādiq.

5 – And what Muḥammad b. Muslim narrated from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام.

6 – And what al-ʿAlā b. Razīn narrated from Muḥammad b. Muslim from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام.

7 – And what al-ʿAlā b. Razīn narrated in his book, and he was one of the rijāl of al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام>

8 – And what al-Bazanṭī ره narrated, and he was from the rijāl of al-Riḍā عليه السلام.

9 – And Ṣāḥib al-Fakhīr mentioned it as being from what there is consensus upon, and (what is) sound from the doctrine of the Imams عليهم السلام.


16 ما رواه ابن بابويه ره عن الصادق (عليه السلام) قال من عمل من المسلمين عملا صالحا عن ميت أضعف الله أجره و نفع الله به الميت. رواه عمر بن يزيد قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام) (و ذكر مثله). رواه حماد في كتاب قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام) (و ذكر مثله.


16 – And what Ibn Bābuwayh narrated it from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام. He said:

Whoever from the Muslims does a righteous act for a deceased (person), God doubles his reward and God benefits the deceased by it.

And ʿUmar b. Yazīd narrated it. He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said, and he mentioned it likewise.

And Ḥammād narrated it in his book. He said: Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام said, and he mentioned it likewise.


17 و مما يصلح هنا ما أورده في التهذيب بإسناده عن عمر بن يزيد قال كان أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام) يصلي عن ولده في كل ليلة ركعتين، و عن والديه في كل يوم ركعتين قلت: جعلت فداك كيف صار للولد الليل؟ قال: لأن الفراش للولد. قال: و كان يقرأ فيهما (القدر) و (الكوثر). فإن هذا الحديث يدل على وقوع الصلاة عن الميت من غير الولد كالأب و هو حجة على من ينفي الوقوع أصلا أو ينفيه إلا من الولد.ثم ذ كر (رحمه الله) أن الصلاة دين و كل دين يقضى عن الميت.


17 – And from what is appropriate here is what he brought in al-Tahdhīb by his isnād from ʿUmar b. Yazīd. He said:

Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام used to pray two rakʿa every night for his child, and two rakʿa every day for his parents. I said: May I be made your ransom, how did the night become for the child? He said: It is because the bed is for the child.

He said: And he used to recite al-Qadr and al-Kawthar in them.

So this ḥadīth indicates upon the occurrence of the prayer for the deceased from other than the child, such as the father, and it is a proof against someone who denies its occurrence at all or (who) denies it save from the child.

Then he رحمه الله mentioned that the prayer is a debt, and every debt is carried out for the deceased.


(Translator's note: There was no "18" listed in the text consulted for translation)


أما أن الصلاة تسمى دينا ففيه أربعة أحاديث:

19- 1 ما رواه حماد عن أبي عبد الله الصادق (عليه السلام) في إخباره عن لقمان (عليه السلام): إذا جاء وقت صلاة فلا تؤخرها لشيء، صلها و استرح منها، فإنها دين.


As to the prayer being named a debt, then there are four hadiths regarding it:

19 – 1 – What Hammād narrated from Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام in his informing about Luqmān عليه السلام:

When the time of a prayer has come then do not delay it for anything. Pray it and find ease from it, for it is a debt.


20- 2 ما ذكره ابن بابويه في باب آداب المسافر: إذا جاء وقت صلاة فلا تؤخرها لشيء صلها و استرح منها فإنها دين


20 – 2 – What Ibn Bābuwayh mentioned in the chapter on the etiquette of the traveler:

When the time of a prayer has come then do not delay it for anything. Pray it and find ease from it, for it is a debt.


21- 3 ما رواه ابن بابويه في كتاب معاني الأخبار بإسناده إلى محمد بن الحنفية في حديث الأذان لما أسري بالنبي (صلى الله عليه و آله) إلى قوله ثم قال: حي على الصلاة قال الله جل جلاله: فرضتها على عبادي: و جعلتها لي دينا.


21 – 3 – What Ibn Bābuwayh narrated in his book Maʿānī al-Akhbār by his isnād to Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya in the hadith of the adhān:

When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله was made to journey by night – up to his saying: Then he said: Hasten to the prayer (ḥayya ʿalā ‘ṣ-ṣalāh), God جل جلاله said: I have obligated it upon My Servants, and made it a debt to Me.


22- 4 ما رواه حريز بن عبد الله، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) قال: قلت له: رجل عليه دين من صلاة قام يقضيه فخاف أن يدركه الصبح، و لم يصل صلاة ليلته تلك؟ قال: يؤخر القضاء و يصلي صلاة ليلته تلك.


22 – 4 – What Ḥarīz b. ʿAbdullāh narrated from Zurāra from Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام. He said: I said to him:

A man upon whom there is a debt of prayer stands doing its qaḍā and he fears that the morning will reach him and he has not prayed the prayer of that night of his? He said: He delays the qaḍā and prays the prayer of that night of his.


23- و أما قضاء الدين عن الميت، فلقضية الخثعمية لما سألت رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) فقالت: يا رسول الله إن أبي أدركته فريضة الحج شيخا زمنا لا يستطيع أن يحج، إن حججت عنه أ ينفعه ذلك؟ فقال لها: أ رأيت لو كان على أبي دين فقضيته، أ كان ينفعه ذلك؟ قالت: نعم. قال: فدين الله أحق، بالقضاء. إذا تقرر ذلك فلو أوصى الميت بالصلاة عنه، وجب العمل بوصيته لعموم قوله تعالى فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَ مٰا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمٰا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ. و لأنه لو أوصى ليهودي أو نصراني وجب إنفاذ وصيته فكيف الصلاة المشروعة.


23 – And as to the carrying out of the debt of the deceased, then due to the case of al-Khathʿamī woman when she asked the Messenger of God صلى الله عليه وآله and said:

O Messenger of God, the obligation of ḥajj has reached my father as an old, aged man, not able to do ḥajj. If I did ḥajj for him would that benefit him?

So he said to her: Have you regarded that were there a debt upon your father, so you carried it out, would that benefit him?

She said: Yes.

He said: So the debt of God is more deserving of carrying out.

When you have confirmed that, and were the deceased to bequeath (for) prayer (to be carried out) for him, acting by his will would be obligatory due to His تعالى saying “So whoever alters it after that he has heard it, the sin thereof is upon those who alter it” (2:181)

And because of it, were he to bequeath to a Jew or a Christian, the carrying out of his will would be obligatory, so how then the legislated prayer.


24 لرواية الحسين بن سعيد بسنده إلى محمد بن مسلم قال: سألت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) عن رجل أوصى بماله في سبيل الله قال: أعطه لمن أوصى له، و إن كان يهوديا أو نصرانيا، إن الله عز و جل يقول: فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَ مٰا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمٰا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ.


24 – Due to the narration of al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd by his sanad to Muḥammad b. Muslim. He said:

I asked Abū ʿAbdillāh عليه السلام about a man who bequeathed his wealth in the path of God. He said: Give it to the one who he bequeathed to, even if he is a Jew or a Christian. God عز و جل says “So whoever alters it after that he has heard it, the sin thereof is upon those who alter it.”


25 و ذكر الحسين بن سعيد في حديث آخر عن الصادق (عليه السلام): لو أن رجلا أوصى إلي أن أضع ماله في يهودي أو نصراني لوضعت فيهم، إن الله يقول: فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَ مٰا سَمِعَهُ الآية. قال السيد بعد هذا الكلام: و يدل على أن الصلاة عن الميت أمر مشروع.


25 – And al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd mentioned in another ḥadīth from al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام:

Were a man to bequeath to me that I place his wealth in a Jew or a Christian, I would place it in them. God says “So whoever alters it after that he has heard it” al-āya.

The Sayyid said about this speech: And it indicates upon that the prayer for the deceased is a legislated command (amr mashrūʿ).


26 تعاقد صفوان بن يحيى، و عبد الله بن جندب، و علي بن النعمان في بيت الله الحرام (أن من مات منهم، يصلي من بقي منهم صلاته، و يصوم عنه و يحج عنه ما دام حيا) فمات صاحباه و بقي صفوان، فكان يفي لهما بذلك. فيصلي كل يوم و ليلة خمسين و مائة ركعة.


26 – Ṣafwān b. Yaḥyā, ʿAbdullāh b. Jundab and ʿAlī b. al-Nuʿmān made an agreement in the Inviolable House of God that (for) whoever died from them, whoever remained from them would pray his prayer, fast for him, and do ḥajj for him so long as he lived. His two companions died and Ṣafwān remained, so he fulfilled that for them. He would pray a hundred and fifty rakʿa every day and night.


(و هؤلاء من أعيان مشايخ الأصحاب و الرواة عن الأئمة (عليهم السلام)) قال السيد رحمه الله و حسنا قال: إنك إذا اعتبرت كثيرا من الأحكام الشرعية وجدت الأخبار فيها مختلفة حتى صنفت لأجلها كتب، و لم يستوعب الخلاف، و الصلاة عن الأموات، قد ورد فيها مجموع هذه الأخبار و لم نجد خبرا واحدا يخالفها و من المعلوم أن هذا المهم في الدين لا يخلو عن شرع بقضاء أو ترك، فإذا وجد المقتضي و لم يوجد المانع، علم موافقة ذلك للحكمة الإلهية.


And these are from the eminent elders of the companions and the narrators from the Imāms عليهم السلام. The Sayyid رحمه الله و حسنا said: When you have considered much from the legislated rules, you will have found reports that differ in it to the point that books have been written because of it. And it (?) does not contain disagreement, and prayer for the deceased, and a sum of these reports have been mentioned and we have not found a single report that differs with it. And from the known is this important (matter) in the religion is not lacking in a law for its carrying out or its abandonment. So when the necessity (?) has been found, and the preventer has not been found, the agreement of that to the divine wisdom is known.