# Intergalactic Planetary

## Evidence of Work:

This project challenged us create 5 models about our solar system and Planet X. Our first model started us off by simply drawing out our solar system and writing down what knowledge we had about it without any research being done. We continued on with our second model where we wrote the scale of the size of our planets as well the scale of distances between planets. Furthermore, for our third model we continued with finalizing the model of our solar system by adding the scale of distances between the sun. Once we had completed this we switched to our fourth model where we addressed a phenomenon we discovered in our table from this website: https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/index.html. We then settled on explaining the correlation between escape velocity and the distance from the core. Some questions we answered throughout this model were:

• How does your model fit with all of the evidence available and what additional evidence could be collected?
• How and why does this phenomenon happen?
• How was our model modified/changed to better explain the phenomenon or account for new evidence?
• What are the limitations of your model or simplifications you had to make in your model?
• Can your model predict the behavior or traits of your phenomenon for planet X (an unknown planet) when you’re given two other data points about the planet?

We made sure to explain our model clearly using diagrams, text, numbers, equations. We did this by including at least 3 bodies (ex. Earth Moon Sun, Sun Earth Mars, Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars), made use of Newton’s Law of Gravitation F=G*Mm/r², and predicting something an example of this is the data and motion of new dwarf planet Planet X; and answering questions like, will your model predict the other planets’ motion/data? Why or why not?

Finally, we finished off this project by working with a partner to compose our fifth model where we answered the questions below with the given information;

These two pages were our fifth models, which were separate to the previous models, but they still are about Planet X, Y, and Earth.

Model 5: Equations and Calculations (Orbital Model)

## Our Models:

1. First Model- drawing out our solar system and writing down what knowledge we had about it without any research being done
2. Second Model- we wrote the scale of the size of our planets as well the scale of distances between planets
3. Third Model- we continued with finalizing the model of our solar system by adding the scale of distances between the sun and the planets
4. Fourth Model- we explained the correlation between escape velocity and the distance from the core. (If you look at the picture above and to the left, it shows our information, data, and diagrams).
5. Fifth Model- our last model was completely separate from the previous ones. We had to create two drawings. One contained predictions about each planet (Planet X, Planet Y, and Earth) based on certain data such as the radius of a planet, mass, obliquity to orbit, etc. The next was calculating the orbital period of these planets and our own weight on them with specific equations.

On the left there is a picture of the front side of our model. It shows our phenomenon as well as diagrams of a few of the planets.

On the right there is a picture of our solar system, which are also our 1-3 models.

## Content:

Some vocabulary included:

1. Universal Law of Gravitation- States that every object attracts every other object with a force proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to their distance between them squared. Equation: F{Force} = G{Gravitational Constant-6.67x10-¹¹} m₁{masses of objects in kg} m{masses of objects in kg} /{Divided By} {Distance squared}. Unit: Nm² / kg²
2. Gravitational force- The force of attraction between all masses in the universe; especially the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies near its surface.
3. Orbital period- The time it takes to complete one full orbit around a celestial body
4. Orbital velocity- The velocity at which a body revolves about another body.
5. Distance to sun- Our third model shows the scaling between the sun and the distance from the planets.
6. Radius- We used the radius of the planets to find the correlation between escape velocity and the distance from the core.
7. Rotation- Rotation is the process or act of turning or circling around something. An example of rotation is the earth's orbit around the sun.
8. Revolution- The definition of a revolution is the movement of one object around a center or another object. An example of revolution is movement of the earth around the sun.
9. Gravitational constant- The gravitational constant is 6.67 x 10-¹¹ and is used in the equation from the Universal Law of Gravitation.
10. Convection- The transfer of heat or other atmospheric properties by massive motion within the atmosphere, especially by such motion directed upward.
11. Earth’s magnetic field- Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it interacts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
12. Density- Ratio of the mass of an object to its volume.
13. Crust- The outer layer of the Earth.
14. Mantle- The part of the earth between the core and the the crust.
15. Liquid outer core- The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about 2,400 km thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
16. Solid inner core- Under the liquid-metal outer layer of the Earth's core is a solid ball of super hot iron and nickel alloy about 760 miles (1,220 kilometers) in diameter.

## Reflection:

Throughout this project we learned many things, and I thoroughly enjoyed learning about the planets. I felt that I excelled at time management and collaboration throughout this project. I also made sure to offer my ideas and help whenever I saw that my group needed an extra push. I noticed that my group worked very well together and we collaborated evenly. Sometimes we got off task, but it was fairly easy for us to get back on track.

Two things I could work on is my effort and staying on task, I will do this by taking a task and accomplishing it before I have to be asked. I also will stay on task by staying focused and not talking about subjects that don't correlate to the project. Overall, I enjoyed this project very much.