Reading in Year 4


“Reading is a passport to countless adventures”

– Mary Pope Osborne

Reading Skills & Strategies

To become successful readers students learn and develop many skills and strategies.

These skills are developmental and progress from easiest to hardest.

Students will generally need to master the easier skills before moving on to the harder ones.

Below is an overview of the 'Literacy Progressions' for 'reading' in the Australian Curriculum.

Phonological Awareness

Prior knowledge from Prep - Year 1:

  • orally blends four phonemes together to make a one-syllable spoken word (s-t-o-p, stop)
  • orally segments spoken words comprised of four phonemes into separate phonemes (fresh, f-r-e-sh)
  • identifies the number of phonemes that make up a given word
  • identifies the number of phonemes that make up a spoken, one-syllable word comprised of less than five phonemes
  • says the new word when asked to delete an initial phoneme (phoneme deletion – cat, at; brat, rat)
  • says the new word when asked to substitute an initial, middle or final phoneme (phoneme substitution – c-a-t becomes b-a-t, bat becomes b-e-t, bet becomes b-e-ll )
  • says the new word when asked to add a phoneme (phoneme addition – all, ball; in, thin)

Phonics Knowledge & Word Recognition

From Year 3 onward:

  • uses grapheme-phoneme knowledge and blending skills to read continuous texts containing multisyllabic, complex and unfamiliar words quickly and accurately

Fluency

Year 3 and Year 4:

  • reads aloud a range of moderately complex texts with fluency and phrasing, adjusting pace, volume, pitch and pronunciation to enhance meaning and expression
  • varies pace according to purpose and audience
  • reads aloud with expression that reflects the author’s purpose and meaning

Year 4:

  • reads aloud a range of moderately complex and sophisticated texts which include multisyllabic words and complex sentences with fluency and appropriate expression
  • consistently and automatically integrates pausing, intonation, phrasing and rate

Understanding Texts

Comprehension:

Year 3 and Year 4:

  • reads and views predictable texts and some moderately complex texts
  • identifies the main idea in a predictable text
  • identifies the purpose of predictable texts and moderately complex texts
  • monitors the development of ideas using language and visual features (topic sentences, key verbs, graphs)
  • recognises that texts can present different points of view
  • distinguishes between fact and opinion in texts
  • interprets visual elements in multimodal texts (salience, framing, colour palette)
  • compares and contrasts texts on the same topic to identify how authors represent the same ideas differently
  • answers inferential questions

Year 4 and Year 5:

  • reads and views some moderately complex texts
  • identifies author’s perspective
  • accurately retells a text including most relevant details
  • evaluates the accuracy of texts on the same topic or texts that present differing points of view or information
  • explains how authors use evidence and supporting detail in texts
  • poses and answers inferential questions

Processes:

Year 3 and Year 4:

  • monitors reading for meaning using phonic knowledge and contextual knowledge and selecting strategies such as re-reading and reading on)
  • identifies simple language and text features that signal purpose (diagrams, dialogue)
  • cites text evidence to support inferences
  • uses common signposting devices such as headings, subheadings, paragraphs, navigation bars and links to navigate texts

Year 4 and Year 5:

  • uses prior knowledge and context to read unknown words (uses morphemic knowledge of ‘explosion’ to decode ‘explosive’ and uses context and knowledge of metaphorical use of language to understand ‘explosive outburst’.)
  • uses knowledge of cohesive devices to track meaning throughout a text (connectives such as however, on the other hand)
  • uses knowledge of the features and conventions of the type of text to build meaning (recognises that the beginning of a persuasive text may introduce the topic and the line of argument)
  • identifies language features used to present opinions or points of view
  • skims and scans texts for key words to identify main idea

Vocabulary

Year 3 and Year 4:

  • interprets creative use of language (figurative language, metaphor, simile, onomatopoeia)
  • explains how unfamiliar words can be understood using grammatical knowledge, morphological knowledge and etymological knowledge
  • describes the language and visual features of texts using metalanguage (grammatical terms such as cohesion, tense, noun groups)
  • recognises how synonyms are used to enhance a text (transport, carry, transfer)
  • draws on knowledge of word origin to work out meaning of discipline-specific terms (universe)

Year 4 and Year 5:

  • use knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to read and interpret unfamiliar words
  • identifies how technical and discipline-specific words develop meaning in texts
  • recognises how the use of antonyms, synonyms and common idiomatic language enhance meaning in a text
  • understand precise meaning of words with similar connotations (generous, kind-hearted, charitable)

Comprehension Questions

Comprehension questions you could use when reading with your child at home:






Fiction Books:

  • What do you predict will happen in this book?
  • As you gather new information, how have your predictions changed?
  • Where in the text can you prove or disprove your prediction was correct?
  • How can you support your predictions with your personal experience?
  • Did you come across words with multiple meanings? How did you figure out the correct meaning?
  • What questions did you have while reading and where did you find the answers to them?
  • What information can be found in the illustrations to support your understanding of the story?
  • What are the important events, problems and solutions that happened in the story and how did they affect the ending?
  • What is happening in the story up to this point?
  • What connections can you make between this book and another one? i.e. similar setting, type of problem, type of character?
  • What connections can you make between characters in this text and other texts?
  • You may not have the same experiences as the character, but how are you using your experiences to better understand the character or what is happening in the story?
  • What have you read in other texts that helps you better understand the culture or setting of this text?
  • How have perspectives (yours, characters', narrator's) changed or unfolded in the text, particularly about the people or their culture?
  • What inferences can you make about how multiple characters feel about each other in the story and how they influence one another? Support your thinking from the text.
  • What is the theme of the text? Support your thinking with textual evidence?
  • What alternate meanings might this text have?
  • How did the character change across the story? What are possible reasons?
  • What events led to the problem of the story? How are they related?
  • Why was _____ (event) so significant to the story?
  • What traits have you discovered the character has? What evidence from the story supports your thinking?
  • What is the big idea or message of the text?
  • After reading what the characters' said, how do you think they feel?
  • What caused the character to feel, think, or act the way he/she does? Find evidence.
  • What caused the character to do something in the story? Find evidence.
  • What are the points of view of the character(s) and narrator?
  • What is the plot of the story and how is it organised?
  • What genre is the book? i.e fantasy, realistic fiction, historical fiction, biography, autobiography, memoir, diaries? How do you know?
  • Did you notice any figurative language, descriptive language or irony in the story? How did it add to the meaning or enjoyment of the story?
  • After reading several texts by the same author, what do you notice about the author's craft i.e. style, language, perspective, themes?
  • What is the author's purpose for writing this story?
  • What is the conflict in the story and how did it get resolved? Show me in the book.
  • How did the author build interest and suspense across the story? Show me examples in the text.
  • How is the setting important in the story?
  • What kinds of books do you prefer to read? Support your choices with specific descriptions of text features i.e. plot, use of language, kinds of characters, genres.
  • How did the author make the text enjoyable?
  • How could the characters have behaved differently?
  • What do you think of this book? What was interesting about it?

Nonfiction Books:

  • What predictions can you make based on what you already know about the topic and the type of text?
  • Looking at the Table of Contents, glossary, index, etc., what information can you find in this text?
  • As you gather new information, how have your predictions changed?
  • Justify your predictions using evidence from the text.
  • Where in the text can you prove or disprove your prediction was correct?
  • Did you come across words with multiple meanings or that stand for abstract ideas? How did you figure out the correct meaning?
  • What questions did you have while reading? Where did you find the answers?
  • What information can be found in the illustrations or other graphics to support your understanding of the text?
  • What information did you get from the labels, captions, or diagrams?
  • What are the important ideas or events in the text and how are they related?
  • What types of connections have you made to the text? i.e. topic, content, type of story etc.
  • What connections can you make to other books about _______?
  • Have you read or heard books read about ______ (topic)? How were they alike?
  • After reading the text, what are the larger ideas you have taken away?
  • Have any of your ideas about (topic) changed after reading this text? If so, how?
  • Are the author's ideas facts or his/her opinions about the topic?
  • Why was ______ (event) so significant?
  • What is the author's purpose for writing this story?
  • What is the point of view?
  • How did the illustrations support the text? Create mood?
  • Did the author use a variety of genres within the text? Which ones? Show me examples in the text.
  • What is the main idea and supporting details?
  • How is the text organised?
  • What did you notice about the language the author used? How did it add to your enjoyment or understanding?
  • What did you notice about the format of the text (author's craft)? e.g. question and answer format.
  • How did the graphics add to the quality of the text or provide additional information?
  • What qualifications does the author have to write an informational text?
  • What do you think of this book? What was interesting about it?