Essential Task 9-1: Detail how psychologists study development including longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, and autobiographical studies.
Essential Task 9-2: Explain the process of conception, gestation (zygote, embryo, and fetus), factors that influence fetal development (teratogens and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome), and the maturation of motor skills.
Essential Task 9-3: Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities according to Piaget with specific attention to object permanence in the sensorimotor stage, magical thinking, theory of mind, and the lack of conservation and reversible thinking in the preoperational stage, overcoming the limitations of the preoperational stage in the concrete operational stage, and the development of abstract reasoning in the formal operational stage.
Essential Task 9-4: Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities according to Vygotsky with specific attention to zones of proximal development and compare this viewpoint to Piaget.
Essential Task 9-5: Explain Erikson's social development paying specific attention to the crisis in each stage and the virtue gained from each stage.
Essential Task 9-6: Describe the influence of temperament, attachment, and parenting styles (permissive indulgence, permissive indifferent, authoritarian, authoritative)
Essential Task 9-7: Compare and contrast Kohlberg and Gilligan’s models of moral development.
Essential Task 9-8: Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence and the formation of identity (foreclosure, diffusion and moratorium).
Essential Task 9-9: Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age.
Essential Task 9-10: Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects of development.